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N ar tananir nava 

Volume 11 


The Nartananirnaya is one of the most 
influential, original Sanskrit treatises on Indian 
music and dance, appearing after the 
Sangltaratnakara of Sarrigadeva. Its author is 
Pandarika Vitthala, a profound and versatile 
scholar who has also written Sadragacandrodaya . 
Ragamala , Ragamanjarl Dutikarmaprakasa and 
StghrabodhinT-namamala in the late 16 th cent. 


The Nartananirnaya is a primary, 
authoritative source for the theory and practice 
of these arts of its times and reflects the major 
changes which ushered in the modern era for 
them. It has both range and depth and is 
illuminated with flashes of originality in every 
chapter. It is written in a simple, limpid literary 
style but with vivid imaginativeness in its 
reificatory descriptions. 

With a unique methodical plan, the 
Nartananirnaya progresses through stepwise 
contributions of the Cymbal Player, the Mrdaiiga 
Player and the Singer to dancing in the first 
three chapters before culminating into its 
longest and fourth chapter on the Dancer. This 
chapter contains many novel features not only in 
the alphabet, vocabulary, grammar and idiom of 
the art, but in the performance conventions and 
repertoire including some dance forms of both 
South India and North India (some of which are 
actually choreographed). Its delineation of 
bandha nrtya and anibandha nrtya deserves the 
serious attention of both traditionalist and 
innovative dancers. 

The present edition is based on extensive and 
wide-ranging critical apparatus; it offers 
detailed and exegetical text-critical comments. 

It is supported by a readable translation as well 
as a comprehensive and versatile commentary 
and numerous indexes. 





General Editor 



I.G.N.C.A. K M. S.-I8 



pandarIka vitthala 








First Published 1996 

© Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts 

All rights reserved. No part of the publication may be reproduced in any 
form or by any means, without written permission of the publishers. 

Published by 

Central Vista Mess, Janpath, New Delhi-110001 
in association with 

Bungalow Road, Jawahar Nagar, Delhi-110007 



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Nartananimaya is an influential, authoritative and original treatise on Indian music 
and dancing. It was composed by Pandarika Vitthala of Karnataka in the late sixteenth 
cent. A.D. under the patronage of the Mughal emperor Akbar. Like many other similar 
works it is indebted to earlier authorities such as Bharata and Sarrigadeva (and 
especially to the latter’s commentator, Kallinatha), but is, nevertheless, a valuable 
primary source for authentic data on the development and trends in these arts of the 
sixteenth cent. A.D. Pandarika Vitthala is the only Indian musicologist who was uniquely 
authoritative in several cognate art disciplines such as Karnataka music, Hindusthani 
music, Persian music, classical and folk idioms of dancing, poetics, lexicography, etc. 
He is much esteemed, respected and borrowed by later authorities on music and 
dancing in both South India and North India. 

Nartananimaya comprises four chapters (prakaranas) , viz. Taladhartr (Cymbal 
Player), Mrdahgi (Mrdahga Player), Gayaka (Singer) and Nartaka (Dancer). Thus the 
treatise focusses and climaxes on the final chapter, the previous three chapters are 
infrastructural, resolved into the auxiliaries of dancing, viz. rhythm content ( nattuvahga , 
tala and mrdahga ), melodic content (raga) and word content ( prabandha ). Such 
method of exposition is unique to Nartananimaya. 

The present publication of Nartananimaya is issued in three volumes: the first 
volume contains the first two chapters, viz. Taladhartr prakaranam and Mrdahgi 
prakaranam (no. 17 of the KMS series). This second volume comprises the third 
chapter, viz. Gayaka Prakarana, subdivided into Ragadhikaranam and 
Prabandhadhikaranam. The third and final volume will comprise the fourth and final 
chapter, viz. Nartaka prakaranam, again subdivided into Nartanadhikaranam and 
Nrttadhikaranam. It will also have a Bibliography and a Text - critique. Each volume is 
self contained in respect of text, translation, Text-Critical comments, Commentary on 
the Text as well as numerous indexes relating to the Text and the Commentary. 

Nartananimaya was composed during the watershed of the history of Indian music 
and dancing. Each of its chapters reveals flashes of originality, innovation and new 
trends engendered in the contemporary practice of these arts. Thus, the 
Ragadhikaranam reflects the dramatic and dynamic changes which were taking place 
in the melodic content of Indian music at the time. Instances of this include (a) shift 
in the dynamic equilibrium between gram#and mela towards the latter, (b) metastability 
in the concept of mela and of raga classification, (c) fluidity in the criteria of raga- 
classification, (d) metastability in the antara , kakah and laghu (or mrdu) pahcama notes, 
(e) Scalar temperament, (f) realignment of madhyama-grama ragas into Sadje-grama 

(g) transference of the functions of the grama to the mela by decentralisation, 

(h) reorientation in sonance and dasaprana , (i) systematic tabulation of melas by 



mathematical and methodological devices, (j) uniformity in svara vikrti, (k) develop¬ 
ment of paryaya tattva and of pratinidhi tattva , (1) reorganisation and redistribution of 
intervals in raga scales (m) individual and collective growth of rdgas as a phenomenon 
in cultural dynamics due to intracultural and inter-cultural forces, (n) mutual interac¬ 
tion benveen spatio temporal continuity and provincial variance, (o) concretisation or 
reification ( murdkarama, dhyeyarupa) of rdgas by intersensory image transference, (p) 
tonal and visual imageryin relation to mood evocation, (q) recognition and ‘classicisation’ 
of melodic material of folk, ethnic, exotic and provincial origin as well as their 
standardisation within the aesthetic coordinates, (r) development of equations be¬ 
tween Hindusthani ragas and Persian pardahs, (s) dynamic equilibrium between 
stabilisation-expansion, stasisrgrowth, tradition-innovation, etc. in the evolution of 
rdgas, (t) family (or gender) classification of rdgas on the criterion of bhdva-sddrsya as an 
alternative to svara-sadrsya. 

Similarly, even though Pandarika Vitthala is heavily influenced by Kallinatha’s 
commentary on the Prabandhadhyaya of Sarigitaratnakara of Sarngadeva in delineat¬ 
ing time-honored musical forms under the suddhasuda, alikrama, vipraklrna and 
salagasuda classification, he offers for the first time eleven new song forms which were 
renowned in South India. It is noteworthy that unlike the traditionally transmitted 
prabandhas such as the eld, varna, snranga, dhruva, etc. candraprakasa etc. are not 
described in terms of angas and dhatus. This is suggestive, as in other areas of Indian 
music and dance of the time, of a wave of renaissance which had begun to sweep over 
musical forms also. It is however, equally to be fioted, that like many other musicologists 
of the past, Pandarika Vitthala so pointedly ignores song forms which were flooding the 
practice of both Karnataka music (pada, sulddi, ugabhoga, vrttandma, vacana, mantragopya 
etc.) and Hindusthani music (e.g. khyal, Thumri) even in his own homeland and in the 
very royal courts in which he flourished. Notwithstanding, the original contribution of 
Nartananirnaya in its Gayaka prakaranam is substantial and merits serious study. The 
commentary on both adhikaranas endeavours to set the study of rdgas and prabandhas 
in a continuous, historical perspective on a pan-Indian canvas. 

A new feature is in troduced into the second and third volumes of the Nartananirnaya: 
The reader’s attention is invited to the availability of Text-Critical Comments (TCC) 
and Commentary on the Text (COT) in terms of the sloha number and its pdda (quarter 
e.g. 81d, 128c) on the appropriate recto (translation) pages, where more pddas than 
one are given, the reference may be to each quarter or to their totality. In COT 
references ahypen indicates range (e.g. 28cd-30abcd, 129-144ab). 

I am very thankful to Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts and its academic 
director Dr. Kapila Vatsyayan for asking me to undertake preparing the Nartananirnaya 
for inclusion in the KMS Series. I am beholden to Prof. Dr. Satkari Mukhopadhyaya, 
eminent scholar and teacher as well as coordinator, Kalakosa for his unfailing 
sympathy, understanding, courtesy and affection. He is indeed a golden bridge 



between an author and publisher . I have received much help from many individuals 
and institutions in securing collative material for this edition. I have duly acknowl¬ 
edged such help in the Introduction to the first volume. I acknowledge with much 
pleasure the help I have received from the learned scholar Vidwan H.V. Nagaraja Rao, 
M.A. of the Oi iental Research Institute, Mysore for his valuable suggestions in respect 
of Sanskrit grammatical usage. My sincere thanks are due to Vidwan S.Jagannatha, M.A. 
and my wife Ms. Gown Sathyanarayana, M.A., RBP for collation and proof-reading and 
also to my son Sangeetha Vidwan R.S. Nandakumar for preparing the indexes and 

I thank Sri Ramashis and M/s Neographics for their patient, painstaking, skilful 
and difficult task of typesetting this work. 

Bhava Navaratrl Prathama 1994 
Trayilakshmi, Mysore 




Chapter III : Gayaka Prakaranam 

A. Ragadhikaranam 2 

B. Prabandhadhikaranam 62 


A. Ragadhikaranam 132 

B. Prabandhadhikaranam 141 


A. Ragadhikaranam 151 

B. Prabandhadhikaranam 280 


Slokardhanukramani 399 
AkaranukramanI 420 
VisesapadanukramanI 421 
Index to Authors, Composers 435 
Index to Works 441 
Index to Technical Terms 447 






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1. He who is proficient in suddha and chayalaga (ragas and prabandhas), cogno¬ 
scente of murchana , grama [and] tana , is possessed of [profound knowledge of] tala 
and sings songs with aesthetic appeal is (defined as) singer. 

2. He is of three kinds ekella , yamala and vrndagayana. He who sings alone (i.e. 
solo) is [said to be] ekella-gayana. 

3. If he sings with another, he is known as yamala ; if sings with orchestra [he is 
called] vrndagayana. An assemblage of singers and instrumentalists is named vrnda 


4. Merits and blemishes of singer, nada-sthana-sruti-svara, grama murchanas and 
tanas, prastara, its sahkhyas, 

5. nasta-uddista, then varna-alamkara-gamaka, sthayas, varieties of alapti, sthapana 
(establishment) of raga , 

6. characteristics and forms of ragas , characteristics of musical compositions, 
merits and blemishes of musical compositions, next, the music composer, 

7ab. these are listed (as contents of this chapter). Now I shall elucidate their 
characteristics in (the same) order. 


7cd. Sughata, susarira, expert in graha and moksa, 

8. clever in various kinds of alapti, sravaka, sampradayika (traditionalist), 
avattakantJiavan (master of voice), specialist in (the nuances of) suddha and 

hdsdlaga (ragas and prabandhas ), 

9. jitasrama, savadhana—[these] are the ten merits of singer. Sughata is [re¬ 
garded as] one who organizes whatever is (optimally) befitting a given pitch register 
or position < sthana >. 

. < (Text-Critical Comment) led 3ab 6ab 9c 
OT Commentary on Text) labed 2a 7cd-23ab 


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10. He is said to be susarira who [see voice] is replete with sweetness, richness, 
unctuousness, resonance and lustre in the tarn (high register) because [such 
excellent voice is] born together with (only) the (human) body. 

11. He is described as grahamoksa-vicaksana who follows closely the beginning 
and end (of song) in laya and tala and thus (competently) manages the song. 

12. Alaptlkovida is one who is skilled in various forms of alapa such as [raga-] 
alapa, rupakdldpa and bhanjanyalapan. 

13. Sravaka is so called because his voice is heard (even) from a distance. He who 
practices [his art strictly] according to what his teacher has taughtis sampradayika. 

14ab. Ayattakanthavan is one who has a controlled, abundant voice. 

14cd-15ab. He who can discern what is desirable and undesirable in suddha and 
chayalaga (ragas and prabandhas) and is clever (in their special nuances) is 

15cd. One who is immersed in repeated study throughout the three divisions of 
the day and is intelligent is jitasrama. 

16ab. He who is not bereft of aesthetic appeal in high (or loud) or low (or soft) 
tone is savadhanaka. 


16cd. Avyavasthita, sltkan , kapila, avyakta, uddhada, 

17. vitala, udghusta. virasa, vyahgdhga, sanunasika —these ten are renowned as the 
blemishes among the singers etc. 

18. One who has strayed from the (desired) pitch and is unable to reach it is 
avyavasthita. One who repeatedly makes a sucking sound (sit) is described by 
scholars as sltkan. 

19. Kapila is one who sings svaras with less or more than the (appropriate number 
of) srutis. Avyakta is described as (a singer who is) inarticulate in (the enunciation 
of) syllables and has a stammering or convulsive voice. 

20. Uddhada is a worst singer who repeats sound like a he-goat. Vitala is one who 
is bereft of tala and has no knowledge of tala. 

21. Udghusta shouts with loud, sapless, harsh sound like a crow. Virasa is 
emotionless (in singing). He is called apasvara if he sings the note/s which should 
be omitted. 

22. Vyanganga sings by distorting neck, chin, head, eyes and hands. He is the 
worst of the worst singers. 

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23ab. If he sings nasally, he is described as anunasika. 

23cd. The soul, desirous of self-expression, joins the mind; the mind strikes the 

23d-24. The fire (in turn) stimulates the air. The vital air, moving gradually 
upward manifests the (vocal) sound in [the regions of] navel, heart, throat, head 
and face. 

25ab. The learned opine that [this] sound < dhvani > acquires the name nada 
when (the grammatical suffix called) ‘ghan is applied to the stem ‘ nada \ 

25cd-26a. It take these five names— atisuksma (very subtle), suksma (subtle), pusta 
(strong), atipusta (very strong), and not strong < apusta- weak? > and krtrima 
(artificial) respectively. 

26b-27ab. It is of four kinds in musical transaction; viz. anumandra in the region 
of the navel, mandra in the chest < hrdi >; in the throat again, [it is] madhya\ tarn 
occurs in the head. They are (each) progressively double (i.e. of the respective 

27cd-28ab. The anumandra register is [obtained] in [musical] instruments, for 
it is not possible for a singer. [Hence] mandra etc. registers (only) are described in 
[musical] transaction. 

28cd-29ab. The generating causes for different musical sounds are horizontal 
(transverse) hollow tubes [in the body], (numbering) twentytwo in each register 
[occurring] in order like a staircase. 

29cd-30ab. With the [vital] air filling a given number of them one after another 
in order they [musical sounds— nadabhedah ] become (progressively) higher and 
higher; these are called srutis because they are just audible. 

30cd-31. For the purpose of [musical] usage such as raga y seven svaras abide in 
them viz. sadja , rsabha , gandhara, madhyama ; similarly pancama , dhaivata and then 
nisada —in this order (of increasing pitch). 

32ab. Their other symbols are opined to be sa , ri, ga , ma y pa , dha and ni. 

32cd-33. The initial states of sadja etc. are declared by Bharata and others to be 
respectively in the fourth ( veda ), seventh ( acala) y ninth ( ahka ) srutis , in the 
thirteenth sruti, seventeenth, twentieth and twentysecond srutis. 

34. [The svaras] other than sa and pa move from their own respective previous 
(srutis) to the [next higher] successive ( srutis to attain to their second, third etc. 
states). Each of them has three such degrees [of movement] but ga has four [such] 

35. The degree of movement (of the svara) becomes as required according to 
whatever its use in the [given] raga. The second degrees of movement in ga and ni 
are declared to be antara and kakaU respectively. 

TCC 23bcd 24c 25ab 26abcd 27bc 28ab 29bd 30abd 31b 33ac 34ab 35d 
COT 23cd 24bcd 25ad 26b 27b 28cd-30abcd 33d 34acd 35cd 



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36. The fifth and eighteenth, the sixth and nineteenth—these four srutis are 
useless in ragas etc. 

37ab. Only the remaining eighteen srutis awaken (i.e. manifest) the svaras. 

37cd-38ab. If the svaras in the mandra and tara (registers) are deficient or 
excessive by one degree (i.e. sruti) , each, they do not mar the rdga [character]. All 
[swaras] are clear (and exact) in the madhya register. 

38cd-39a. Svaras are of four kinds, viz. vadl, samvadi, vivadi and anuvadi. 

39cd. Vadl is the [most] abundant svarain the performance (of a rdga ); athsa and 
sthayi are its synonyms; it is the generating cause of producing a rdga (bhava). 

40. [A pair of svaras] between which an interval of twelve or eight srutis is 
perceived are sarhvadis’, (they are samvddis also) by [similar or suitable] apportion¬ 
ment of gatw(degrees of movement) etc. 

41. Such a pair [of svaras] which has an interval of one sruti is mutually (defined 
as) vivadis. The remaining ( svaras ) are to be understood as anuvadis. [These four 
kinds of svaras] are appropriately named. 

42. [The selfsame become] sometimes arhsa, sometimes nyasa, similarly the 
omissible note. (The function of a note as) graha (etc.) should be determined 
according to the aesthetic form of (the given) ragas. 

43. The svara occurring as a rule, at the beginning of a song [or rdga] is called 
graha. The most abundant ( svara in the rendering of a rdga) is ariisa\ that which 
concludes a song is nyasa. 

44. That which has vidaii is apanyasa\ vidari is that which separates (or cuts into 
segments) repeatedly. Only these svara varieties occur everywhere in ragas. 

45. Sadja is of course < hi > graha in all ragas. Ni-dha-pa etc. (at the beginning of 
a rdga) are (to be regarded as) only syllables (and are used at the beginning only 
to evoke) copious raktv, they are not ( grahar ?) svaras. 

46. [For,] all murchanas are described (exclusively) relative to the position of 
sadja by the sages; rajani etc. ( murchanas ) are opined to be [formed] by ni etc. 
established at the position of sadja. 

47. Peacock, the cataka- bird (cucculus melanoleucus), he-goat, heron, cuckoo, 
frog and elephant utter (the notes) sadja etc. respectively. 

48. That which ‘strikes’ is sruti. Clinging to it is born the conforming (re¬ 
sonating) sound, imminently bright, and (which) appeals to the listener’s heart by 
itself (and is therefore) called svara. 

49. Grama is the assemblage of svaras and is the abode of murchana etc. Bharata 
has propounded two gramas viz sadja(grama) and madhyama(grama) in the science 
[of music]. 

TCC 36d 38b 39a 40bd 41a 42abcd 43bc 46c 47abcd 48ab 
1 OT 36 37abcd 38-41 43abcd-44 45 46b 47a 48a 49-52 



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o^cshHl^^idRl:^: ^ll'ijnf: ^Rdl: IIV^ II 


^ctsfR PdPdtedl<t RT^f: I 

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^ds^HsbH I ^ ^ tWT^ WTR |^T: 11^ II 
sFRIc^ ^W^I^^I^I^lPd-Wilclfd^ I 
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50-51ab. It is sadjagrama if pancama (svara) resides in the seventeenth sruti. But 
if the svara pancama abides in the sixteenth sruti , it is then madhyama-grama. [But] 
it is not found here (in contemporary musical practice) in (any) raga. 

51cd. [All] musicians render all the ragas [as] abiding in sadjagrama (itself). 

52ab. Therefore sadjagrama alone is the most important, not the madhyama 
{grama ). 

52cd-53ab. Wherein there is regular ascent and descent of [all] the seven notes 
and by which the raga and listener are exalted, it is declared to be murchana. 

53cd. They are seven (in number). The first murchana commences with sadja of 
the middle register. 

54. The other six murchanas , commencing on ni etc. lying below and taking the 
position of sadja should be extended above the one beginning with sa. 

55ab. Wherein sadja is how-manieth, that murchana is as-manieth. 

55cd-56. The first [murchana being] uttaramandra , rajani , uttarayata, suddhasadja, 
matsankrta , asvakranta , abhirudgata —these names are to be spoken for the murchanas 
in (the same) order by the sages. 

57. For use in songs, they are rendered sadava and auduva. Sadavas are said to 
be [formed] from six svaras and auduvas, from five svaras. 

58. Complete {murchanas) possessed of tanakriya (making of tanas) are named 
suddha tanas. Tanakriya is of two kinds— pravesa and nigraha. 

59. Pravesa is [formed by accomplishing] similarity with the next svara; nigraha , 
bv a slight touch [of the note]. Complete and incomplete tanas mentioned above 
become kuta tanas by irregularity (in the order of svaras in ascent and descent). 


60. First, a [original] krama is written; the precedent svara should be placed 
below (its) next (i.e. any given) svara [progressively]. If the previous svara happens 
to be the next note, [then the note prior to it and written below it] becomes the 
previous svara. 

61. Such tabulation <prastara > should be performed from the left. Further, to 
the right < puratah> the remaining svaras should be placed below the ones written 
above in the same order as is found in the original krama. 

62. The totals of the previous notes etc. of all the svara series should be written 
below the final one progressively (till the end is reached) and it is left there. This 
drives the original krama. 

rc c 50d 51c 52acd 53abc 54c 56ac 58d 60ab 6led 62acd 
< >T 49-52abcd-56 58-59 





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tRTRT faR^R^:R^RfRFtf%: I 



63. If in this the continuous series of the ultimate and penultimate (total, of 
svaras) is witten differently, it is declared by (Pandarika) Vitthala as malaprastara. 


64-65ab. The numbers one to seven should be written in order one after the 
other. If succeeding numbers are progressively multiplied by the previous num¬ 
bers, then the numbers of tanas of one etc. svaras arise clearly (from the respective 


65cd-66abc. Subtracting the numbers of the end svaras of the murchana (ob¬ 
tained progressively) from the question number (i.e. number of the required tana ), 
the remainders should be progressively substracted from the svara numbers which 
are obtained by multiplication (of previous srvzra-numbers). 

66d. That [number] which remains unmultipliable is the as-manieth svara in the 

67. The reckoning is made to the left second of the unmultipliable number or 
in its absence, of whatever number precedes it. [Thus] nasta (pratyaya) is accom¬ 


68. The numbers so obtained from nasta [pratyaya] should be subtracted from 
the final number. Vitthala declares that uddista [pratyaya] accrues from the 


69. The act of singing is said to be varna. It is said to be of four kinds: sthayi, arohl , 
avarohl and sancan . Now [their] definition [will be given]. 

70. If a single note is executed and sustained repeatedly in [musical] practice 
such as raga , it is said to be sthayi varna. 

71. That in which the svaras ascend (regularly) is described as arohl; wherein 
[they] descend (regularly), it is reckoned as avarohl. 

72ab. Sancan is said to be (formed) by mixing these. 

TCC 63a 64d 66ac 70ad 71d 
COT 69a 70d 71 bd 72b 





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(i) List 

72cd. [Any] particular melodic situation is said to be alarhkara. 

73. Its varieties are numerous. Among them, I shall (first) mention [those] 
occurring in sthayji [varna] . Those [alarhkaras are said to] abide in sthayi when the 
selfsame, single svara occurs in the beginning, middle and end. 

74. Mandradi , mandrdnta, mandradyanta , mandramadhya, further, the fifth [named] 

75. —[these] five alarhkaras are declared as of sthayi-varna. Vistirna , sannikarsa, 
prehkha , then pracchadana , 

76. aksipta-bindu-hasita —[these] seven lie in arhoi (varna). Prasada , prdhmukha- 
utksepa , parivarta, udvdhita , 

77-78ab. niskujita , recita, skhalita , krama , ranjita , hradamana , hurhkara , — 

[these] thirteen are of sancan varna. Their characteristics will now be described in 
[the same] order. 

78cd-79. In the context of this topic, mandra is [taken to mean] the first note of 
the murchana. When doubled, the selfsame [srvzra] is [denoted as] Tara. The fifth 
si'ara from mandra) is called madhya. In notation, the mandra(svara) has a dot on 
us head; the tara [svara] has a straight line over its head. 

(if) Alarhkaras of Sthayi-Varna 

(1) Mandradi 

80ab. If there is tara after mandra and madhya , it is said to be madradi thus 

O I 

s p s 

(2) Mandrdnta 

80c. Mandranta [is formed] by reversing this. 

s p S 

i 74b 73d 76acd 79c 80abc 
G 7 103 (i) 74c-105 



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( 3 ) Mandradyanta 

80d-81a. Again, if tarn is in between two mandras, it is mandradyanta. 


( 4 ) Mandramadhya 

81bcd. Similarly, if there is mandra in between two tarns, the cognoscente in 
alamkaras understand it by the name mandramadhya. 

I O I 


( 5 ) Kramarecita 

82abc. If there is the initial [ svara ] of the murchana at the beginning and end, 
and the second [svara] occurs in the middle, it is one phrase. 

82d-83. If (instead of the second) there are the third and fourth (svaras) , it is the 
second (phrase). If the three (svaras) beginning with the fifth (svara) are in the 
middle, it is the next phrase. The alamkdra [formed] by [these] three phrases in this 
manner is said to be kramarecita. 

srs sgms spdns 

(iii) Arohi Alamkaras 
(1) Vistirna 

84. Wherein there is, [commencing] from the first svara of the murchana , 
regular ascent of long sustained svaras, it is said to be vistirna 

sa ri ga ma pa dha nl 

( 2 ) Sannikarsa 

85ab. Sannikarsa is [formed] by short svaras each rendered twice continuously 
(without intervening interval). 

ss rr gg mm pp dd nn 

( 3 ) Prehkha 

85cd-86ab. When a pair of svaras is such that it contains the just previous [svara] 
progressively, and ascends in a swinging movement, it is called prehkha; thus— 

°sr rg gm mp pd dn 

ICC 81 d 84a 85ad 86ac 
OT 81cd 83d 84abcd 85a 86b 87b 



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( 4 ) Pracchadana 

86cd-87ab. Wherein the first phrase has the first three svaras (of the murchana) 
and the other phrases of three svaras are such that the last svara of the previous is 
the first svara of the next, then it is named pracchadana. 

srg gmp pdn 

( 5 ) Aksipta 

87cd-88ab. Similarly, when a pair of svaras, omitting an intervening middle svara 
the next [is formed by beginning] with the last note of the previous [phrase] and 
ascends gradually, then it is decribed as aksipta. 

sg gp pn 

(6) Bindu 

88cd-89ab. The precedent (final svara of the previous phrase is repeated three 
times and the next svara once; if this progression < krama > is executed regularly 
in ascent, it is named bindu. 

sssr rrrg gggm mmmp pppd dddn 

( 7 ) Hasita 

89cd-90ab. Wherein each succeeding svara is increased by one than its just 
predecessor, and gradually ascends, the chief sage declares it to be hasita. 
s rr ggg mmmm ppppp dddddd nnnnnnn 

iv. Avrohi Alamkaras 

90cd. These selfsame seven [ alamkaras] occurring in ascent do so in descent also. 

v. Sancari Alamkaras 

(1) Prasada 

91. Sri Bharatamuni declared that when a svara is preceded and followed by its 
previous svara, it is prasada. 

srs rgr gmg mpm pdp dnd 

Tt:C 86cd 89ad 9lab 
i OT 87b 88b 89b 90ab 91cd-104ab 



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( 2 ) Prahmukha 

92. Wherein the phrase has two svarasgoing [up] and [then] coming (down) and 
[the next phrase begins] by dropping the last svara] and the other phrases are 
formed similarly, it is known as prahmukha. 

sits rggr gmmg mppm pddn dnnd 

( 3 ) Utksepa 

93. If the phrase is formed from three (consecutive) svaras and the phrase 
progresses by dropping the last ( svara ) in the previous phrase (in favour of its next 
higher) svara , it is known as utksepa among experts in singing. 

srg rgm gmp mpd pdn 

( 4 ) Parivartaka 

94. If the first phrase is [composed] of three consecutive svaras omitting the 
second, and the remaining phrases commence from the omitted svaras and are 
similar, then it is parivartaka. 

sgm rmp gpd mdn 

( 5 ) Udvahita 

95. Udvahita is that in which three (consecutive) svaras are sung in the phrase, 
one (svara) is descended and the next phrases are executed, omitting one svara 
after another. 

srgr rgmg gmpm mpdp pdnd dnsn 

(6) Niskujita 

96. The [alamkara called] niskujita is formed by singing a phrase of prasada , then 
reaching the third svara and then the first. 

srsgs rgrmr gmgpg mpmdm pdpnp (dndsd) 

(7) Recita 

97-98ab. If the first svara, second, third, second and then again the first three 
svaras are sung to form the first phrase and thus six phrases are sung, it is recognized 
as recita. 

srgrsrg rgmgrgm gmpmgmp mpdpmpd pdndpdn (dnsndn) 

TCC 93b 97d 

COT 92d 93d 94d 95d 96d 98b 



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(8) Skhalita 

98cd-99ab. If the phrase of the [alamkara] mandradi is executed such that its 
higher svara is rendered twice and then is descended, then it becomes the one 
named skhalita. 

sgrmmrgs rmgppgmr gpmddmpg mdpnnpdm pndssdnp 

( 9 ) Krarna 

99cd-100ab. That is said to be /eram# wherein the phrase has clusters of two, three 
and four svaras such that these three begin with the first svara and the second 
[phrase similarly] begins with the second [svara]. 

srsrgsrgm rgrgmrgmp gmgmpgmpd mpmpdmpdn pdpdnpdns 

( 10 ) Ranjita 

lOOcd-lOlab. If the phrase formed by rendering twice the mandradi [alamkara 
phrase] ends on the mandra [svara] it is renowned among the experts of singing as 
the one named ranjita. 

sgrsgrs rmgrmgr gpmgpmg mdpmdpm pndpndp dsndsnd 
(11) Hradamdna 

lOlcd. It is opined that in hradamana [alamkara] the mandradi phrase ends on the 
mandra [svara]. 

sgrs rmgr gpmg mdpm pndp dsnd 
( 12 ) Humkdra 

102. Humkdra is defined as that [alamkara] in which the first phrase is [com¬ 
posed] of the ascent and descent of two (initial) svaras and the svaras are then 
progressively increased by one. 

srrs srggrs srgmmgrs srgmppmgrs srgmpddpmgrs srgmpdndpmgrs 

( 13 ) Syena 

103ab. Syena is [formed] by the consonant forms of srgm etc. in order. 

°sp rd gn ms 

103cd-104ab. These sancan-alamkaras are shown (here) in ascent. Sri Bharata- 
muni has defined these selfsame [alamkaras] in descent also. 

104cd-105ab. Twentyfive well known alamkaras are thus described [here]. Be¬ 
cause they are endless, they cannot be described in their entirety in sastra. 

TCC lOlcd 

OT 99bc lOOcd-lOlab lOlacd 103b 91cd-104ab 105 



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105cd-ef. The benefits of elucidating alamkaras are said to be the gain of 
[aesthetic] appeal, exact knowledge of svara\sthana , i.e. pitch], and the splendour 
of the limbs of melodic movement. 


106. Gamaka is the trembling of a svara which is appealing to the listener’s heart. 
Its varieties are: tiripa, sphurita, kampita, 

107-108ab. Una, andolita, vali, tribhinna, kurula, ahata, ullasita, plavita, humphita, 
mudrita, then namita,misrita —[these] fifteen. Now their characteristics [will be 

I08cd-109ab. Beautiful simulation of the sound of a light damaru (generated) 
with the speed of a quarter of the druta is described as tiripa(l). 

109c. Sphurita (2) [is the same at the speed] of the a third of the druta. 

109d. Kampita (3) [is the same at the speed] of half of the druta. 

110a. Iana(4) occurs at the speed of the druta. 

110b. Andola (5) [occurs] at the speed of the laghu. 

110c. Vali (6) [occurs] at excessive (higher?) speed. 

110d-l 1 lab. Tribhinna (7) is said to be a dense, restless svara which is beautiful 
in [all] three registers. 

11 led. Kurula (8) is said to be vali itself which spirals tenderly (softly) in the 

112ab. Ahata (9) is the striking of a svara and returning. 

112c. Ullasita (10) is gradual movement [of a svara]. 

112 d. Plavita (11) is movement of [svara] in the measure of (a) pluta. 

113 ab. Humphita (12) is charming, deep ‘/mm’sound. 

113c. Mudrita (13) is [generated] by closing the mouth (and producing the 

113d. Namita (14) is [formed] by curving [the svara], 

114ab. Misra(15) is [formed] by mixing some [of the above gamakas]. This 
should be surmised by scholars to be of many varieties. 


114cd-l 15ab. Sthaya is an organ of raga; vaga is called gamaka. Gamaka has been 
explained by me above; now sthaya will be described: 

115cd-116ab. [These are] bhajana, sthapana, gati, sabda, dhala, vahini and chaya 
respectively. Their characteristics will [now] be elucidated in order. 

TCC 106c 107a Iliad 112bd 113ab 116a 
COT 73-105 (ii) 108-114abcd 115cd 116ab 



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116cd. Bhajana (1) is [said to arise] by excessive impregnation with raga(-bhava) 
[or colour or aesthetic delight]. 

117ab. Sthapanika (2) occurs by the act < krti > of making a word charming by 
instituting (it in the dhatu) again and again. 

117cd. Gati (3) is the sporting pace of a song like the gait of a rutting elephant. 

118ab. Taking up of an unattached (free) sound with sweetness and robustness 
is sabda (4). 

118cd-119a. Sabda is of four kinds, viz. khadgala , narahata, bombaka and misraka. 

119bcd. Khadgala (i) is opined to be phelgm-born. This is unctuous, sweet, 
mature and tender. 

120ab. Narahata (ii) is bile-born sound [which is] dry and deep. 

120cd. Bombaka (iii) is [body-]wind-born and is thick and hollow. 

121ab. Misraka (iv) is said to be their admixture, and is born of sannipata. 

121 cd. Musical sound is declared to be best if it is without hollowness and dryness. 

122. It is said by scholars to be middling if khadgala is mixed with bombaka. The 
mixture of bombaka and narahata is opined to be the worst among voices. 

123. Lustrous rolling [of svaras in a passage] like a pearl is said to be dhala (5). 
Trembling [of svaras ] in the three varnas beginning with arohii s vahini (6). 

124. Chayakaku ( 7 ) is of six varieties, viz. svarardga-, anyaragaja-, desa-, ksetra- 
and yantra -; their characteristics will be now described: 

125. If the sthaya belonging to a svara abides,— because of the deficiency or 
excessiveness (in number and magnitude) of srutis ,—in another svara in a rdga , it 
is opined to be svarakaku (i). 

126ab. That which elucidates the true shade of a rdga is understood to be 
ragakaku (ii). 

126cd. That which (normally) occurs in a (given) rdga abides in a different rdga 
is anyaragaja kaku (iii). 

127ab. That which occurs in a rdga according to the nature of a province is called 
desakaku (iv). 

127cd-l 28ab. The [human] body is called ksetra (field, soil) .Just as it differs from 
one to another according to its nature, so also there are different kakus , according 
to the nature of the rdga, called ksetrakaku (v). 

128cd. That which arises from vina, flute etc. is opined by experts to be yantrakaku 
(vi) (i.e. instrumental kaku) 

TCC 116d 118abd 119a 121b 122cd 125b 126bd 128c 
COT 116d 117abd 118b 123bd 124a 128bd 




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129. Alapti is described by experts to be that which is replete with varna-alamkdra , 
lined with gamaka and sthaya and is possessed of much strange (or characteristic) 
beauty < vaicitrya >. 

130-131ab. Wherein there is (clear) articulation of graha, arhsa , tarn , mandra , 
similarly nyasa , apanyasa, alpatva , bahutva , also sadava and auduva , it is said to be 

131cd-132ab. That which manifests well and completely < saviyak > in [both] 
alapti and alapana is pronounced by experts in [musical] practice and theory as 

132cd. Alapti is said to be of two kinds, being qualified by raga and vastu. 

133abc. That which is performed in its own four (autonomous, nucleal, 
melodic)positions without [the song form called] rupaka is ragalapti. 

133c-134. The svaraWwh which the raga enters is sthayi; the fourth ( svara ) from 
it is named dvyardha. The eighth from sthayi-svara is said to be dviguna. 

135ab. Those [ svaras] which lie between dvyardha and dviguna are called 

135cd-136ab. Making the svaras from the sthayi to the dvyardhato move about and 
the performing in the svaras below the sthayi is first [svasthana]. 

136cd. Making the svaras move about in the dvyardha and then resting (thereon) 
is the second svasthana. 

137. Making the ardhasvaras move about and [doing] the same [resting] is the 
third svasthana. Making the dviguna move about and (then) resting on the sthayi- 
svara is the fourth [ svasthana ]. 

138ab. According to the learned, ragalapti is (performed) in these four svas- 

138cd-139abc. A separated [fragment of] alapa itself is thaya. [Alapa] executed 
with a raga abiding in rupaka and having tala is rupakalapti. 

139d-104ab. This is averred to be of two kinds: the first is pratigrahanika; the other 
is named bhahjani. 

140cd-141ab. If the sthaya is established in alapti and (then) the organ of the 
rupaka (song) is taken up [therefrom], it is declared by scholars to be pratigrahanika. 

141cd. Bhanjani is (again) of two kinds by division into sthaya and rupaka. 

TCC 130d 131a 132cd 133ac 136d 
COT 129-144ab 




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142. When a sthaya occurring in a rupaka is performed in many different modes 
(within the limits) measured by the word (or stanza foot?) [to which it is set], it is 
to be understood as sthayabhanjanl. 

143-144ab. If the entire rupaka is sung in [many] alternative ways to the same 
measure of the same [respective] words, it is rupakabhanjani. The selfsame is 
popularly < loke > called ‘nema’by singers. 


144cd-145ab. [After executing the four svasthanas,] the raga (bhava) is fixed with 
sthayas which are little, clear and bright (intelligible), performed in [their] many 
postures within the main scope of the jlvasvara. 


145cd-146ab. That special sound (series), which is ornamented with svaras and 
varnas and is appealing to the minds of people is described by scholars as raga. 

146cd-147ab. Because of differences in the order of svaras , in the application of 
numerous gamaka varieties, in sadava, auduva and sampurna , because of differ¬ 
ences in [the nature of the] pace, (or in the nature of svaragati ), 

147cd-148ab. because of differences in graha, amsa and nyasa , raga varieties 
produced by people of various regions, raga varieties are endless, and are named 
after convention, region or svara. 

148cd. Again, ragas are of three kinds: suddha , chayalaga and samklrna. 

149ab. The suddhas do not subsist on other [ragas] and [their] appeal is absolute 

149cd. Those [ragas] which become appealing by assuming the shades of other 
[ragas] are named salaga. 

150. Ragas which become appealing because they assume a shade which differs 
from that of the original raga , are samklrna. Because of the endlessness of ragas (in 
number and form), it is not feasible to describe each one of them. 


151.1 shall [now] describe a few ragas based on the opinion of some (authori¬ 
ties) : suddhabhairava, hindola, desikara, then 

152abc. snraga , suddhanata, natanarayana —these six ragas are reputed as divine. 

TCC 143c 144c 145a 146d 147ab 148cd 149d 151 be 152b 
COT 129-144ab 145cd 146abcd-148abcd-150ab 151-166 



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152d-154. Their origin will now be mentioned: suddhabhairava is born of 
sadyojata; fromVamadeva [is born] hindola; desikarafrom Aghora; from Tatpurusa, 
sriraga ; the one named suddhanata is born from the face Isana [of Isvara ]; natanara- 
yana [is born] of Girija’s face. 

155ab. [Now], I shall mention the five wives and five sons of each of these in 

155cd-156ab.DhannasI, bhairavi, saindhavi, maravi and asavari— these five are 
the wives (lit. women) of suddhabhairava. 

156cd-157ab. Bhairava, suddhalalita, pancama, paraja, bangala— these five are 
the sons of suddhabhairava. 

157cd-158ab. Bhupall, varall, todl, prathamamanjari, turuskatodl— these five 
are the wives of hindola. 

158cd-159ab. Vasanta, suddhabangala, syama, samanta, kamoda— these five are 
the sons of hindola. 

159cd-160ab. Ramakri, bahull,, desi, jayatasri, guijari— these five are renowned 
as the wives of desikara. 

160cd-161ab. Lalita, vibhasa, saranga, trivana, kalyana— these five are the sons of 

161cd-162ab. GaudI, pad!, gunakarl, nadaramakriya, gundakri— these five are 
the wives of sriraga. 

162cd-163ab. Takka, devagandhara, malava, suddhagauda, karnatabangada— 

these [five] are the sons of sriraga. 

163cd-164ab. Malavasri, desaksi, devakri, madhumadhavl, aheri— these [five] 
are renowned as the wives of suddhanata. 

164cd-165ab. Jijavanta, salanganata, kamata, chayanata, hammlranata are the 

[five] sons of (suddha)nata. 

165cd-166ab.VelavalI, kambojl, saveri, suhavi, saurastti— these five are the wives 
of natanardyana. 

TCC 154b 155a 156b 157cd 159ab 160b 162b 163a 164bd 166b 
COT 151-166 



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166cd. Ef. Malhara,gaunda, kedara, sankarabharana, vihagada— these [five] are 
the sons of natanarayana. 


167. Now, I shall elucidate their characteristics along with their image, ornamen¬ 
tation, etc. Let the intelligent [reader] understand [the meaning of] the symbols 
‘candra’, ‘netra , etc. from [their] popular usage. 

Suddhabhairava and Family 

(1) Suddhabhairava 

168. This suddhabhairava is born of the Sadyojata face [of Siva], has first degree 
ga and ni; has threefold sa; lacks ri; has matted hair; bloodred-mixed dark green 
complexion; holds the trident; wears bright (white) clothes; body is smeared with 
ashes; has three eyes; has poison (Pgold ornament) in neck; wears ear-seals; wears 
[crescent] moon in [matted] hair; rides a bull; it is fit to be sung in the cold season, 
at sunrise. 

(2) Dhannasi 

169. Dhannasi (ragini) wears ornaments all over her body; dha-ni-ri-ga are of the 
first (vidhu) degree [of movement]; sa is threefold; lacks ri-dha ; has grass-like 
intense green complexion; wears charming (strange?) clothes; holds pomegrenate 
flower in hand; has tear of Ecstasy in the corner of eye (has falling tears?); is 
companion of dhavala[raga\; born earlier under the name Irak; she is singing at 
dawn; gifts away money in plenty—this fulfilled woman. 

(3) Bhairavi 

170. Bhairavi (ragini) is born in the mela of dhannasi; is complete with all notes; 
sa is at beginning [graha], middle [ arhsa] and end [nyasa] ; is slender; (her) face is 
[beautiful] like the moon; has golden complexion; wears white clothes; wears a spot 
of vermilion on forehead; her face blooms (like a flower]; wears all ornaments; 
dances to the accompaniment of the singing of dravida people, who are pleased 
with her, [and is fit to be sung] at dawn. 

(4) Saindhavi 

171. Saindhavi (ragini) is born of the mela of bhairavi and is complete with all 
[seven] svaras ; sa is threefold; she has face like the moon; has a slim body, eyes like 
the lotus [petal], wide hips, walks [slowly and majestically] like an elephant in rut; 
sings slowly with many kinds of gamaka (or, speaks slowly with coquettry or 
enthusiasm); wears red clothes, prays for the unblemished success of generals in 
battle, [and is fit to be sung] always. 

TCC 166c 167c 168acd 169acd 170bc 171ab 
COT 168-223 168 169 170 171 



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(5) Mdravi 

172. Maravi (ragini) has [lovely] face like the moon, long hair; has ni-ga of the 
third (anala) degree; has threefold sa, lacks ri and dha; has golden complexion, a 
tall form, shining eyes; she has bedecked herself with many kinds of flowers; is the 
first born in Mewad; has [unsteady] eyes like the young deer; wears red apparel; is 
a little humorous; lauds groups of kings in battle [and is fit to be sung] always. 

(6) Asavari 

173. Asavari (ragini) has gandhara of the third ( agni ) degree, ma-ni of the first 
[degree]; ma occurs in beginning [graha], middle [arhsa] and end [ nyasa ], she is 
slim, swarthy; holds a mirror in hand; wears every ornament (or is very amorous in 
bearing); teaches a lovely parrot her beloved’s blameless fame, in a plantain grove; 
she is lauded by the gandharvas ; her favourite emotion is mercy [and fit to be sung] 

(7) Bhairava 

174. Bhairava (ragaputra) has ash-smeared body, wears a golden necklace, 
conch-signet rings in both ears, coral slippers; his matted hair in the head is bound 
with the king of serpents; he is intoxicated; is a follower of [the Persian mode called] 
ujjhala ; skilled in words; is playing the kinnari; complete [with all svaras ]; dha occurs 
in the beginning [graha], middle [arhsa] and end [nyasa]; ga-ni are of the third 
{anala) degree and first ( vidhu ) degree (respectively) (fit to be performed) in the 
early hours. 

(8) Suddhalalita 

175. Suddhalalita (ragaputra) has safor arhsa, grahaanA nyasa, skilful (in vina?), 
born in the maravi-mela, wears a spot on the forehead, wears bright clothes of the 
golden hue; has creamy < gaura > complexion; wears campaka and jasmine flowers 
on the head, has lotus eyes, is sportive, amorous, holds betel leaf in hand, beseeches 
his beloved whom he has betrayed, [and is fit to be performed] at dawn. 

(9) Pahcama 

176. Pancama (ragaputra) is dark skinned, holds betel leaf in hand, and red 
lotus in another hand, born in maravi-mela, has threefold pa, lacks ri; he is lord of 
the gods, speaks softly like a cuckoo, plays on the flute (or holds a goad of bamboo?) 
and wears yellow clothes; his body is anointed with perfume paste < yaksapahka >, 
he wears a crown on the head; wears the mark of crescent moon and sun on 
forehead; all gods of the heaven sing [his glories/ fit to be sung] at dawn. 

TCC 172bcd 173a 175bcd 176abcd 
COT 172 173 174 175 176 



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(10) Paraja 

177. Parsya (ragaputra) has threefold sa , is complete [in svaras ], ga-ni are of the 
second and first (vidhu) degrees respectively, holds cymbals in hands; his good wife 
is at his back; holds the pinaka (vina) in his hands; he is splendid with ornaments 
made in many ways; he is cream complexioned, tall in form; he tends to speak softly; 
he is a benefactor of all the world, fit to be wooed always [and fit to be sung] day and 
night, and is in the presence of kings (is the foremost of kings). 

(11) Bahgala 

178. Bahgala [ragaputra] has the final [i.e. ni\ and ga svaras of the third and 
second ( nayana) degree respectively; sa is threefold; it is complete (with all svaras ); 
he holds in his left hand a garland, shining like candrakanta gems; he wears white 
clothes; holds a large wine cup in right hand; a scholar, he always recites music, with 
low inarticulate (sobbing?) voice < gadgada > and different gamakas. 

Hindola and Family 

(1) Hindola 

179. In this hindola-raga , ga-ni are [each] of the first degree, sa is threefold, ri is 
absent; he is cream-complexioned, clad in yellow clothes, sports on a swing in a 
dense flower garden; he is surrounded with women, wears bracelet, crown, pearls 
and large earring; he is born of Vamadeva face [of Siva], is skilful; he roams about 
in the morning, [i.e. fit to be sung in the morning] of spring time. 

(2) Bhupali 

180. Bhupalika (ragini), born in malhara-mela lacks ni-ga , has ma as graha , arhsa 
and nyasa ; wears a golden flower at the tip of the nose, collyrium in the eyes, a 
necklace of pearls, tilaka mark on the forehead, bangles at wrists; wears red 
garments; moves about [and is fit to be sung] always, intoxicated. 

(3) VaraU 

181. Varall (ragini) roams at pleasure in her own home, speaking softly and 
playing with a swarm of bees (with a flock of cuckoos?) wearing beautiful clothes; 
she has a flowerful fillet of hair; she is fanned with flywhisks, adorned elegantly in 
many places, is [like a] companion to Cupid; she is tender, cream complexioned, 
moves about [and is fit to be sung] in the evening; complete with all svaras , (the 
ragini) has threefold sa, ga-ni [each of] the third ( agni ) degree; [thus] varaVi is 

TCC 177d 179abc 180acd 181ad 
COT 177 178 179 180 181 



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(4) Todi 

182. Todi (ragini) holds in her left hand a vina (a staff?) and a pair of cymbals 
in the other hand; her body is besmeared with sandal paste etc.; she is dressed like 
a woman of wild mountaineer tribe < sabara > wears every ornament; she is mature 
(or a heroine of the praudha class), chews betel; has large, open eyes; is ravishing; 
has sprinkled sandal powder (on her body; unknotted hair?); (the ragini) is 
complete (with all svaras) ; has ma for graha, arhsa and nyasa\ ga-ni are of the first 
degree [each]. [It is fit to be sung] only in the morning. 

(5) Prathamamanjan 

183. Prathamamanjan (ragini) is born in the gauda-mela; omits ri-dha , has 
threefold pa. She has creamy complexion, wears yellow clothes and yellow orna¬ 
ments, has the tilaka mark of musk on her forehead; she has a vina in her hand, 
speaks gracious and sweet words; wears unknotted hair; [she looks like] a gypsy, 
always [fit to be sung]. 

(6) Turuskatodi 

184. Yavana[=turuska] todi (ragini) is of a (melodic) body born in the chayanata- 
mela , has ma for graha , arhsa and nyasa , complete with all svaras ; she is of cream 
complexion; the hair of her head is plaited; she wears a flower of gold and gems in 
the ears; she is mature (heroine of the praudha class), somewhat red-eyed; wears the 
guise and dress of ayavana (Persian) woman and roams about at dawn [at which the 
ragini is fit to be sung], drinking grape wine—this clever yavanatodi. 

(7) Vasanta 

185. Vasanta (ragaputra) is born in hindola-mela, has all the svaras , and threefold 
sa ; he sports at dawn [and is then fit to be sung] in a park, surounded with a swarm 
of bees, covetous of the fragrance (honey) of the petals of fresh flowers; he chews 
betel; is very creamy in complexion; he is like Manmatha (Cupid); wears red 
clothes; he is engaged in great fun (laughter) amidst the blaring sound of all 
musical instruments, and is in the company of damsels. 

(8) Suddhabahgala 

186. Suddhabahgala (ragaputra) is born in the kamata-mela, has all the svaras ; ma 
(? sa) is threefold; has full [perfect], bright (white ?) body, wears yellow clothes; 
both ears have earrings studded with gems; he has a crown on the head, a lotus in 
hand; the body is besmeared with vermilion; he is to be wooed [and sung] in the 
morning; intoxicated, he is in the company of young persons. 

TCC 182abc 183ad 185cd 186a 
COT 182 183 184 185 186 



=b|ctf<r*n TTfe: Tjafr^T: 

WTTf: F*JTdTT5f: I 

^ ikw farfaFfcTFFF: 

TFT: ^#T#TT II %09 II 

ifirm (<0 

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Wff: Wfr: 3IW|FFFT: <p5FT | ^*TFT: I 

farepM forte ^fjwt wHidi 

FTFi^TH y<scn j iH^qit yl^'HW'd<l J l: II \CC II 

^fcTTTFTTT: (*o) 

^FFfo: =blH*fo ^d$*i<d><: teffo WT: 

^(Ifa^TM: =bUciHMlfobl<&l: I 

Wfi] Tl^l^c||cHi ^3RTTf|Ft %WT?T: Fctfo 

INTTf; d+lfST II W II 

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ifcT f^TFFrft^TTT: 

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TrTF^f: ‘'FTFte: iTFFFFFFTT foF^ I 

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^gcf TTT^if ch<^<u|^| ^tjT ^ ^T I 

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^fcTTFT^ (3) 



(9) Syama 

187. The raga(putra) called syama has a (melodic) body manifested with kakali 
(nisada) and antara (gandhara), full (of svaras) in forms, he is swarthy in complexion, 
clad in yellow garments; sa is threefold; his voice is sweet with strange (beautiful) 
gamakas; he has a diamond garland at the throat, and a tilaka mark of vermilion in 
midforehead; he is always [to be sung and] intoxicated in amusement in the 
company of women. 

(10) Samanta 

188. Samanta raga(putra) has a (melodic) body full (of all svaras) in form, born 
in kamata-mela; Mis threefold; he has lotus (like) feet, lotus(like) eyes and wears two 
earrings; he has a crown on the head, a garland of many flowers around his neck, 
and wears excellent clothes; mature (or hero of the praudha class), with powerful 
gamakas, this raga(putra) is radiant; [and fit to be sung] in the morning. 

(11) Kamoda 

189. Kamoda (ragaputra) is like Manmatha in appearance (or can assume any 
form at will), holds a red lotus in hand, wears white clothes, has a spot of musk on 
forehead, a crown of flowers on head, necklaces etc. (around the neck); he speaks 
suggestively in the company of young people; he holds a cane in his hand; is 
valorous; (the ragaputra is) complete with all svaras; sa is threefold; ni is of the first 
degree; it is radiant [and fit to be sung] in the afternoon. 

Desikara and Family 

(1) Desikara 

190. Desikara raga is born from the Aghora face [of Siva]; ni-ga-ma are [each] of 
the third degree; sa is threefold; it is complete with all svaras; he has a red 
complexion, lotus eyes and the gait of [Indra’s] white elephant (Airavata);he is the 
friend of bakharej; he has a necklace of pearls and wears a crown on the head; he 
wearscharming (variegated?) clothes, holds a sword; desikara shines [andshouldbe 
sung] in the afternoon and in charming winter; he is in the company of soldiers. 

(2) Ramakri 

191. Ramakri (ragini) has a [lovely] face like the full moon, wears a necklace of 
excellent pearls, dark blue clothes, red colured blouse, bangles and anklets; she has 
unsteady eyes; sings faultless words in high pitch; she is a sophisticated/mature and 
well decorated (or, is in an erotic mood?); sadja is threefold; ga-ni are of the third 
(anala) degree; she is radiant [and fit to be sung] always. 

TCC 187bc 188abcd 189a 190bc 191 be 
COT 187 188 189 190 191 



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ffcT <dfcdd: (V3) 



(3) BahuVx 

192. Bahuli (ragini) is found in the ramakri-mela; lacks ni-ga; ma is at beginning 
(graha), madhya (arhsa) and end ( nyasa) \ she is slender, swarthy complexioned; has 
dangling hair; she holds a good vina (staff?) in her right hand; chews betel; she is 
bold and confident (or heroine of the pragalbhd class); she wears the dress and 
ornaments of a maratha woman; she wears a large pearl for nose ring; she is very 
clever and is splendid [to be sung] in the early hours. 

(4) Desi 

193. Desi (ragini) wears a jasmine garland in her braided hair, earrings in both 
ears, a garland, blouse, white clothes, bangles and anklets; she is the great-grand¬ 
daughter of [the Persian mode] ahahga ; she holds fresh shoots in her soft hands; 
gandhara and the final svara , (viz. ni) are [each] of the first ( indu ) degree; ri is 
threefold; lacks pa, she sets out [and is sung] always. 

(5) Jayatasri 

194. Jayatasri (ragini) wears a clove < srilavahga > for nose ring, a lotus in her 
curly hair, earrings in both ears, a jacket, orange coloured clothes, tilaka mark 
shaped like the crescent moon (on the forehead), collyrium in the eyes and elegant 
glass bangles; she wears a plait of hair; she is charming in the desi-mela, conquers 
everyone (with her charm; complete with svaras}); sa is threefold; [the ragini is to 
be performed] in the afternoon. 

(6) Gurjari 

195. Gurjari (ragini) wears ivory bangles on wrists and (ivory) anklets, a golden 
flower in her nose, a blouse of golden hue, and red clothes; she has lips like the 
[red] bimba fruit (bryonia grandis), creamy complexion; she is of sixteen years age; 
she has a freely trailing kaccha; she is happy (i.e. born) in the ramakri-mela; has 
threefold ri; [to be sung] at the dawn. 

(7) Lalita 

196. Lalita (ragaputra) is born in the desi-mela , has the full complement of svaras, 
dha is threefold; he has unsteady eyes; holds a lotus in the hand; wears white clothes, 
fully decorated; laughs fraudulently at innocent women; his mouth is full of betel; 
he is amorous, is a veritable incarnation of Manmatha; he is crooked but charming; 
is audacious; [is to be sung] at dawn. 

TCC 192ab 193abcd 194a 195c 196ac 
COT 192 193 194 195 196 



cTTcR^T dld^ddTWTd: TrfdddSd: 

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(8) Vibhasa 

197. Vibhasa (ragaputra) is of cream complexion, lotus-eyed, dressed like a man 
of wild mountaineer tribe < sabara >; he wears a vermilion spot on the forehead, 
a garland of jasmine flowers around the neck; he teaches skilful words to a parrot; 
he is born in his father’s mela; employs the first degree ma excessively; sais threefold; 
pa is absent; he is [a] fraudulent < satha > lover; roams about at will; speaks humbly 
[to the heroine, and is fit to be sung] at dawn. 

(9) Saranga 

198. Saranga (ragaputra) is swarthy in complexion; he wears yellow garments, 
holds a powerful mace, conch, disc and lotus in his (four) hands; a bow called 
saranga and a shining quiver full of arrows is held at his waist; he is well decorated; 
ga is of the fourth ( veda ) degree; ma-ni-dha are of the third (guna) degree; ri is of the 
second (paksa) degree; sa is threefold; it is complete (with svaras ); this clever, 
valorous (saranga) moves [and is fit to be sung] in the afternoon. 

(10) Tiravana 

199. Tiravana (ragaputra) is born in the desi-mela; sa is of three conventional 
usages< samaya> [viz. graha, arhsa and nyasd ; sa-ma-pa are [each] of three degrees; 
it has a complete form (with all svaras ); he is very creamy in complexion; wears a 
pearl necklace, a crown on the head; wears variegated and charming < extra > clothes 
and is charming; he holds a basket full of flowers; he is in the company of young 
(damsels), generating erotic ecstasy; the youthful tiravana is resplendent in the 
amorous art in the street of the courtesans [and is fit to be sung] in the evening. 

(11) Yammana-kalyana 

200. Yammana-kalyana has threefold sa, is complete (with all svaras); ri, ga, ma, 
ni are respectively of the second, second (netra), third ( agni ) and second (yama) 
degrees. He is with a train of kings; he is of creamy complexion, chews betel, wears 
white clothes, a gem-necklace; he is lotus-eyed; has a (royal) umbrella over his head, 
served with flywhisks on either side; he is seated on a gem throne, surrounded by 
a train of attendants; he is radiant [and is fit to be sung] at the end of the day. 

Siiraga and Family 
(1) Sriraga 

201. Sriragais well decorated (amorous?), handsome, born of the Tatpurusaface 
[of Siva]; wears a necklace of star(-shape?- number, i.e. 27?) [gems], white clothes; 
dhaivata, ri, ga and ni are of the first degrees; dhaivata occurs in ascent but not in 
descent; sa is threefold; it is complete (with all notes); he is of creamy complexion; 
he is sportive, graceful; he is dancing [and fit to be sung] in the evening in summer; 
he holds in his hand a lotus swarmed by bees. 

TCC 197acd 199d 200cd 201c 

COT 197 198 199 200 201 





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^TT faddHMddT II ^ II 



(2) Gaudi 

202. Gaud! (ragini) is born in rdmakn-mela; omits dha-ga; sa is threefold; she is 
sixteen years of age; wears variegated clothes; holds a lotus in hand; eyes (are so long 
as to) reach the ears; has excellent hair; she belongs to the Persian city of Multan 
in the East, sporting with a mendicant with matted hair; (playing with dolls made 
of cotton clothes?); she is skilled in the erotic art; she is creamy complexioned; [fit 
to be sung] at the end of day in the caitra month. 

(3) Padi 

203. Padi (ragini) is married to the gaudi-mela; [its] ri and ni are of the first and 
third (guna) degree (respectively); ga is omitted; she is lotus-eyed; she alleviates the 
(love-heat) affliction of her husband; she has a smiling, moon-like face; she is 
engaged in singing and dancing; is cream-complexioned, dressed in white clothes; 
she moves with the gait of a youthful, lusty elephant in rut; she is erotic (well 
decorated?) and brings rapture to the hearts of swans [and is fit to be sung] at the 
end of the day. 

(4) Gunakari 

204. Gunakari (ragini) is born in the gurjari-mela; sa-pa sparkle with sphurita 
[gamaka ]; ni occurs at the beginning [graha] , middle [amsa] and end [ nyasa ]; it is 
complete (with all svaras) ; she wears a garland on her bosom; has large eyes; wears 
white clothes, a red blouse; is decorated with various ornaments; her speech is soft, 
and sweet; she is swarthy and slender; this damsel of stainless character sojourns to 
the rendezvous of her husband [and is fit to be sung] in the evening. 

(5) Nadaramakn 

205. Nadaramakri (ragini) is complete (with all svaras) , has threefold sa; m and 
ga are of third (guna) and first (vidhu) degree (respectively); she holds the musical 
instrument kinnari in her hands; she is of swarthy complexion; she has long eyes; is 
decorated with a garland of large lotus (or gems, pearls, coral, conch, etc.); she is 
[a] madhya [class of heroine], wears reddish clothes, walks like an excellent 
elephant, wears a golden (hued, laced) blouse; she moves about [and is fit to be 
sung] in the evening, singing the virtues and deeds of her husband. 

(6) Gundakn 

206. Gundakri (ragini) is affined to the gurjari-mela; lacks ri-dha, has threefold sa; 
she wears dark blue clothes, is creamy complexioned, has loose curls; she is sixteen 
(raaua=9, naga= mountains=7) years of age and is waiting at the love tryst; sitting in 
the shade of the nipa tree, holds a lotus leaf in hand; this damsel watches the path 
of her beloved [for his arrival and is fit to be sung] at the dawn. 

TCC 202abc 203bd 204ab 205abcd 206ad 
COT 202 203 204 205 206 



cf^Tt W ^cbdch^i ^FT: I 

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( 7 ) Takka 

207. Takka (ragaputra) is engaged (interested?) in dancing, enduring (patient, 
agreeable?); ga-ni are each of the second ( nayana ) degree; sa occurs in the 
beginning [ graha ], middle [ amsa] and end [ nyasa ]; complete (with all svaras); he 
wears a diamond garland on bosom, bracelets, crown and variegated clothes; has 
a creamy complexion; is amorous; he has intense love lust; [so] his body is smeared 
with sandal paste; he holds a ball of flowers; this clever messenger of love (-god) 
roams about [and is fit to be sung] always. 

(8) Devagandhara 

208. Devagandhara (ragaputra) has ga-ni each of the third (anala) degree, 
threefold sa; has full [melodic] form (with all svaras ); is radiant always [to be sung], 
has ri-dha of the first degree. He is seated on a diamond (studded) throne; lauded 
by Indra and others; he enjoys the erotic (experience), with body besmeared with 
sandal paste; he wears white clothes, holds a red-lotus in hand and is bedecked with 
all ornaments. 

(9) Malava(gauda) 

209. Malava(gauda) is born in the gaudi-mela; it may or may not have ri-pa; ni is 
amsa and nyasa; this (ragaputra) is valorous; he abides in erotic emotion; has the 
complexion of a parrot; he is a friend of musalika ( raga); he is lotus-faced, lotus-eyed; 
wears white clothes, is decorated with garlands etc.; this king of ragas is skilled in 
(self) expression in the assembly (of connoisseurs) in the evening [which is the 
appropriate time for its performance]. 

(10) Suddhagauda 

210. Suddhagauda (ragaputra) is born in the gandakn-mela; he is full of erotic 
emotion; ni is graha , amsa and nyasa; lacks pa; his white clothes are picturesquely 
stained with the honeydew from the filaments of the safflower; he has a vertical 
mark of vermilion on the forehead, a fragrant body; wears a garland of lotus 
(seeds?) around the neck; he chews betel; he is engaged in worshipping Hari; he 
is radiant [and fit to be sung] in the evening. 

(11) Kamatabahgala 

211. Kamatabahgala (ragaputra) is bereft of ri; ga is graha , amsa and nyasa; is born 
in the gaudi-mela; holds a stalk of flowers in his lotus hand; is creamy complexioned, 
wears white clothes; also wears wristlets, crown, bracelets and a garland; he wears a 
head-band of safflowers, roams about with his train of attendants [and is fit to be 
sung] in the forenoon. 

TCC 207bcd 208c 209ad 210ab 21 led 
COT 207 208 209 210 211 



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Suddhanata and Family 
(1) Suddhanata 

212. Suddhanata is born from the Isana face [of Siva]; ga-ni-ri-dha are each of the 
third degree; sa is threefold; it is complete (with all svaras); he is valiant, red 
complexioned, lotus-eyed; wears white clothes, garlands etc., he holds a sword in his 
hand; he is powerful, speaks with a smile; has a smooth, deep voice; he is radiant, 
riding a horse on a highway [and is fit to be sung] in the evening of autumn. 

(2) Malavasri 

213. Malavasri (ragini) is born in sriraga-mela, sixteen years of age (nava= 9, 
gni=mountain=7), sa occurs in the beginning [ graha ], middle [amsa] and end 
[ nyasa] ; she wears a blouse soaked in sandal paste, and clothes (made of) flowers; 
is fawn-eyed, she is mature (or heroine of the praudha class) lover, pokes fun at her 
beloved with ironical words; she is slender, turns near her nose a nosegay continu¬ 
ously with a restless hand [and is fit to be sung] always. 

(3) Desaksi 

214. Desaksi (ragini) has gandhara at beginning [graha], middle [amsa] and end 
[nyasa]; ri-ni-ga are [each] of the third ( guna ) degree; dhaivata is of the second 
degree; she chews betel, has collyrium in eyes, is decorated with gold and diamond 
jewels; she is married to the narayanirmela , wears flowers in the braid. She wears a 
blouse and variegated clothes; this princess watches wrestling matches [and is fit to 
be sung] at every dawn. 

(4) Devakn 

215. Devakri (ragini) has creamy complexion (or she is a girl of ten), tender¬ 
bodied; has breasts like lotus buds, wears variegated blouse and clothes, is deco¬ 
rated all over (the body), is soft spoken, has ussak for her ancestor; is bold and 
confident (or a hero ; ne of the pragalbha class); belongs to the velavali-mela, ma of 
the first degree is used excessively; sa is threefold; lacks pa; she is a celestial nymph, 
very clever and is resplendent [and fit to be sung] in the last watch of the day. 

(5) Madhumadhavi 

216. Madhumadhavi (ragini) is innocent, creamy complexioned (or a girl of 
ten), her body is dressed in strange (? charming) clothes, is decorated in everyway; 
ma occurs at beginning. [graha] and end [nyasa] and is amsa; lacks ri-dha or has ri- 
dha of the second degree; also, the fnal wara (ni) and ga are of the third (vahni) 
degree; she is possessor of eyebrow-bow, side-glance arrow; she goes to her 
husband’s house along with her friends [and is fit to be sung] at the dawn. 

TCC 212ab 213d 214d 215ad 216acd 
COT 212 213 214 215 216 



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ffcT ^NHTS: (*o) 



(6) Abhiri 

217. Abhiri (ragini) has ga-ri-ni of the first, second and third degrees [respec¬ 
tively]; she is affectionate-eyed; bold and confident (or heroine of the pragalbha 
class), swarthy complexioned; sa is threefold; she is soft spoken; she has plaited her 
hair at the crown of her head; she is soft-bodied, wears dark blue clothes, wears a 
set of corals around her soft neck, and tatahka earrings in both ears; she rejoices in 
erotic experience with amorous cries and to the sounds of rasadanda dance in the 
evening [which is the appropriate time for singing]. 

(7) Jijavanta 

218. Jijavanta (ragaputra) is born in sriraga-mela itself; (its) ri-dha are each of the 
first degree; sa is graha, arhsa and nyasa; he is of swarthy complexion, wears yellow 
clothes; a tilaka of vermilion is composed in the middle of the forehead; he wears 
a diamond garland; he plays the flute assuming the graceful thrice-bent pose; he is 
amorous, erotically pleasing and shines [and is fit to be sung] in the evening. 

(8) Salanganata 

219. Salanganata (ragaputra) is creamy complexioned, youthful, holds the 
weapon thunderbolt < vajra > in hand, assumes the form of Manmatha; has a pearl 
garland around neck; he is suri ounded by a train of attendants; all his clothes are 
multi-coloured; he is well decorated, amorous, soft spoken; sa occurs at middle 
[arhsa], beginning [graha] and end [ nyasa] ; he delights in the kedara-mela and 
shines [and is fit to be sung] at sunset. 

(9) Kamata 

220. Kamata (ragaputra) is amorous, yellow-clad, wears wristlets and a crown; he 
is seated on a throne under royal umbrella; he is creamy complexioned; he is a 
friend of sri husenl(raga) and delightful; he likes vagesvari (raga) of the east; its svaras 
ri-ga-dha-ni abide respectively in the third, second and first degrees; he is of the hue 
of the peacock neck (?); ni is graha, nyasa and arhsa; or, ri-dha are absent; it is 
splendid [and is fit to be sung] at the end of the day. 

(10) Chayanata 

221. Chayanata (ragaputra) is of a (melodic) form originating in kamata-mela ; sa 
is its graha, amsa and nyasa, he wears a diamond necklace, white clothes (he speaks 
with a smile); ‘< smitavadanarucih > and a head-band of patala flowers (trumpet 
flower, bignonia suaveolens) ; he is creamy complexioned, red-eyed; is surrounded by 
many companions; he is involved in the valorous and erotic emotion; he holds a 
basket (or ball) of flowers; and makes fun of wayfarers [and is fit to be sung] at the 
end of the day. 

TCC 217ad 218ac 220b 221b 
COT 217 218 219 220 221 




f*Hdd<cKH: I 

jfkwi^dddd: <Tb«dfd: OTft 

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ffrT $HUHI<d: (U) 


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(11) Hamlranata 

222. Hamiranata (ragaputra) is complete (with all svaras) ; ri is of the second 
degree, while ga-ni are (each) of the third ( anala ) degree; sa is graha, nyasa and 
arhsa; he is amorous and youthful; he has a smiling face; he holds a basket (or ball) 
of flowers and a staff; he has a creamy complexion; chews betel; is a friend of 
Manmatha; he wears red clothes; is powerful; his mind (i.e. desire) follows damsels 
[and is fit to be sung] in the evening. 

Natanarayana and Family 
(1) Natanarayana 

223. This natanarayana-raga is in the company of innocent women; its ri-ga-dha- 
ni are [each] of the second degree; it is complete (with all svaras ); sa is at the 
beginning [graha], end [nyasa] and [ arhsa ]; he is born of the face of RudranI; 
dances to the accompaniment of a flock of peacocks; he is decorated; he is swarthy 
complexioned, wears yellow clothes, holds a sword which flashes like lightning; he 
is merciful and manifests auspiciousness to human beings [and is fit to be sung] 
always in the spring season. 

(2) VelavaVi 

224. VelavalI (ragini) plays softly on the muraja drum: dhittam dhittam dhitam tarn; 
she is slender, (well) decorated (amorous?), creamy complexioned (girl of ten 
years?); she wears clothes of lotus (hue) and multicoloured blouse; she is a mature 
lover (heroine of the praudha class); abides in all notes of the madhumadhavi (mela); 
dA# is at the beginning [graha], end [nyasa] and [arhsa]; or ri-dha-zxe (optionally) 
absent; she is the daughter of sarparda and companion of kurayi (Persian modes). 

(3) Kamboji 

225. Kamboji (ragini) is a ravishing woman; its ni-ri-dha?se of the second degree; 
sa is threefold; ni-ma are (optionally? ‘ va ) absent; she is creamy complexioned (girl 
of ten years?), chews betel, wears floral clothes and blouse; she has a spot of musk 
on forehead, is decorated with ornaments of gold and gems; she shines in the 
company of maids of Kamata and Andhra; she holds the kinnari in her hands; she 
is resplendent [and is to be sung] in predawn hour. 

(4) Saved 

226. Saver! (ragini) has dha at beginning [graha] , end [ nyasa] and arhsa ; lacks sa- 
pa; dha , final note ( ni), ri and ga are each of the second degree; she has a spot of 
musk on forehead; she is fawn-eyed, moon-faced, slender; she wears a garland; 
wears the dress of a woman of wild mountaineer tribe < sabara > and yellow blouse; 
she is of sixteen years of age, swarthy in complexion and walks with [slow majesty 
of] the gait of an elephant in rut [and is fit to be sung] in the evening with a smile. 

TCC 222b 223abd 224acd 225ac 226b 

COT 222 223 224 225 226 



rf'HHI TJTTTSTl' cK^HQUj^Sll h! cl<=J^ ^SJHT 
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O'HIHd ^ STTfo qitddct qf^un si^'dicd 

*Td7: W^: TJlWT: II 33° || 


W% f^f o3MWddl <?*THt 

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<Ti^PyPfP^NHHHI ^fcT: fel»Wf: 

^qldd^iid'l Rmt«r n 3 ^ n 

^T%^R: (<0 



(5) Suhavl 

227. Suhavl (ragini) is slender, swarthy in complexion, fawn-eyed, lotus-faced, 
wears yellow clothes; she is (a) mature lover (heroine of the praudha class); has a 
plait of hair (on crown of head), moves (gracefully) like a swan; wears a blouse of 
variegated colours; she has a slightly humorous mouth and is sixteen (dasa= ten, 
rasa=six) years of age; she is fanned with flywhisks (on both sides); she is with the 
sdven-mela and is complete (with all svaras); sa is threefold; [is fit to be sung] in 

(6) Saurastri 

228. Saurastri (ragini) is complete (with all svaras ); sa is threefold; she is wanton; 
wears variegated clothes, a dark blue (coloured) blouse on firm breasts; she is 
creamy complexioned, lotus-eyed and has face like the moon; teeth like pomegre- 
nate seeds; she goes about [and is fit to be sung] in the evening, full of erotic 
sentiment, (as if) a companion to Manmatha. 

(7) Malhara 

229. Malhara raga-(putra) is born in the saven-mela , bereft of sa-pa y dha is graha, 
nydsa and arhsa; he is swarthy in complexion, clad in yellow garments, skilled in 
amours, wears garlands etc.; he dances to the accompaniment of peacocks which 
spread their feathers and dance in ecstasy at the lightning and thunder-clap; he is 
a friend of [the Persian mode] bjaramt since birth; cleanses (all) sins; is resplendent 
[and is fit to be sung] at predawn. 

(8) Gouda 

230. Gonda raga-(putra) abides in the malhara-mela, has all svaras ; dhaivata is 
arhsa, graha , nydsa; he is swarthy in complexion; his neck is adorned with strings of 
conch and pearls; his forehead is besmeared with ashes; he is (dressed as) a 
mountain tribal hunter < kirdta >; he bears a plantain leaf on his head, and peacock 
feathers around his waist; he is a devotee of Sambhu; holds bow and arrow [and is 
fit to be sung] at dawn; thus shines the gonda-rdga . 

(9) Keddra 

231. Kedara (ragaputra) holds a stick in his left hand and trident in the other; 
he wears white clothes; his body is besmeared with ashes; his eyes are red; his 
unblemished hair is matted; he is seated on a tiger-skin; his eyes are focused at the 
tip of the nose while (mentally) reciting the name of Siva <japa he is surrounded 
by disciples; ri-pa are absent; ni is threefold; (the ragaputra) is born in the suhavi- 
mela;[ should be sung] at night. 

TCC 227acd 228abd 229bcd 230acd 23led 
COT 227 228 229 230 




3?TcT: : ycxld 

: II ^ II 

^T?ffTT^T: (5>o) 

Tfk: ^aq«: ■g^RT^^fddl^d^TRt 

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fa£lfc J l4: II 333 II 

fcl^Mis: (U) 



^TT^Wn: ^ nfgt: II W II 


(TMf^RUT MH^) 




(10) Sahkarabharana 

232. Sankarabhusana (i.e. sahkarabharana-ragaputra), is creamy complexioned, 
dressed in red, wears garlands of large lotuses (diamonds, coral, conchs or pearls); 
is handsome, amorous, his body is anointed with the paste yaksapahka perfume; he 
wears a mark of ashes on all his forehead; he loves to start dancing; he renders 
mudrita-gamaka excellently (while singing); (the ragaputra) has all the notes of 
madhumadhavi; has sa for graha, nyasa and amsa; he moves about in the morning 
[when it is fit to be sung]. 

(11) Vihagada 

233. Vihagada (ragaputra) is creamy complexioned; wears white clothes; has 
fragrant body, betel in hand; he is amorous; he holds a bow and flower arrows; he 
understands the minds of separated lovers; sa is threefold; he wears a crown of 
campa, jati and mallikd flowers (in abundance), and a garland of mallika flowers 
around his neck; it is born in kedara-mela; it shines [and is fit to be sung] in the 

234. There are other endless ragas, existing in different regions and [with 
different] people; let the cognoscente in such matters surmise the auxiliary ragas. 

This Ends (Description of) Characteristics of Ragas. 


TCC 232abcd 233bcd 
COT 232 233 




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37T^ J l^dN c b4l: <*=lfact ^pcK'HMd: I 

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M^^'lPi TfsRTFI F«i'S?< M<H, II * II 
ffaep: Mlddlefl ^ ^Tt ^nf^T^t I 
TcT: Mldfa^ ^ II ^ II 







1. Gita is described as that which is composed by an expert in dhatu (music) and 
matu (words) according to (prescribed) definition in desi ragas, etc. It is (also) called 
gana . 

2ab. It is said by scholars to be of two kinds: anibaddha and nibaddha. 

2cd-3ab. Anibaddhais [so called] because it is not set (to talae tc.); it is alapti( itself, 
which has been) described before. Nibaddha is set (together) to dhatu (musical 
elements) and ahgas (literal components); this (latter) will now be elucidated. 

3cd-4ab. It has three names, viz. prabandha , vastu [and] rupaka. Dhatu is a limb 
(organ) of prabandha ; it is said to be of four kinds. 

4cd. [The first is called] udgraha because the song is taken up with it; (it occurs) 
at the beginning (of the song). 

5. Melapaka h the second, [so called] because it joins udgraha and dhruva. Dhruva 
is so named because it is constant; it is declared to be the third part. 

6. Abhoga is the fifth part and (its name) indicates the completion of song. There 
is yet another limb named antara in between dhruva and abhoga. 

7ab. (But) it is found in the salagasuda compositions only. 

7cd-8ab. It ( prabandha ) is of three kinds: viz. four -dhatu, thr ee-dhatu and two- 
dhatu; (the last two are formed) because of the absence here and there of (both or 
one of) melapaka and abhoga . 


8cd-9ab. The ahgas (components) of prabandha are six viz. svara, biruda, pada , 
tenaka, pata and tala ; these are like eyes and (other) organs in men. 

9cd. Among these, tena and pada are eyes; pata and biruda , hands. 

TCC 2c 3d 4c 5bc 7ab 8d 9ab 

COT labcd 2cd 3d 4abcd-6cd 7ab 8b 9-10ab 



dlcl^Pl ^ clrHlc^i yo|^ J iRls?<dd: I 

cHc)¥d ^T: y=bl^: II || 

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*5R: uRMHlfc: RTR^Idl^Pd^H^ I 

JHHPdd! Wfa: cT«TT | 

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siRpjwgr Rr^rf): w«it fsfasfr RT: I 
^d^PddHlRl^ Pd^JHI^^ II ^ II 

3 J|U|cn4i+><riiPi 

^^Tb^^ j Ddr4l j|«io|uii^sFn^^ i 
Wfi RTT cR^FTT 3T^ <dup|U||R-ddol: II ^ II 
HPfd j rl *JpR: ^fef^^R: I 

"dslTRt ITf ^1^5‘^FRTfR^R II ^ II 

cTt5^RTt5^d^-^-dl 'R: ^RrfS'dJl^yd: I 
*T: 4r: cblf^'v 7 ^ t&: II ^ II 

3$JI^k1 RRT I 

%5RTf: Ud4iU>Wdl'kj, 'T TT^TT II %6 II 
Hd^<W J l u ld: '+)<nHi§P4MplR: I 
wfafRcT: : RRft RJ*TT II \% II 

^ ^ ^ Rff I 

{-HIcKIdl <RT II ^o || 



Tala and svara are its feet because they generate movement in the prabandha. 
Tena is (the sounds) tena-tena and is the manifester of auspiciousness. 

11. Padah the expressor of meaning; pata is born of instrumental sounds; biruda 
is (laudatory) adjectival terms; tala is caccatputa, etc. 

12ab. Svara is sa-ri-ga-ma etc. These (components) should be situated (in the 
prabandha) appropriately (as specifically prescribed therefor). 

12cd-13. Classes of prabandha are five: medini [jdtl-pmbandha] is [formed] from 
(all) six components; anandini is [formed] from five; likewise dtpani from four; 
bhavani (jati prabandha) is [formed] from three components; tardvaCi is said to be 
[formed] from two [ ahgas]. 

14. Prabandha is declared to be (again) of two kinds viz. aniryukta and niryukta-, 
aniryukta (issocalled) because of the lack of (prescriptive) rules; niryukta occurs by 
the presence of (prescriptive) rules. 


15. I shall [now] elucidate in order the syllables and their clusters (to be 
employed) at the beginning of songs wherein the metre is not prescribed (with 
reference to the invisible fruits accruing from their use): ma-ya, ra-sa, ta-ja,bha-na 
are the eight syllabic triad-clusters. 

16. (Of these,) ma (gana) has three gas (gurus), is born of the Earth, gives 
affluence/auspiciousness; ya (gana) begins with la (laghu; followed the two gums ), 
is born of Water and bestows prosperity; ra (gana) has middle la (laghu-, preceded 
and followed by a gum) , is born of Fire and burns (everything, every sin?) to ashes; 
sa (gana) is born of Air, has ga (gum) at end (preceded by two laghus) and causes 

17. Ta (gana) has laghu at the end (preceded by two gums) , causes poverty and 
is born of Space; ja (gana) is born of the Sun, has ga (gum) in middle (enveloped 
by two laghus) and produces disease; bha (gana) is born of the Moon, bestows fame 
and has ga (gum) at beginning (followed by two laghus ); na (gana) is born of Indra, 
has three la (laghus) and bestows auspiciousness. 

18. Some (authorities) declare that at the beginning of udgraha, of dhmva and 
of abhoga, either sa (gana) or ta (gana) may be employed at convenience but never 
ra or ja (ganas). 

19. The learned mention the fruits of (employing all) ganas one by one (at the 
beginning of udgraha , dhmva or abhoga)-, others mention the fruits of (employing) 
pairs of ganas (in the same positions), thus: 

20. Ma-na (gana pair) are friends (mutually), bha-ya are servants, ja-ta are 
indifferent (neither friends nor foes); rasa should be understood as (mutual) foes; 
the fruits of (employing) their combinations (in the above positions) are accord¬ 

TCC 10a llabd 12d 13bcd 14d 16abcd 17ab20c 

COT lOabc llacd 12abcd-13c 14a 15a 16-17 16bc 17bcd 18 19-24ab 



Tf^et pH ^ 4l 4tn ^cqql^^ <c f^ I 
■3^T#T^f ^#T: ^Miqq^KH^ II H 
"sprt I 

^ ^hFh^V. I 

fq-^cft: xf^ ^if^bLK^i ^Paql: II II 

^rMl<l41H4lP hiMtJ$: I 
vKI^R^t 5}lt<w1^: Wt: II 33 II 
^pq I 

c^f^-H|^|J|UTT^xf^ yi^4l ^M-qi'Ki<1 II 3* II 
W I 

3T^Tt5fq II 3 <a II 

^ 4t^3T I 

^n^TfcFM: WFII: «ii u mi u II: **idl: II 3^ " 
fsRJ cf? cT^f ^ dtqi<l'44^T cT^: I 
cpjifarcfg^lf: ^qvqiKaMI q^Tl II 3^ II 
H^jq<;il®c4qJl J ll: I 

■sfter: 3pF: 4trt TfeW: II ^ II 
sbHK-sMdR dHM^IHi ^ <*°WI: I 

>$. qutacnifa 

cju if^t ^ i+>dMI^<l^4l^5H<41Pidl II 3^ II 

^q^RW: W ^rfs^iRi+l: II 3° II 
cb<|fa^dl=Mllcn<fl H SRt^T I 



21. By combining a pair of friends, auspiciousness accrues; strength, by combi¬ 
ning servants ( gana pair); by (combining) two indifferent illness (results); by foes, 
destruction of the patron (lauded in the song). 

22. By friend-servant, victory; by servant-friend, accomplishment; by friend- 
indifferent, difficulty, grief from indifferent-friend; by friend-foe, harassment; by 
foe-friend, futility. 

23. Loss (accrues) from (combining) servant-indifferent; misfortune from 
indifferent-servant; enmity from indifferent-foe; decay from foe-indifferent. 

24ab. Hakampa (trembling with fear or sorrow with the exclamation ‘ha\’) results 
from servant-enemy; family decay from foe-servant. 

24cd-25ab. Some (authorities) describe five matra (moraic) ganas (syllabic 
clusters) viz. cha, pa, ca, taand da\ the number of matras these ganashave are six, five, 
four, three and two respectively. 

25cd-26. Arjuna has mentioned three other excellent ganas; they are thus: ganas 
of two, three or four syllables taking four, eight and sixteen ( matras) respectively are 
said to be rati ganas, kama ganas and bana ganas (in this order). 

27ab. But those among them which have la (laghu) at the beginning (in prastara) 
have an additional laghu. 

27cd-28ab. Syllables are of eight classes (commencing respectively with) a ka ca 
ta ta pa ya and sa possessing nine, five, five( isu) ,five,five( isu) , five, four ( veda) and 
four ( abdhi ) syllables respectively. 

28cd-29ab. The presiding deities of the [syllable] classes a-ka-ca-ta and of ta- 
pa-ya-sa are Soma (Moon), Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Sun and Rahu 
( Tamas ) respectively. 


29cd-30ab. The fruits of these syllables (classes) are longevity (a), lustre (ka), 
disrepute (ca), prosperity (ta), beauty (ta), disease (pa) , death (ya) and void (sa) in 

30cd-31ab. [The syllables] ha jha gha dha dha ra sa bha and the five nasal 
consonants should never be employed at the beginning of verse or song by experts. 

TCC 21a 22bcdef 23d 24ab 26bcd 27d 28ab 29cd 30cd 3lab 
COT 19-24ab 24cd 25c 26cd 27d 



II ll 

d«M<l Wl^Tf ^cbK-K} gUl^l: I 
W: dd-lRcd^d, II 3^ || 

W W !lfdc|uf I 

SJ^klRwi'Jli ^T 5 rM II 33 || 

^ffr 1R RT^sfm RcT: I 

^feTCT Tjt%: II 3* II 
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^r^t=FT ^ uiqiKi^ '^tidHH, II 3 <a II 

cTTtTR SIT^^T^R <|-°^'-il «TT^ HRHd: I 
iMi^it ^TRcft rtr ^ pt \ -^T^rqzr^ n 3^ n 
^(^TTR?) ^tfdJjrdHM dchKI^TRRTtTjfcT: I 
<qiKi-^jdl siPdc'fql II 3^ || 

^TcTT W&1 mi SR cTSTT I 

Tra^TTTwlRTrrE^r 11 3^ 11 

^KlrHI ^T: I 

'qAsf^T^ ^ TOR: ^Tt^FT: ^RfcT: II 3^ || 

sR'hV) 5 °hKU 'd°hl'0 'Jl<Hc||-c|c^; | 

1%%^qiqqi)5''2R R fTOf: ^Mchlfd^: ll *0 || 
'RKtINtoR flddi'W^TT I 
3TTRft 5ctq,i^4|q ddduif^ hRoM'^c^ II || 

< i' j iq'jffq-qi<l 5 '^ ^^dl^cj 'HMd: I 



31cd-32. Others have pronounced something special (about the fruits of using 
certain syllables); this will now be described. The syllable na destroys wealth; ha 
pilfers away fame; ma purloins everything. Therefore they should be discarded at 
the beginning of songs. 

33. Sadasiva has declared fruits for [the use of ] each syllable separately: The use 
of a etc. vowels (at the beginning of a musical composition of unprescribed 
metrical structure) results in [endowing] success in battle/fame in high position < 

34. Excellent fame from ka , perfumes from kha , village from ga , fear from foe 
from gha, wealth from ha , fine horses from ca , (royal) umbrella from cha , women 
from^Vz, death (of others), 

35. from jha, one’s own death from ha , cattle from ta , poison from tha, are the 
fruits; grief from da, gold from dha, excellent diamond from na, 

36. pearl from ta, large money from tha, spiritual accretions from da, great status 
(or calamity) from dha, destruction from na, experience of Brahman (or Sarasvati 
power) from pa, sensuous pleasures from bha, great fear (or security) from ba, 

37. fright from bha, death from ma, death by the king from ya, loss from the enemy 
from ra; la-va are endowers of children and money (respectively); 

38. all round void from sa, battle between kings from sa, equality (or similarity) 
in (royal) umbrella from sa, while the syllable ha purloins fame. 

39. The syllable ksa is reputed to bring spiritual auspiciousness, (the syllable) sri 
gives very splendid auspiciousness (wealth). The syllable na is splendid while 
drinking and in greeting. 

40. Ha symbolises Hari while ja bespeaks victory. Experts in poetry should not 
ignore prescribed syllables. 

41. Na-ga-ra in udgraha, sa-ta-la in antara and ha-ta-ka in dhruva —these nine 
syllables should be avoided. 

42. The syllable da in udgraha, the syllable bha in antara, similarly the syllable ca 
in dhruva —these three syllables bestow the fruits of wealth (auspiciousness). 

43ab. This matter of [using] syllables and [their] clusters pertains only to the 
laudation of men and not otherwise. 

TCC 32c 33d 34ab 35d 36c 37ac 39ac 40c 41c 

COT 31cd-32 33d 33-39ab 34a 35d 36abcd 37a 38c 41-42b 



^dldH u l<o^-tf44<Ml ^ II II 

^TO^KTRTlf^T: *j«S*i4l5Ilfk: I 

epirf ctufe Rt m u ^ n 

c^^^'icildl ^ J M<rildl (sm^Fm I 
^cTM : sfikw ^TfpTt II *\ II 
3TRf T TT S TT fgqW: «hei^€T 4tJ^: I 
qzT cpt Hl^l ^ cT^TT II ^ II 

M^dlcl«KWHI u k ^rMlid-H^I: I 
3T5RTT: VI: sbHK3 t4?rf4s^^rrfT: II W II 
JjflfcMIH: I 

'H^H'i4lHiRicn c h1 Bh41 ^ ^^<1 11^ II 
NdM<t I 

ll^ II 

^TR3: =b^: ^^fa^%^<Pvrii'H o b: I 
wi^-: 9Tta44t $4^4^: II *a° II 
cfctf tRTSt TTF^t CT«TT I 

4k 4t4^dl^ K t wit H^*cTRT«n II m II 


W^fT f4wklfen: WffTT^ SJ31W II S3 II 
airat'^oR^Icit^B: ft:<riK><+: I 

^H|dMfddt TRT i^dldlPd ~m 4 \\^ II 




43cd-44ab. The suddha-suda [class of prabandhas ] is [formed] from these eight— 
eld, karana, dhehki , variant, jhombada, lambha, 7*050 [and] ekatali. 

44cd. Varna, varna-svara, gadya, kaivada, ahkacarini, 

45. £ 00 ^ 0 , turagalila, gajatila, dvipadi, cakravala , krauncapada, svarartha, dhvani- 

46. 07 ) 70 , gatha, dvipatha, kalahamsa, totaka , dhata, vrtta, matrka — likewise ragaka- 

47. pancatalesvara, talarnava — these twentyfour prabandhasare named 0 /i ( krama) 
prabandhas here in order; 

48. srtrahga , srivilasa, pancabhahgi , pancanana, umatilaka , tripadi, catuspadi , 

49. satpadi ,vastu , vijaya , tripatha, caturmukha , sirhhatUla , harhsatlila , dandaka , 

50. jhampata, kanduka , tribhahgi, haravildsa, sudarsana,, svardhka, snvardhana, 
harsavardhana , 

51. vadana, carcari , carya, paddhadl, rahadi vlrasri , mahgalacara , dhavala, mahgala , 

52abc. om, to/e, dhollan, dantb— these thirtysix prabandhas are named viprakirna. 

52d-53. The sdlaga(suda-prabandha)s however, are dhruva, etc. The first [of these] 

is dhruva', then 7 nantha, pratimantha , nihsaruka , ad'datala , rasa, ekatali these seven 
(are the salagasuda). 

TCC 43cd 44c 46ac47ab 49d 50ad 5lab 52ad 
COT 43cd-53cd 




i. Hdl 

d<^>d SJTJFT f^TFTT^v^ II <V* || 

^TcM'Wdd'd^ I 

cT^ || t^ || 

IqtfPqcl c| cTJltf ^cTHIHd: I 

^T^q^q Ml<^4 im^ || 

F WR«I: l 

yq'PilS'q^ c^cjoii; ■^FsftsFbMdiPcid: ll ^ n 
m^qicHq>^gpFt 5 ^M<ir^d: I 
^TTW: WlirRl ^<|pc|d: II ^ II 

TjcfAohNIciM^g^H. II W II 
fF^: FTT^T^Fl'kldH'd^^ | 

^FTf qH-k^kui WpsrsjHfspjfatT: II ^o || 


H«c5psalq<*;gM!>lPddl<r)^ ^§FT II ^ || 
rTTcTtS^ PqPiqtTDoql TT^FJ fwft I 
3R^5ffH^'5Rh ^pf II ^ II 

<+>HH-H^q^ c hi'qpqaPi^fqq»iR l J|: I 

7 fl'd'+)lPd(-'?!)?cT: II II 

PqM iJ5 ^fq^i ^fcT Ft^T I 
dmi^ciiH^Mi FJ: ^^IHW^sbHI^ II II 



i. Eld 

54. Among these ela (will be described first): it should be composed such that its 
firstfoot has two segments, [each] composed with alliteration, with the same dhatu 
(music) but different words. 

55. A prayoga named gamaka is [then] executed; after this, a cluster of three 
words, named pallava is rendered. 

56. Of these, the first two [words] are performed in slow tempo; the third, in fast 
tempo. In this way the learned should sing three feet in the same dhatu. 

57. There is (however) a difference in the third foot (viz.): non-occurrence of 
pallava words; (instead,) another prayoga containing vocative words (addressed to 
the patron) should be executed. 

58. Thus the three feet containing twelve ( arka ) words constitute udgraha. If this 
(second) prayoga is [regarded] as melapaka , then it ( -udgraha ) has [only] eleven 
(rudra) words. 

59. [Following this,] there are three words bearing the name of the king(=patron) 
in the middle and slow tempi. This is dhruva. Of these the first two words are [set] 
in the same dhatu. 

60. The third [word] is [set] in different dhatu. After this occurs abhoga which is 
executed by the composer [such that it is] decorated with his own signature. 

61ab. Rendering [all this] again, the conclusion is [made on] dhruva. 

61 cd-62. Any one among the talas mantha , dvitiya, kahkala and pratitala should be 
employed here; graha is visama. Description of the king’s valour, courage, etc. 
should be incorporated in this prabandha. 

63. Kama , manmathavat , kanta , jita, mitra, vikarl , mandhdtr, sumati, sobhl, susobhi, 
gitaka, ucita ( ruta !), 

64. vicitra, vasava, mrdu , sucitra —these are the names of the sixteen words 
constituting the eld respectively. 

TCC 54ad 55d 56abcd 58b 59cd 61a 63d 64cd 
COT 54-76 54d 55ad 56d 57d 58bd 59a 61abcd 62b 63d 



^PTFTt Wgt: UHlfed: I 

HI^NlR Ml I 

Pi^lHchy^: 'HMH«'|ui M^Tcfll ^ II 

smjcTt HI<J«llgc*J: 'Hi^WK^Pd: II ^ | 

TMT^il^lMH^MiPTbdl 3^7^ I 
cTTT^HMH'l^ Tf ^fcT IIS/. II 

^c|uIi|Hehy1<4: -Wlf^R^ -HHlf^d: I 

^|cKI|c|i|c|c|U|f if ^^MdlPrfm: 11^ II 

S4)d4)fcwiuii ^xl<|TKMdlRi| | 
cfd^^K^dl ^lf55^n fgfa«TCT t^T: II V9o 
^IshclIdO^iyM ^TIcT: I 
^j>*7 l O c | ufdH^< i mi chlHd^fd : II vs* II 
TO: ^TT^'q^H^KKlHi 3TeRcT: I 
UHWdH«lg<r1 3TpjR^ yRcblffid: 11^ II 
T^T: ^4^1^ f^ipKMlfcTO I 
■q^T %[§: TPTT^S 4|4+IHI*ffafe<l II II 
■Q^TT I 

quMuiHNI^m^ r l'J|lct^I5‘cm^TII VS* II 
3W Pd^bWMlPdPdiWIct^: II Wv II 
AcriiHi^iNd] 'Mdl I 

q<d l d^J^^M l Pd^dKNd1 II ^ II 




^R^TT^Tt 7 !: ^TRfef? %qsRRt: || ^ || 

3P?T^ ^ 'T^TRT : RKlPddldl fcft cR: \\\36 II 
=h<u|4A| ^ft^r | 

^=M^yqcS: RT^ =R^ ^ || ^ || 
ddd^-lPWT do=h<ui w^T ^T: I 

41^1^1 Tq^l xn^ : -q^^ ; n 6o || 
cT^T dP<=id'M u i qPlstfifd^^d*^ I 
f , HiP-H9l < =h< u i 7R ^q<Hi<i=hcld^): II II 

^5t ytmm i 

3R <J W^fdd^lfcl^TbSI pRTcpF: || 6^ II 
rHTt>aKNdl 'dlPd^Pd^lPdcb'dlPdHI^ I 



TtTCTsf ‘^T^'qiJT^'Rtwn cfT I 
AoiiHqoi<2H^-q]5i5^<niHl dMdM=b1 II Ct II 
3^?RT %f^T?fT^ =h^-i<rl R fadP^c) I 
g didc^icMdldlsWI'd} II C\ II 
^PWW: Tgut | Rqsffipft I 
cfcfaTJRift fg : ^°KT < qt7T=b'Wd: II C\ II 
■JTfeT RTR ^TRT R %f^c|,| t=RTT I 
*iiHM<rt§P I T ^f^-chNi: ychlRfd^JI ^11 



ii. Karana 

77-78ab. Udgraha [of karana prabandha] is composed of svaras:, [its] dhruva is a 
mixture of all (six) ahgas. Its abhoga is composed of words (other than those of 
udgraha and dhruva) ; in these are incorporated the names of patron, prabandha and 
of the singer (=composer); but the udgraha is [set] in svaras of (composer’s own) 

78cd. The conclusion [of the song] is in the amsa-svara (of the raga) \ [its] tala is 
adi; [its] tempo is fast. 

79ab. The general characteristics of karana (prabandha ) are so described by the 
great sages (of yore). 

79cd-80a. If the dhruva [dhatu ] of the karana is composed of each ahga (sepa¬ 
rately), then that karana is named after the respective ahga. 

80b-8Iab. Then again, if its udgraha is composed of svaras and patas and (its) 
dhruva of patas and padas , then it is opined by Kohala and others to be citrakarana. 

8Icd-82ab. Where the dhruvais composed of svara , pata and tena , it is misrakarana; 
other (remaining) characteristics are declared to be as before. 

82cd-83ab. This is niryukta because of tala prescription; it has three dhdtus. It is 
of medirii etc. classes, excepting tardvali. 

iii. Dhehki 

83cd. Wherein the first half'of udgraha is sung twice without pause; 

84-85ab. the second half [is rendered] once; and then melapaka [which is] of the 
nature of prayoga (an expedient spanning device, called gamaka) may or may not 
occur; udgraha-melapaka are [executed] without tala or [executed] in dhehkl-tala or 
kahkala [tala] in slow tempo; 

85cd. but dhruva and abhoga are sung in a different tala and different tempo; 

86abc. dhruva is formed of three segments [of which the first] two are sung in the 
same dhatu while the third is (in) higher (pitch); 

86cd-87. this (foregoing, viz. udgraha , melapaka and dhruva is executed) twice 
(followed by) abhoga [rendered] once; then [the whole prabandha ] is sung again; 
conclusion is in dhruva. Wherein it is so, it is opined to be dhehki. This is declared 
to be the general definition of dhehki. 

TCC 77bcd 80ad 81 be 82a 84a 85c 86c 

COT 77ab-83ab 78b 79b 80a 83cd-90ab 84b 85bcd 87b 



MtfT «J|€H ^Ttrm *Jd>l<=Mlf<5n f*fgl: I 

II ^ II 

dKMdHlfdq ig M<dldlff«<5CT: I 

iv. fM, 

F^FT 'W'U^I'W ^ "5^ II 9 >° II 
orNt 3?fq cTc^ cn#5^Tt <H«bl^ ^ I 
fsFff^t FFf£TF fe^l^ II ^ II 

II ^ II 

Tf^raT ^tT^I ^TT fa<=l<Mt I 

ST^-Sfon# fd^MWIdlfg Pl-MHl^^: 11^3 II 
iF^n^tsfq ^Fnw^i^PqsVid: i 


V. itf^fSi 

FfFFpFtFF fg: : I 

:JrTCTsf y4^ll<o*lt HFlMdd F ^1 II ^ II 
fi^ i N i ^crt^t -h^i-hI 1% <C ^P i 

FFT dl<r\ fF:FTR% cT^TT II ^ II 
^|r f^ cITft I 

wft ^ TIFt ^ Fte# II ^V9 II 
i^chdl^ lT I 

■^pC5i% si^q) ^Tgl did)I TF$JFT t^TTRp II II 



88ab. Its numerous specific varieties such as muktavall will not be expiated here. 

88cd-90ab. Because of the ambiguity [in the use] of melapaka, this dhenkl 
prabandha may be of three or four dhatus', if [there is] no rule about tala, it is 
aniryukta-, alternatively, since dhenkl and kahkala-talas are (optionally) seen [in it], 
it may be niryukta (also). Being composed of only two ahgas viz. pada and tala it is 
of taravaVi class. 

iv. Vartani, Vivartani 

90cd-91a. Whatever are the characteristics mentioned for s varakarana above, 
they all occur in vartani also; 

91bcd. but the talais other than rasa\ here the tempo is slow; udgrdhais sung twice; 

92ab. dhruva and dbhoga are [each] sung once; conclusion (of the song) is on 

92cd-93ab. If set to kahkala , pratitala , kudukka or pratimantha tala, vartani is to be 
understood as becoming vivartani. 

93cd-94. This prabandhais niryukta because of the prescription of talae tc.; again, 
because of the absence of the dhatu named melapaka , it is tridhatuka; because it is 
constructed of tala , pada and svara, it belongs to bhavani class. 

v. Jhombada 

95. Wherein the first half of udgraha is sung twice, then the second half, once; 
melapaka , which is of the nature of prayoga (expedient bridging device, called 
gamaka) may or may not occur, 

96abc. dhruva is sung twice, dbhoga , once; conclusion is on dhruva ; where in it is 
so, it is named jhombada. 

96d-98a. [This prabandha] occurs in the talanihsaru , kudukka , triputa,pratimantha, 
dvitiya, yatilagna, garugi, rasa, pratitala or ekatdti. 

98bcd. [This is] opined to be its general definiton. [There are] many varieties in 
jhombada ; [but they] are not described [here] lest the treatise become [too] large. 

TCC 88b 91b 93a 94a 95c 96a 97b 98bd 

COT 88a 89abd 90cd-94 90cd-92abcd 93d 94d 95-99 97-98ac 



PH^bWMpH^HIc^^dkH^*: II %% II 

vi. cT**I: 

< H^<=tv(g'J'S <J#l£l fe<si u -s) ^T I 

7 ft^5'^^qyRiPi^ ?RT: II ^oo || 

t^jT^rrnt ^ ‘ 5 ^* qi*^^ f^n?p>: i 

dKleMl*llfdHi8 Sil^l^M<dMd: II II 

vii. TRT: 

^H^ld rf^T ^TTOW f^RT II || 
TRT^r <Wdl^H 7^54 t^npr: I 
PH^bWIdPl^HI^S^MKIc|<?ii!cb: II *03 || 

viii. ^oicil 

fs^Si^i^l^tsfqtg: -H<j)q^il<|ch^cici: | 

^m: ^ ^chdl<^d»dlRrld>l II 


37Tc7Nt ^IH+ldlH^cf'Wdl M II %o^ || 
ifc y^JiJji^H TJpRT 'HHIdOfHdl I 
dKloldl'dlldHia f^jwts^T fasjRpF: II \o$ || 



chuifd^wTr i 

P«(^<Mdl<rH ' c ^THl J l=hPc^ld: II || 
TT M: W5? f^rPt : fsR^ 



99. It is four -dhatu (prabandha ), but if melapaka is absent, [it is] thr ee-dhatu. It is 
niryukta because of the rule about tala ; it is of taravaVi (class) since it has two ahgas. 

vi. Lambha 

100-10 lab. Wherein the udgraha is of one or two segments; and again, sung once 
or, in representation of dhruva is sung twice, then abhoga is executed twice and 
conclusion is on dhruva , it is lambha [prabandha ]; it is of three dhatus. 

101cd-102ab. Because [it has only] two ahgas viz. pada and tala , it belongs to 
taravaU class. This is aniryukta because it has no prescription of tala etc. 

vii. Rasa 

102cd-103. Rasa [Prabandha :] is sung to rasa-tala with the same characteristics as 
described for jhombada except the occurrence of gamaka and sthanaka. It is of three 
dhatus. It is niryukta because of tala restriction; because [it has] two ahgas , it is of 
taravati class. 

viii. Ekatati 

104. Wherein after udgraha [is executed] twice, dhruva [is also rendered] twice, 
and abhoga , once and conclusion is on dhruva , it is ekatati [prabandha ] which is set 
in ekatati {tala). 

105. Some restrict its udgraha^ (to be rendered) in alapaon\y\ alapa [here] means 
gamakalapti [which is performed] without syllables (=words). 

106. Such selfsame [alapa without syllables] is described by the Muni under the 
term prayoga. This [ prabandha ] is of taravaU class, niryukta and thr ee-dhatu. 

i. Varna 

107-108ab. Wherein udgraha and dhruvaave composed in Karnata (=Kannada) 
language, with birudas in varna-tala and abhoga is performed in (other) words, it is 
varna-prabandha\ it is niryukta , thr ee-dhatu and has three ahgas. 

TCC 99d 102abcd 103ad 104a 106d 107ab 108b ^ 

COT 99d 100-102ab lOOd lOlab 102cd-103 102d 104-106 104c 105a 106b 107-109ab 107a 



3^|ol||<i|^ q<qkl ’Mq^rdPiqP^dl: I 

wk: T^HT cIlP^dsbHT^ II 5> o<^ || 

rld^4*jfWR: W^q<4<iicid: | 

W<l^ir<Pe|^WI^^lftlWi«+ : 11 W° 11 

■q^T STT^T: «bi4fW*IRp>: II \\\ II 

fd^rF STHRHlcfT^ fq^d^l rqqlid: I 


TJ^j xf^Epr T^^dl-sp^d II WR II 

Mlcolc+rdcFl cdPdd ^Tl J lP*J ^ I 
<gu^ "EJ pq^^lcldi II II 

Mld°qlc c hfVl < +)l qU ffldl I 

-^xrf ^ 'Hix^dl* ^PqHiPqaH, 11 ^V* 11 
^ ^ eTfeRT ^ I 

3TRl ’S7 t Ri ^TRc^TT Hl^llHi ^xIMp^T ^ II II 
^^1'HIWcft^T H 1 ^ $1*4 T*t 'HjdH, I 

M || ^ II 

<ird^pqr-.rddH, i 

z»m*m 3 ui^ w wp n w ii 

■^cTT PqdfKdl TT^zfi : sfcHId, II H 



108cd-109ab. In such compositions where abhoga is not specifically mentioned, 
the abhoga should be composed with words. Ovi, etc. four ( prabandhas ) occur 
without abhoga. 

ii. Varna-svara 

109cd-110. Varnasvara is composed with svaras, patas, padas and tenas in any 
desired order and its conclusion is with tenakas; it is set to varna-tala. It has twenty- 
four ( vedaksi ) forms by structuring with svaras etc. at the beginning. 

lll-112ab. Among svaras etc. any two (occurring in the beginning) become 
udgraha; dhruva is formed from one (other ahga); abhoga is composed of words; it 
has three dhatus. It is niryukta ; because of the absence of biruda, it is of anandini 

iii. Gadya 

112cd. Gadya is defined as an aggregate of words without a metrical structure. 

113. It is sixfold: utkalika, curna, lalita, vrttagandhi, khanda and citra. They 
originate from Samaveda. 

114. Utkalika (1) is to be sung in heroic sentiment in gaudi-nti (style) and arabhati- 
vrtti (diction); curna (2) [is to be sung] in santa (tranquil) rasa, vaidarbhi nti and 
sattvati vrtti. 

115. Lalita (3) [is rendered] with pahcali (style) and kaisiki (diction) and srngara 
(erotic) rasa. Vrttagandhi (4) is [to be executed] with verse in santa rasa, nti bhdrati 
(vrtti) and pahcali style. 

116-117ab. Khanda (5) is declared (to be performed) in vaidarbhi (sty;e), sattvati 
(diction) and in hasya (ludicrous) rasa. Citra (6), full of erotic (sentiment, is to be 
executed)in vaidrabhi nti and kaisiki-citra (diction) in (all the above) four senti¬ 
ments, various styles and dictions in a beautiful/variegated way. 

117cd-l 18ab. Other [authorities] state two other varieties [of gadya] viz. veniand 
misra. Vent is composed from (a combination of) all (the above varieties); misra is 
formed from a mixture of curnaka and vrttagandhi. 

118cd. Druta (fast), vilambita (slow) and madhya (middle) tempi are generated 
from densely packed, scant and even (middling) use of las (laghus ) respectively. 

TCC 108cd llOab 111c 112d 114ab 115cd 116d 117b 118bcd 
COT 1 lOd 111c 112cd-124 112cd 113d 114bcd 116cd 117abc 118d 



fMlgl s£dFTO "nfcT: FF I 
iird^rddHitefl i frtt wi^idNcn ii m \\ 

F^S j IH^» 4^: y u l<TOHdl<rl«hF, II || 
wVdlddleWR ^TOTS^TOTI I 


y4l J T) fgfdFmi<o4l FtF^ fsPkii^iaH, II Wt II 

diqiiHi-miieH Pici^'ii'^aidd: I 
"^toTto 'llcjk TOFT TO fFTOcf I 
^PH^TbPw^^ FMdl'dlPdHHd^ II W II 

iv. %FT5: 

FT^df FTTcTT^T^^ I 

v. 3 T^ftM 

dlTPkl^P^H^I^^T II ^ II 
M^du4H I H l |- FFtnt5qkdl^: I 
ifcdl TO FT Ftw <ild3<§^iiR u n II W || 
arfF^fH^sr FTTOTrofTOTOTOTF i 

vi. =)•>'■<;: 

3TNPM fTfFT ^WmicF%: II W II 

'TldPdF^SMTdl^: I 

TOFFT: TO% TOF: TOF: FTIdlddfafa: II ^ II 



119. By mixing la (laghus ) and ga (gurus) differently (in the first half and second 
half of the word-line, i.e. matu- line) is formed another tempo, viz. drutamadhya ; the 
next tempo is drutavilamba; the other is madhyavilambita. 

120ab. Thus six tempi are propounded for each gadya (variety) by the learned. 

120cd. [Gadya should be performed as follows:] with all gamakas and varnas; 
commencing with pranava (‘ om ) without tala ; 

121abc. composing svaras at the ends of sentences which are not set to tala , inter 
alia sentences (i.e. in between words) and inter alia words (i.e. in between syllables), 

121d-122. incorporating the name of the Vastu (i.e. gadya variety) within the 
limits of two words in the measure of a single span of any (desired) tala and singing 
it twice separately in the dhruva ( dhatu ); singing the prayoga in two segments twice 
in slow tempo; 

123abc. incorporating the singer’s (i.e. composer’s) name in a different tala in 
slow tempo, and the king’s (patron’s) name in yet another tala 'm fast tempo in the 

123d-124. singing all this again and concluding (the gadya-prabandha) on the 
name of the singer; wherein it is so it is defined gadya. This (prabandha) is aniryukta; 
it has three dhatus and belongs to the bhavani class. 

iv. Kaivada 

125-126ab. In kaivada , udgraha and dhruva are [composed] of meaningless or 
meaningful patas; abhogais performed in words; conclusion is on udgraha, it belongs 
to bhavani class, is aniryukta and of three dhatus. 

v. Ahkacarini 

126cd-127. Udgraha and dhruva are [constructed] from birudas expressing the 
heroic and terrible (sentiments); abhoga contains name of the trifold patron (lit. 
‘described’, varnya) sung in words in any desired tala; wherein it is thus sung, it is 
said to be ahkacarini by experts in song. 

128ab. This ( prabandha ) is aniryukta , three dhatu and is of bhavani class. 

vi. Kanda 

128cd-129. Kanda is [composed] in aryagiti (metre), in heroic sentiment; the 
udgraha is set in words of the provincial language; dhruva , in patas and birudas; 
abhoga is in other words (than those in udgraha and dhruva) ; conclusion is on patas; 
it has no tala. 

TCC 121b 122ac 123bc 125abcd 126c 127cd 128c 129bcd 

COT 120ab 124b 125-126ab 126-128ab 127ad 128a 128cd-130ab 128c 128b 129bd 



1'MIcHMlPdHI't I 


^•dldldlcrR II II 

3TT^rT 7 ft5«MM^4^ ^dldT fgSJT ^ ^T I 
■toot to^tt 4fd, TO^Rirg toot ii ^ 11 
37F7faT ^BldPdd^^: ‘'jWSFft I 
■HHlMdlddldl ^T omcm-mI OT belled <*1 II II 

■q^TSTT ffcT fa^ldl Pi^tb&lTOT^: II ^33 II 
dKIddldlPd^S'^ shP^d, I 

viii. J Md1cr)l 

TOdleh dl<rH TOdltfi Pid^Jcl II II 

^^^dPdd-^4l4dM4^d1d^ I 

OTcrR ch^uiHiyi fgxr^t qRjpl'Mc! II II 

TO cfT: ^P4d^: I 

fTOT "^sfrjsrt Wf cT«TT II W II 

: '? 3 JcT: I 

^Tgr M^dldl 4 ^ ^T J i^Hldd: II II 
mt VFF\ UI^I^^N^Hd: I 

II ^6 II 

1% OT OTdWTO ^ OTTO cTWJdt5?M I 




130ab. This is niryiikta , of three dhatus and is of bhavarii class. 

vii. Hayatila 

130cd-131a. Hayatila is [composed] in turahgaUln tala; udgraha and dhruva are in 
words; abhoga [consists] of other words. 

131bcd. It is of two kinds: gadyaja and padyaja; gadyaja is [so called] because it is 
[composed] in prose. 

132-133c. When structured in arya or asvalalita metre, its first half and second 
half are [respectively] with and without tala or vice versa or (both are) with tala ; 
[when] udgraha is composed with svaras , padas , tala and biruda , it is renowned as 

133d-134ab. It is niryukta , thr ee-dhatu, is of taravali class or sometimes, of bhavarii 

viii. Gajalila 

134cd-135ab. Gajalila [prabandha] is declared to be set in gajalild-tala; its charac¬ 
teristics are the same as of hayalila excepting [the prescription of] asvalalita metre. 

ix. Dvipadi 

135cd. Dvipadi is sung in the tala named karuna. 

136-137ab. The first half is made udgraha from four verse-feet [each] consisting 
of one cha (gana ), five ta (ganas) with a guru at the end; the other half is (made) 
dhruva similarly. Abhoga is declared to be composed of words consisting of names 
of singer (composer) patron and prabandha. 

137cd-138. Alternatively, the sixth and second (syllable triads in the verse foot) 
ar eja (ganas) or the sixth is only guru ; others prescribe svaras at the end of udgraha. 
Alternatively [again,] each of the four verse-feet [of the dvipadi ] maybe constructed 
with an additional guru. 

139. Further [the verse foot may also be composed] with cha (gana) and two ta: 
ganas or with two pa-ganas, targanasWwh a (terminal) laghu and guru ; or [again] with 
cha-gana followed by three ganas each of four matras. 

TCC 131 d 132acd 133b 136a 139abc 

COT 130cd-134ab 130c 131a 132a 133c 134d 135b 135cd-140 135c 136-137 138a 



ciKiqdl^hl II X^° II 

x. qs^qid: 

3 TT^ WTSTC(^)^t 4 t 5 ^Tt ^f^T: ^ I 

3tR1tRc||cWI<) ^sbdldWdMcl || II 

WRISf^ ^fsTdt | 

35 R?!j 3 ^ cr? ^n^rrntS'qH^’Kici: 11 x^ 11 

cTr^dl^lirdHiU Pd^klls^l fasTR^?: | 

xi. sh 1 «w<;: 

sFTl^ II WS M 
f: ^T? yfddldd: I 
^Isldl^Sbl^lHd: || X^ || 

^lPd^+: I 


Mp 1 lPd*-<=RdM^: II X'X'a || 
*W^<=lfPos$dl4%: I 
^IdWI’Ms^rot: ^kT: || x^ || 
wr«f: wiRadidi^^r ^ ^T: i 
^sPh^TO fgfa«T: ^R=h)fHd: ll x~&3 || 

dKMdl^lPd^S^Pd^TbPwppF:ll %V6 II 



140. [Yet] others state that dvipadi [is structured] from four yarganas (in each 
verse-foot; this prabandha is of) taravaR [class], niryukta , of three dhatus, and 
sometimes, of bhavani class. 

x. Cakravala 

141. If the letter clusters occurring at the end of preceding (sentences) are 
(repeated to occur as) the initial letter clusters of the further and further sentences, 
then it is said to be cakravala. 

142. It is described by scholars as being of two kinds, being the prose and verse 
subvarieties. It has udgraha and dhruva (for the first half and second half respec¬ 
tively); then abhoga is performed to different words. 

143ab. It is of taravali class, niryukta and of three dhatus. 

xi. Krauhcapada 

143cd-144. Wherein udgraha and dhruva are [composed] of svaras and words 
respectively, [and] abhoga is sung in different words and conclusion is in udgraha 
set to pratitala , it is krauhcapada [which may be] without metre or set to (its own) 
namesake metre. 

145ab. It is of three dhatus ; niryukta because of tala restriction and is of bhavani 

xii. Svarartha 

145cd-147ab. Wherein udgraha and dhruva are [composed] of only seven 
syllables which denote sadja and other svaras arranged in regular order, disorder, 
individually or together yielding the desired [word-] meaning and abhoga is made 
from other words, it is svarartha (prabandha ); [it is] set to any desired tala and [its] 
conclusion is on udgraha. 

147cd-148. It is said to be in two subvarieties, viz. suddha and misra; suddha 
[svarartha is composed] with only svara syllables and misra , with ether syllables 
(also). This is of taravaR class, a niryukta and is of three dhatus. 

TCC 141ac 143a 145b 

COT 140bcd 141-143ab 141d 142d 143cd-145ab 144bd 145cd-148 145c 146abcd 



xiii. feciPiJgil 

HUtJ«t>§KrKfed1 cTT# fo?l<rNlcH<*i I 

II V*% II 

wrfr: murk: i 

dRMdl^ffdc^s^fg^sft II \\o 

xiv. -3TR7f 

^gdlglS: WiHob: | 

fg: II ^ II 

3TPM ^JRT 3gl% *TTS5-qf dldMgffadl I 
fl^^fcHl'dirdf4^Tbl54 W 5 ^: II ^ II 

xv. T TT®TT 

3^ Wfct wn, ^ N W iTTgt ^T I 

MclciWJJI N 

xvi. f^T^T: 

fg^«T ^gT^frfj^T: I 

dM*1d: ^\T{^ ^RT&clpfa: II W II 


f^Wt WTl^nfrM^Tf^ I 
dRM<rl^ ^ft^gT: *R*TFT T TPTcT: II ^ II 

xvii. chd^: 

^<*>^^1 -gg ^HldPRddMd: I 

^m\ fgSTT ^T: II W II 

?TIR: W^lcT 



xiii. Dhvanikuttani 

149-150ab. Wherein [the composition] is set to two talas other than mantha and 
kahkala , and to different tempi, such that caesurae divide them into even (num¬ 
bered) matras; [wherein] the abhogais (composed) in a separate talaand [toother] 
words, that is dhvanikuttani ( prabandha ). 

150cd. It is of taravali class, niryukta and is of three dhatus. 

xiv. Arya 

151-152ab. Wherein [the song] is [composed] in arya metre, the first half is 
udgraha and ends in svaras , sung twice and the second half is dhruva (sung) once; 
after this is abhoga; conclusion is on udgraha ; it is arya (prabandha ) which is 
structured in pada and tala. 

152cd. This prabandha is of three dhatus , of bhavani class and niryukta. 

xv. Gatha 

153. The selfsame arya [composed] in prakrta [language] is gathaand has six, five 
or three verse feet. It is niryukta , of three dhatus and of bhavani class. 

xvi. Dvipatha 

154-155. Dvipathais set in dodhaka metre and concludes in udgraha ; it has or lacks 
tala ; it is to be understood as. of four kinds viz. one with svaras, the other with 
prayogas, the next two are with both or without both. It is composed of udgrahaand 
dhruva ; its abhoga is decorated with words. 

156. It is of three dhatus , is niryukta , and of bhavani class (but) sometimes of 
taravali; there are numerous varieties in its singing. 

xvii. Kalaharhsa 

157-158a. Wherein it is structured in harhsa metre, in jhampa-tala or a tala of the 
same size, in words and svaras , it is kalaharhsa ; again, it is of two kinds viz. gadyaja 
and padyaja. 

TCC 150a 15 led 153bd 154a 

COT 149-150 149abc 150abd 151-152 151a 152bc 153 153ad 154-156 154a 155b 156bcd 157-159 157ab 



M#$l^ II \\6 II 

37 T#%t 5 « 4 M<^?i|-jf) Pi^Tblsfq I 

xviii. dV'h: 

dR<W<Hl ^Z: yfd^K II X\% II 

STpMs^M^^I f#jr%5# fasmpF: II ^o || 

xix. *73: 

m^rKI«f fSRjt & TjftU^ #T%: II ^ II 
3T#% ^ W<H^: T^TTHPlHp^d: I 
^•P^l#^ <1m1'j||fdHH v l>f%ci; II ^ 

xx. ^d*t. 

^TTT cT^ freTfcT ^rf I 

cTI#T dR^cl II II 

^Tfq ^ttt% crf^n #: i 

cT7 ^#'-Kfq' i TFTcT: II II 
37T#rr: xf^T : cpj# fasffipF: I 

W^dKMdflcdtTl dlml'dlPdHI^l^ II ^ II 


H=h=bHI^=blH'dc| , jf'|4 L KlPd 1 

sFT?T: ^RT^T, *TT fasn W II II 

f^TT ^ TTT^# Roil H 1^1 %fcT I 



158bcd-159ab. Gadyaja has an udgraha of svaras; padyaja has an udgraha of words; 
whatever remains [of the vrtta ] is dhruva ; abhoga [is composed with] other words; 
it has three angas, three dhatus and is niryukta. 

xviii. Totaka 

159cd-160. Totaka [ prabandha ] is [structured] in totaka metre with words and 
svaras in every verse foot; udgraha is [constituted] by the former part and dhruva 
by the final part. Its abhoga is of other words. It has three angas , three dhatus and 
is niryukta. 

xix. Dhata 

161. In dhata [ prabandha] udgraha{ddyadhatu) consists of [words extending] in 
mdtrds [the same quantity as] the first half of dvipadi ; the second half of the verse 
foot is dhruva ; conclusion is on tenas. 

162. Svaras are composed at the end of [the first] half of dhata ; abhoga is 
decorated with other words. It has two angas , three dhatus , is niryukta and is 
sometimes of dipani class. 

xx. Vrtta 

163. Vrtta [prabandha ] is set in vrtta metre; (vrtta) is a metre of twenty syllables 
consisting of ( a series of) grzraand laghu ; [the composition is set] in words and any 
desired tala. 

164. At the end of each verse foot or at the end of the vrtta , there is the svara-ahga ; 
according to others, there is not. Here udgraha and dhruva occur [by dividing the 
composition] into the former and latter [halves]. 

165. Abhoga is made with (other) words; ( vrtta-prabandha ) is niryukta , of three 
dhatus , sometimes belongs to the taravali class, sometimes to dipani class. 

xxi. Mdtrkd 

166-167a. If words beginning with the syllable of matrkd-mantra (alphabet/ 
Mother Divinity) are sung one by one in (alphabetical) order,itis mdtrkd [prabandha]. 
It is of three kinds viz. divya, manusi and divya-manusi. 

TCC 158c 160a 161abc 163a 164abd 165cd 167b-168c 

COT 158a 159-160 159cd 161-162 161abc 162c 163-165 163a 164d 165acd 166-171ab 166a 



^3 I 

f^TT *k<f>d^l ^TdT wfdT^I W II W II 
TTF^ft yi^dPKI ^fldl^SJ PlMdl I 

Tn^T r<°iim^ II W II 
7TSF5TT ■q^TSTT %f^T t=TT^T fgf^^TT ^: I 
3^i^^K i r<^MU ' ? mt sp: ii w ii 
ch^Klfd ^^pf^ i ^ -qtrT^d^fdd: I 
PdoM^^d^uf'i^ : sFRTcp II ^o || 
dKMdl'dlfdHiU fd^dfc^ fdSJTcpP: I 

xxii. TFTdi^d: 

^T#f: II m II 

dlh d^ T^jrBt d^TFTd^d 1 ^: I 
^filsiTjWI^: =hPcRl^rmdl^A: II WR II 
TT^jf*f: Tn^l44^Mdl Pld&ld I 
dlcrl^d 7 T?H ^>Pd^d "d^dT: II ^ II 
^d^l^dddlcdi^p^jui: ^dftdd?T I 
3T^TOt5WT^U dHd^Pidl cT«TT II X&X II 
'WpHi c hi<^ ‘^TT^ X R: dT: I 

dd ^ ^ sFn^p II W II 

l^n% 7§n%5f^r TFt d^TMPl=bcddl I 
fgdT^SU-lPd^djt ^Pd^lPd+'dlPdHI'p II W || 

xxiii. H«dl<r)3R: 

fddM: ^HIcrfFf: dKfeit52fd d^Jd: I 
-cMd^d fgifd dc^% II ^ II 

d ^ dl^Hl^^fd^ I 



167b-168. Among these, diirya is sung with Sanskrit words in marga-tala; manusi 
is composed with prakrta (vernacular) words in desi talas; divya-manusi is said to be 
a mixture of both. 

169ab. Again, matrka is declared to be of two kinds viz. gadyaja (set in prose) and 
padyaja (set in verse). 

169cd-170. Here udgraha is formed from sixteeen words commencing [sepa¬ 
rately] with the vowel ‘ a' etc.; dhruva is formed from thirtyfour words commencing 
with the consonant letters beginning with ‘ ka' etc.; then abhogais [composed] with 
(other) words which begin with fixed letters appropriate to divya, etc. varieties, 
[rendered] in [regular] order. 

17lab. This is of taravali class, is niryukta and has three dhatus. 

xxii. Ragakadamba 

171cd-172ab. Ragakadamba is formed from many ragas, talas, vrttas, ahgas, dhatus 
prose passages, verses and sentiments. 

172cd-173. Nandhyavarta is defined as formed from four vrttas (metres), four 
talas,ahgas of the composer’s own choice, and with four ragas chiefly. Other 
scholars declare it to be [composed] of a single tala and in prose. 

174-175ab. Svastika [ ragakadamba ] is [formed] by doubling the ragas and talas 
relative to this; similarly, among abjapatra, abjagarbha, bhramara and amredita each 
> rormed by doubling further-and further the ragas, talas, etc. of the just preceding 
•ne beginning with svastika. 

175cd-176. Here (in all ragakadamba varieties) the former and latter parts 
c __ ( nstitute respectively udgraha and dhruvam each segment (of raga, tala and vrtta). 
Abhoga is composed with (other) words in the final (segment of each) raga. It is 
: • tryukta, of medini etc. class and has two dhatus. 

xxiii. Pahcatalesvara 

177-178ab. [Pahcatalesvara prabandha is performed as follows:] first, alapa is 
- xecuted with meaningful words] without tala; each word of a cluster of five words 
' 'ung twice in caccatputa tala. They may be composed in any desired svara and pdtas 
sc as to have separate dhatu and matu. 

'■v 173a 174a 175acd 176acd 177c 178ac 

ASbc 169bd 170acd 171 b 171 cd-176171 c 172acd 173b 174bc 175bd 176bd 177-185 177acd 



Ml^: Hd^d 4 - 3 ^!: H V&6 II 
spms cTcT^JN^ I 

el^Hidd: II W II 
cTcTC<J qdfHai^'^ 0 ! I 

W^RTC: [WdJ*i§HkPwiaP&HHd: II U° II 
dHa^i^aiPH ddqdqi I 

dldfeHH'd: ^iWdld^FHqwi^: II \6\ II 
3RR2I cT?j|£gdldd I 


•d^gHHIxl'^S'fa djfT^f 3ildlM^ ^d, II ^3 II 

WdT^^Tt II II 

«=Ti<|c|ciK: ^KfcKnenllfiT ^ fl^T I 

°n<i^l^^ "5^^ dcRqdl: II II 

xxiv. dldiufa: 

^P^dl^-HplMl dl<^4siP*$dsbA: I 
3^Pd<^fN4<&widi u Pd $d)Rd: II II 
TT1R: 'q^I^fcT fS^TT nMIHd: I 

II \#d II 

fofrrWT^I^t I 



178cd-179a. Antara is [then] executed in two measures of caccatputa [tala] with 
patas originating in pataha. 

179bcd. Next a cluster of five words is [sung] in cacaputa-tala ; antara is then 
performed as before in patas originating in hudukka in the measure of ( cacaputa) 

180. Then a cluster of five words is [sung] in satpitaputra [tala] followed by an 
antara consisting of patas of sahkha in two measures of the [satpitaputra] tala. 

181-182a. [Next], a cluster of six petals [of words] is sung in sampakvestaka-tala 
[followed by] an antara consisting of patas originating in karhsya-tala (bronze 
cymbals) in two measures of the [same] tala. 

182bcd. Similarly, a cluster of six words is [sung] in udghatta-tala followed by an 
antara consisting of patas originating in muraja in two measures of the [same] tala. 

183. Abhoga contains the names of the performer (composer), patron and 
prabandha in the measure of udghatta-tala in a tempo other than vilamba (i.e. in 
madhya or druta laya) ; the conclusion is on alapa. 

184. [This prabandha] has five ahgas, four or three dhatus , is niryuktaand is [aptly 
named] pahcatalesvara because of the special structuring in [five] talas. 

185. It is of two kinds viz. viravatara and srhgaratilaka because of application to 
vira (heroic) and srhgara (erotic) [themes]. All gods are propitiated with this 
( prabandha). 

xxiv. Talarnava 

186. 1 alarnava is said to be formed by any desired ahgas in any desired way (or 
marga such as daksina) in any tala arranged in any desired order, repeated many 

187-188ab. It is declared to be of two kinds, viz. gadyaja (set to prose) and padyaja 
(set to verses). Here (in this prabandha) the first half is udrdha while the final half 
is dhruva. Abhoga is [composed] of words occurring in the dhruva ; the rest is as in 

. CC 178c 179ac 180bc 181b 182ac 183c 184ad 186a 188a 

T 178d 179cd 180d 181bd 182bc 183b 184abc 186-188ab 186ac 188ab 




<<rU^ nqfcld: II \C6 II 
sfaft i)P<HfTO W^TFTpT^ I 

T%&{ II W II 

ii. sftf^TRT: 

■qilfsTST ^ il^WIcU'd'WilcH'b: I 
ylfcldl^Tlsfq " ^° 11 

iii. W 5 ^: 

TFIT^MH^ ^eTT^ft cM c M'tiq>: I 

W*T%9TO: W^f: tfU-^dd.^T: II X%\ H 

iv. h^iHH: 

MsINdtsfa Mlil'fTt TFTT^: I 

v. <JHlldeRP: 

IlfHWIcrl^ <i<M fawPsd: II II 
4-dl^HlPdd^: %*T: siU^q-Hd: I 


sF^Pdddd<lP^|^HIdmu||c^l: I 

■qgts^r TOftsft II W II 

^dld^ TOW^TF: TOt $3: I 

faRj TfTO: Wd^: ^T: II XV* II 





i. Srirahga 

188cd-189. Srirahga, composed of four ragas , [four] talas and [four] segments 
ending < data > (each dala consisting of one raga and one tala) with words, is of 
medirii class; the rest is as in ragakadamba ; its conclusion is [left] unsaid (in the 
sources) but is clearly [seen] in udgraha everywhere [in practice]. 

ii. Srivilasa 

190. Snvilasa is [composed] with five petals [segments]< dala>,[ five] ragas and 
[five] talas (i e. one raga and one tala in each dala) and concludes on svaras , it is also 
of medini [class]. The rest is as in srirahga. 

iii. Pahcabhahgi 

191. Pahcabhahgi prabandha is [formed] from two ragas , two talas and two petals 
[segments] (with one raga and one tala in each dala) , ending on tenakas , the rest is 
declared to be as in srirahga. 

iv. Pahcanana 

192ab. Pahcanana is (also) like pahcabhahgi in raga etc. but concludes with patas. 

v. Umatilaka 

192cd-193ab. Umatilaka is [structured] with three talas , segments and ragas [i.e. 
one raga and one ^a/aineach dala ] and is embellished with forudasatthe end; it gives 
wealth (auspiciousness). The rest is opined to be as in srirahga. 

vi. Tripadi 

193cd-194. In tripadi , there are four verse feet [composed] in Karnata language 
containing respectively two ( dvi ), two ( netra ), four (veda) and three ( agni) matra 
ganas [in which] the sixth and tenth are rati [ganas] and the others are manmatha 
L ganas ]. 

195-196ab. Udgraha is formed by the former [two] verse feet without tala , and 
dhruva by the latter [two]; but here [in the dhruva] occurs the performance of 
rooms set to tala\ abhoga is [composed] with [other] words. This is tripadi. 

T< C 189b 190bc 191d 192d 194d 195ad 

>T I H8cd-189 188cd 189bc 193a 193cd-196 194d 195-196a 196a 



*TT WlPtfj^I I 

dKHd)*l l Pd°Pl s4 MddM^ld: II II 


^TJTfeqmrd<qRl ^dldd-d: I 
^MHIdl *Ft ^ f^FT ^TW ^ II W II 
dH=bM4^bdl shHlc^ '^{14^ I 

WcHlcWldl dl^l^^^cTcT: II W II 
■q^rr^twr ^ -d^dl i 

fTORpra pH jrb) 'dlPdWKNdld^: II W II 

viii. M< l Kt 

TOT: t^-dlSdM^I: ^TfeTOTT I 
tgfl: WFM1: ^m : yfdMK cT«n ^T: II II 
Ny^dlddl:^ I 

<*S I 3Pfcm% ;Tjof: ’-I'Wdfd^ ^?)^: IIM II 
37T*fr>Tt5fq M^lUi) 41ddl^ ^ I 

dKMdklPd*b4 fq«n^: II ^ || 

ix. ^5 

W1 WTf^ra W^mra^T: I 

^Iill^|3-^4is<il4) <P=Hi;i<=r>1 II || 

WHldl r&d1dl-4 ?RRf -kKtHcbl I 
qf*R^F: ^TkTcT: II II 

arrqpfTts^w^U^d^ ^ did^f i 

^HP<dl^lPddTT5qfr II R°^ II 




196bcd. It is niryukta , has three dhatus and because of the application of [the two 
ahgas ] pada and tala it is of taravaU class. 

vii. Catuspadi 

197. [ Catuspadi prabandha is that] of which there are four ( veda ) verse feet 
composed in Karnata language without tala such that the even feet have sixteen 
(nrpa) matras and the odd, fifteen ( matras ). 

198-199ab. It is decorated with yamaka-alamkara; the former and latter halves 
concluding respectively with svaras and tena are udgraha and dhruva. Then abhoga 
is composed of other words; conclusion is with tenas. Such is catuspadi. 

199cd. It is niryukta , of three dhatus its class is taravaU. 

viii. Satpadi 

200-201ab. [ Satpadi prabandha is that ] wherein occur six verse-feet which are 
composed in Karnata language, without tala and there are two kama ganas in each 
foot; then again, by special decree, the gana named bana occurs as the sixth, third 
and final. 

201cd-202. Udgraha is constituted by the former three verse- feet, and dhruva by 
the latter three; abhoga is sung to (other) words; conclusion is with sthayi-svara 
< jivanada > of the raga\ such is satpadi. It is of taravaU class, niryukta and has three 

ix. Vastu 

203. [Vastu prabandha is that] wherein [there] are five verse-feet of which the first 
(candra ), third ( agni ) and fifth (isu) are [each] of fifteen matras while the second 
and fourth are [each] of twelve ( ravi) matras. 

204-205ab. Svara and pata [occur] at the end of the second (verse- foot); svara 
and tenaka at the end of the fifth ( sara ). Udgraha is [formed] from [all] these [five]; 
then dhruva is formed by dodhaka ( vrtta); abhoga [consists] of (other) words; 
conclusion is on tenaka. The vastu [ prabandha] has tala. 

205cd. This is of anandini class, niryukta and has three dhatus. 

TCC 197c 198a 199d 200c 20Id 202b 203ac 204ab 205d 

COT 197-199 197acd 198a-199 199cd 200-202 200c 201b 201c-202 202b 203-205 204ad-205bcd 



X. foSR: 

FT^: F^: FflRP'frnts^n^: II ^ II 

f^PTt 'TFT F^T 1FFFJF7: I 

xi. fqq?T: 

fFF«T: II ^o\3 || 

F^TIFtF: Wft5fq^t5^ fFSTRpF: I 


^:Flt: q^^l: ^FTT^^|^|ir<c|u^ : n || 
"Sp?: t J^^FTT«TT ■qn^Tt %qq>Kid: I 
3TTFFTT5^N^ : -F^f- II ^o<> 

xiii. tWcTtoT: 

FFf^: qit^t fq^T%: I 

FFTFtF: fciscilci'Wici: Rrgdld^ II || 

fFFFJFfofF Pi^Tt>1 Af^'il'JiifdHMqM, I •* 

xiv. S'ddlci: 

FF died) s-Hdlei: h^ 5I$: q-ilVid: II II 
FT^^gn^FF^FtFt FTTcTt^r I 
fFFTcJFfofq ^MHl'JllfdHH’Hl II II 

xv. < u 'S i =o: 

^W5^T: ^<dl q<PHWd: I 

$ fera WifoMd: II W II 



x. Vijaya 

206-207ab. That [ prabandha] is named vijaya wherein the tala is vijaya, udgraha 
is constituted by tenakas and svaras; dhruva, by patas and birudas ; then abhoga is made 
of different words; it has five ahgas , three dhatus and is niryukta. 

xi. Tripatha 

207cd-208ab. Tripathahas udgraha [composed] of patas and birudas and dhruva, 
of svaras; abhoga is of (other) words; [tripatha] has five ahgas , three dhatus and is 

xii. Caturmukha 

208cd-209. [The caturmukha prabandha is constituted] by svaras, patas, words and 
tenakas, set to sthayi, etc. varnas; udgraha is formed from the former two parts, and 
dhruva by the latter two. Then abhoga is made with other words; in caturmukha 
( prabandha ) the rest is as in tripatha. 

xiii. SimhaRla 

210-21 lab. Wherein the udgrahais made of svaras and patas, dhruva of birudas and 
tenakas and dbhogai s [made] of (other) words, such is simhalila [prabandha] in which 
the tala is simhaRla. It is niryukta , has thr eo-dhatus and is of medini class. 

xiv. Hamsalila 

211cd-212ab. In hamsalila [ prabandha J the tala is hamsaVila\ udgrahais composed 
of words, dhruvafrom patas and abhogafrom other words. This is niryukta, of bhavani 
class and has three dhatus. 

xv. Dandaka 

213. [In dandaka prabandha ] the metre is dandaka', the first two segments, 
composed of words form udgraha ; the final half is dhruva, composed of svaras; 

TCC 206c 209ab 213c 

COT 206-207 206acd 207ab 207-208ab 207c 208a 208cd-209 208d 209d 210-21 lab 210cd 212cd-212 
21 lc212cd 213-214 213a 




^ 37T«fto: II R\\ II 

sbl4ldHrf^l^r^TbWKNd1^=h: I 


sF^^ST ^Jlts fsret: ^jd: II w II 


3qnM5-MM^<irM^rH^Tbf^«IT5^: II W II 

xviii. fd*l%: 

tnt: M^TbPfd^%: ^ ^ I 
T^pfer^r^^THMW?llH(^)^RT:ll W II 
<l J 1fdl^ifdfa%I f^^TiBi f^fd: I 
^^rd^ld^cdl dldl^dHPd^: II W II 
WiMl^d)#!^ $3: MdPHlPdd: I 
3^rt^3^M<i'H'Tpa3<^fw«n^>: n \\ 
^Pl^rbS Pl^rfc) ^^FFn^cj^lPdd: I 



^dWdF: I 

r:^^n^^<P=lcrll-H , *T>: II TO II 
IHPddl'dlPdHH^ I 



214. wherein the abhoga is constructed from other words, it is dandaka , which is 
niryukta , of bhavani class and has three dhatus. 

xvi. Jhampata 

215-216ab.y7mra/?ata is the three verse-feet variety of gatha, wherein the first two 
feet constitute udgraha and the third, dhruva; abhoga is [composed] of (other) 
words. (The composition) has knda tala , three dhatus , is niryukta and is of taravah 

xvii. Kanduka 

216cd-2l7. Kanduka [prabandha] is said to be formed by words, patas , birudas-, 
udgraha is formed by words and patas; dhruva , by constructing with birudas ; abhoga 
[consists] of other words; it is aniryukta , of dipani class and has three dhatus. 

xviii. Tribhahgi 

218-219ab. Tribhahgi is said to be [formed] from svaras, patas and padas ; it is of 
five kinds; one is [formed] from tribhahgi vrtta ; another, from the namesake tala ; 
or [the third and fourth are] from three ragas and from [three] talas r, [the fifth is] 
from three different vrttas. 

219cd-220a. It is applied in propitiating Brahma, Visnu and Siva; its conclusion 
is in twice the measure of the^ [respective] tala. 

220bc. Its udgraha is made from svaras and patas ; dhruva is graced with words; 
abhoga embraces other words. 

220d-221ab. It has four ahgas , three dhatus and is aniryukta or niryukta according 
to the way it is composed. 

xix. Haravilasa 

221cd-222. Wherein udgrahas is of one segment, structured with birudas and 
words, [the second segment] is structured with patas and [the third] with tenas and 
these (last) two are designated as dhruva , and abhoga is constructed with other 
words, it is haravilasa (prabandha). 

223ab. This is aniryukta , has three dhatus and is of anandini class. 

TCC 215a 216ad 217a 218d 219c 220 221d 

COT 215-216ab 215acd 216ab 216cd-217 216d 217c 218-221ab 218cd 219bc 220abc 221ab 221cd- 
233ab 222d 223b 





cRT: W^RT^T: ^HHW+: I 
IW^&iPi^rfc) <lmlM||fd<+)-k^^H, II II 

xxi. *«KI$: 

P^I*lP<d4 I 
cTTcTT: RJ: RRlj; R3R II 33H II 
3TT^M5R^: J|ld°4) HMelRlMI I 

II 33^ II 



^T%T^5 fsret: I 

cTRRP^RRT afl*frnt5^N<lcH+: II 33*3 II 


^ II 33£ II 

^1% RfT^ t^ofW: sffa^dlfdd: I 

xxiv. dddd, 

^q<IWI^ WiMId^d^T: II 33^ II 
3TTRR5Rq|4d ^T Rfet «$: I 
cT^ncid'l ylri) ^J|u|-ct5c;cl<|d^ II 33° || 
cT^ ^Tf^T#: ^cR; I 

^Pd^n-d^Sf ^c|ri|^| || ^ || 



xx. Sudarsana 

223cd-224. Wherein udgraha is [composed] of words and dhruva of birudas and 
tenakas ; then abhoga is of different words, it is named sudarsana ; it has three dhatus, 
is aniryukta and is of dipani class. 

xxi. Svarahka 

225-226ab. In svarahka [prabandha] udgraha etc. three [ dhatus ] are respectively 
[made] from svaras, patas^nA birudas set respectively to one, two and three talas and 
the conclusion is with svaras\ abhoga is [constructed] with other words; besides, it 
should be sung in malavasn (raga). 

226cd. It is niryukta , has four dhatus and is of dipani class. 

xxii. Snvardhana 

227-228ab. Wherein udgraha is [structured] with birudas and patas and dhruva 
with words and svaras , conclusion is with two measures of the tala [to which the song 
is set], abhoga contains other words, it is snvardhana [prabandha] ; it is aniryukta , has 
three dhatus and is of anandini [class]. 

xxiii. Harsavardhana 

228cd-229ab. Harsavardhana is composed of words and birudas [in udgraha ] and 
svaras and patas [in dhruva ]; conclusion is on udgraha: ; the rest is [as] described in 

xxiv. Vadana 

229cd-230ab. Wherein the cha, pa, da (ganas) are [organised into words] in 
udgraha , dhruva has svaras and patas, abhoga is [composed] of other words, it is 
described by scholars as vadana [prabandha ]. 

230cd-231ab. Similarly upavadana is described as consisting of chargana, cha-da- 
taganas (in udgraha). Likewise, vastu-vadana is made from two cha-ganas, da-ca-cha 
(ganas in udgraha). [The vadana is] aniryukta , has three dhatus and has four ahgas 
[dipani class]. 

TCC 223c 224d 225a 226a 228b 229cd 230d 23Id 

COT 223cd-224 224bd 225-226 225 226bcd 227-228ab 227 228ab 228cd-229ab 228cd 229ab 229cd-231 




-m ftoto WsKWIdS I 
W^t5T2Tf^: toj ^ yi*R7$fi II 333 II 
TfT to TfFfci: to I 

3fT5T II 333 'I 

377 < >to5^Tto to: W*to ftop7: I 
dklddltodto WT^I: II 33* II 


afirafiMa^W: ^toftoto to i 

ii 33<a ii 

fedtoMdl ^gr d-Hidifaddidd: I 
3T? >^qlH<1 cRT: II 33^ II 

37Tto5^%^ f^qT^T: I 

xxvii. H«s sl 

jMHIdlcto WZ: ^ ~*U toWT; II 33^> II 
^HMKW<ywi I 

^TFt toH5: ^fto: ^'‘TRd: II 33^ II 
fatoto Hi<to<M<i*to I 
wto ^tom: "tot 3 tt mv{ n 33^ ii 
ftopltoft ^Trntoto7^:l 

xxviii. < 16 si 

?n dltod W^77^m<r^d^fd: II 3*° II 
^7toto ito 3 tt 3 tofar i 



xxv. Caccan 

232-233ab. Wherein the raga is hindola, metre and tala are caccan , there are many 
verse-feet but [adjacent] pairs are rhymed, it is caccan [prabandha ] sung in the 
spring festival and composed in words of Prakrta. 

233cd-234. Here the former half is udgrdha , the latter half is dhruva, then dbhoga 
is made with other words. This prabandha has three dhatus , is niryukta, of taravali 
class; its presiding deity is Kama. 

xxvi. Cary a 

235-236ab. Carya is [composed] with four ganas of the drya [metre], omitting^- 
gana ; it abides in spiritual matters and rhymes at the end of the verse-foot. It is set 
to dvitiya-tala or a tala of same number of matras. 

236cd-237ab. Here the former and latter parts are udgrdha and dhruva [respec¬ 
tively]. Then dbhoga is [executed] with other words. [The composition] has two 
ahgas, three dhatus and is niryukta. 

xxvii. Paddhadi 

237cd-238ab. [Paddhadi prabandha has the following characteristics:] the words 
are set in a metre of sixteen (nrpa) matras excluding ya (? ja ? gana) such that they 
rhyme internally in pairs and may be structured in numerous fashions. 

238cd-239. Udgrdha is composed in the former part in birudas ending in svaras ; 
dhruva also is composed in the latter part in birudas but ending in patas; dbhoga is 
made with other words. This is declared by the cognoscente to be paddhadi. 

240ab. This has three dhatus , is niryukta and dnandini in class. 

xxviii. Rdhadi 

240cd-241ab. It is described as rdhadi [prabandha ] wherein is a praise of battle 
composed in the heroic sentiment and set in numerous verse-feet. 

TCC 232d 233ab 235b 236b 239c 

* . .-234 232b 235-237ab 235ab 236ad 237a 235 237cd-240 237c 240cd-242ab 240d 24lab 



3T? ^1^0 T T: 11 W 11 


sptsfq II W II 

3^I'4T 7 Tf5^L|^Tb1 cfkfllRfd dMd I 

^IcHl^llftlHH^ II W II 

xxx. H^-cii-qK: 

MSJHsH ^I^kT: I 

Pi^l^d l ^ 3lkPt <3*#% WUlfrRl: II ^ II 
H^dl-^R Ts^cid: sh^l<^ I 

fq$#r 'Hifqdd^: II W II 

xxxi. ^dcd: 

fqfasft sTcfei: fqshMHi^ i 

■q^rcsfa^ s^Hi^fil n w n 

f^FTC^j -cj-dl ^T "4t ^TSfsj^: I 

f^T^f cqisi^dh II Vte II 

^ ^ ^ i$\ ^ ^^^^11 

yvfc ^ ^ II W n 

^4P&d1^4 tlfa3 WT WT cT«TT I 
^5lif ^T^rofTTt q*qi*4 Pqst>4l II W II 
3^ftf4?^TTTpTT PqqdlPdMdlf^cT: I 
•q^^TT^T m^\ ^PTf did^P^d: II || 
3T5 ^ Wt I 

3Tr4t4TsVq^4d'Sft Pi^^f^'d^ n ii 



241cd-242ab. Here the former and latter parts are udgraha and dhruva respec¬ 
tively; again, abhoga is in other words; it has two ahgas, three dhatus, and is aniryukta. 

xxix. Virasri 

242cd-243. Where in udgraha is constructed with words and dhruva with birudas, 
then abhoga with other words, it is sung as virasri [prabandha] ; it is aniryukta, has 
three dhatus and is of bhavani class. 

xxx. Mahgalacara 

244-245a. Mahgalacara is that which is structured in prose, verse or prose [and] 
verse, in nihsaru-tala, sriraga and is decorated with svarasat the end of the [first] half. 

245bcd. Udgraha and dhruva are [made of] the former and latter segments in 
order; abhoga is [made] of [other] words; it has three dhatus, is niryukta and is of 
bhavani [class]. 

xxxi. Dhavala 

246. Dhavala is of three kinds viz. kirti, vijaya, similarly vikrama, formed with four, 
six and eight verse-feet respectively. 

247abc. If there is a pair of cha [ganas ] in the odd [numbered] verse-feet and an 
additional ta or da [ gana] in the even [numbered feet], then it is kirti dhavala. 

247d-248ab. In vijaya [dhavala] there are two da ganas in the first and fourth 
(verse-feet), a pair of cha [ganas] in the sixth and second, and the remaining two 
(verse-feet are constituted) by cha- or sa- [gana], 

248cd-249. Wherein there are three ca and [one] da [gana] in the first [verse- 
foot] , the same is true in the fourth and second verse-feet, four da [ganas] in the 
fifth, seventh, similarly the sixth and eighth (verse-feet), it is vikrama [dhavala]. 

250. Dhavala is sung in benediction; it contains words such as vimala', or it may 
be sung arbitrarily as established in usage. 

251. Here the first half is udgraha and the next [half], dhruva-, abhoga is in other 
words everywhere (in all dhavalas). It has two ahgas, three dhatus and is niryukta. 

TCC 245c 247ad 248bcd 250b 251a 

C OT 242ab 243 242cd 243d 244-245 244abcd 246-251 246ab 247cd 250bcd 251 abed 




q^'FTl: ^ ^ f^Rc#T ^ I 
^l|j-^sfcifc<r^4^-<rl<>TiA: II II 

3fkFt ^T: f3F>U Hlcn^f^PTr I 



■q^T^nf^^rr^s fcjrPF^sTT i 

xxxiii. sM 

^u^zj yw^i ^TWTT II W II 

3Tt#^ d^^fcai I 

^q|U|j -cKUiH'j HH^'+il^ll^irldl f^T: II RWa II 
3TTf^TSqRT4: yi^i^S ^ I 

3TMt^m%TT: II W II 


^Ijyi^fwfa: ^44r^sai yi < j^: T f^: I 
TfP% dldN<Ncn HcTt faWTf: II W II 

xxxv. 4l pkI 

WI^KI 3TRt 4 |rw^41p4)h<;: I 



M<lf^3Rf cT^T ^ft P-IMad II W II 
3iM l <W ^ | 

<isjl£: n«a u 4 cj "FTT^ II II 



xxxii. Mahgala 

252-253ab. Mahgala [prabandha ] is sung with five ( isu) ca-ganas in every verse- 
foot in vilambita-laya (slow tempo) containing excellent and auspicious words such 
as sahkha, cakra, etc. in sriraga or sometimes in malavasri [ rdga]. 

253cd-254ab. Here also the former and latter parts constitute udgrahaand dhruva 
[respectively]; abhoga [consists] of (other) words; it has three dhatus, two ahgas and 
is, likewise, niryukta. 

xxxiii. Ovi 

254cd-255ab. If three rhyming segments are sung in provincial language contain¬ 
ing the word ‘ ovi at the end, then it is declared by experts to be ovi [ prabandha ]. 

255cd-256. By repeating once etc. its vers- feet ( carana) it forms varieties. The ovi, 
which is attractive to the popular mind may be sung in numerous metres with 
rhyming at the beginning, middle or end of each verse-foot. 

xxxiv. Loti 

257. Loti [ prabandha ] is sung by experts in three segments composed in Prakrta 
words with alliteration and containing the word ‘ loti at the end. 

xxxv. Dhollari 

258. If the dohada [prabandha ] is sung with the word ‘dhollari’ at the end, graced 
with words of the lata language, it is declared to be named dhollari. 

xxxvi. Danti 

259. Danti is defined as having three segments with preponderant alliteration 
and having the word ‘danti’ at the end. 

260. In the four [ prabandhas ] beginning with ovi, the former two segments 
constitute udgraha, and the latter [one], dhruva; they have two dhatus. 

TCC 252b 253bd 254b 255bcd 256ac 257d 258d 

COT 252-254ab 252ac 253abc 254a 254cd-256 255ad 257 258 259 



dklddldlPd^sfd^T: ^IPcldl: I 
SFjW'Hldq'KJii 'qtTT^d c h<rMil II ^ II 
aT^Wr^^er^^eTNT^dqWdl: I 

(IV) WFT^5: 
i. fd: 

Pshdcl WI Pgdsi u sl s*^ *41 $,<*>: II II 
P£ J lld'd r^r^^^cfh^: I 

wd; h 3^3 n 

rTcfr felsl'o^ STT^TFT 3 ItW: W^:^: I 
^do^l^^uSU Wr^l^-'d c hl5 1 lT: 11 H 

^dHIH l Pgdl ^kdia^^d: I 
TJ Fncf*it3W H^ddsfam^: II II 
l(chl^||Pd^<l^(do% shHI^JSIT I 
'Jl^'Xi^l<g<l(?Hi5i'(rdd1 Tk4<Pl4dl II II 
'j-dd: diHdSnft d'-dd&i'^od I 

WkTTOT 'Wpddk^dl II W || 

Riddel dldd^fcT WT "^fT: shMlc^ I 

IWdT^t ^ ^R[: (i) II W II 

■#:td:'?rrddT^^Td)(ii) <*rwi£: yPin^d: (iii) I 

'^TTS(Tt'fa: (iv) II II 

Wed: W3 s f^ stRsidiRl (v) ^ <$dd: I 
d^Hskdl<rH dldcdUl^el (vi) II 3^° II 
p4!Hd J -*l ^ chHCd) ^HldKrH "ntdrf (vii) I 
rTTCt cftW WeM fd:kl*>dldd: (viii) II II 




261-262ab. They are declared to belong to taravati class and are niryukta. In 
musical compositions where abhoga is not specified, abhoga is composed with words. 
The four [prabandhas] ovl et cetera omit melapaka and abhoga. 

6. (iv) sAlagasuda-prabandhas 

i. Sixteen Varieties ofDhruva 

262cd-263. [The dhruva salaga-suda-prabandha has the following characteristics:] 
its udgraha is made in two segments, both composed of the same dhatu, or a single 
segment sung twice; the third [segment] is somewhat higher (in pitch). This 
segment with different dhatu is [the dhatu element] named dhruva. All these three 
[segments] should be repeated twice. 

264-265ab. Then [follows] abhoga with two segments; the first segment here 
again, consists of two sections each of which has the same dhatu, while the other 
[segment] in different dhatu is higher (in pitch), and bears the name of the patron. 
Conclusion is with the first segment of udgraha. 

265cd-266ab. This is dhruva (gita ); it is of sixteen varieties, formed bywords which 
possess (or flow towards) a single meaning, located in the first and following 
segments, beginning with eleven words [and increasing by one regularly], 

266cd-268ab. Their names, in order, are jayanta, sekhara, utsdha, madhura, 
nirmala, kuntala, kamala, cara, nandana, candrasekhara, kamada, vijaya, kandarpa, 
jayamahgala, tilaka and lalita. • 

268ed-269abc. Jayanta (i) is [sung] in srngdra and rasa-tala. Sekhara (ii) is in vira 
[rasa] and nihsaru-tala. Utsdha (iii) is in pratimantha-tala and hasya-[rasd\. 

269d. Madhura (iv) is sung in karuna [rasa] and hayatila-tala. 

270. Nirmala (v) is in srhgara and krida tala. Kuntala (vi) should be sung in 
laghusekhara-tala in adbhuta-rasa. 

271. Kamala (vii) issungin vipralambha[-srhgara] in jhampa-tala. Cara (viii) is sung 
in vira rasa and nihsaru-tala. 

TCC 26led 262a 263a 264b 266a 267c 269cd 271acd 
COT 262cd-276ab 265c 268c 




»• «. 

(ix) I 

yRiH u b'i s f^ ^TFf WST^ftsI?: (x) II R'&R II 
yPlH u ^ (xi) f^3TTOcT: I 

^TFf fg^ n ^T (xii) ^tffswfeneTcT: II W || 
xiii ) I 

sfrU l dlc^ ^^KcTk 4|: -qM^ (xiv) II w* II 

T*f qft PdcHchlf^: (xv) I 

l^nrqlrFF^q S IW^- (xvi) n n 

sy^-WKiqcrl<Hcn: I 
ii. H u <3: 

fe^4.Em*i ^1 II W II 

cT pM ^PfT^ II ^V9\3 || 

^=T% TO ^ TOt H u ddidd: I 
q^c^ Tfr TO^: II W II 


ton: qroltfq %qt w q^T ii w n 
qftqraftnit#T (i)GO i 

(iii) TOrt^TOiN: (iv) II R6° ii 
fqW%q#7FIT^chHIM) $1*^1 TFT (v) I 
^Hldi<rM c^ndO^^d! <^< 1 ) ^^(vi) II II 

^VJto n i 

TO TOlfTO 3fT|: ^^ITO: II W II 

^fcTNTOfTO'Wld) Pq^Hlsq y=GPda: I 






272. Nandana (ix) is said to be [sung] in vira and srhgara [rasa] and in ekatali 
[tala]. Candrasekhara (x) is in pratimantha [tala], srhgara and hasya [rasas]. 

273-274a. Kamada (xi) is in pratimantha [tala] and srhgara ; then, vijaya (xii) is in 
hasya and dvitiya-tala. Kandarpa (xiii) is in adi tala, hasya, srhgara and karuna [rams]. 

274bcd. The [dhruva variety] named jayamahgala (xiv) is sung in krida tala and 
in vira and, srhgara [rasas]. 

275-276ab. Tilaka (xv) is in ekatdU tala and vira, srhgara rasas', lalita (xvi) is averred 
to be (composed with) vicara-pratimantha [tala] and srhgara. [The dhruva gita is 
niryukta, of three dhatus , has two ahgas and [hence] of taravali [class]. 

ii. Six Varieties of Mantha 

276cd. [In the mantha-gita] the segment named udgrahah^ two caesuras or one 
pause (in its words). 

277-278ab. Then the [segment] named dhruvais rendered twice, then the antara 
is sung optionally; after singing it, dhruva is reached and then abhoga is sung once. 
Conclusion is with dhruva’, wherein [it is so], it is mantha gita in mantha-tala. 

278cd-279c. This mantha is of six varieties according to difference in tala, viz. 
jayapriya, mahgala, sundara, vallabha, kalapa and kamala. 

279d-280. Their tala(s) and rasa(s) are as follows: 

Jayapriya (i) is [sung] in vira rasa, and^'a [gana]; mahgala (ii) in srhgara and bha 
[gana]; sundara (iii) in ta[gana] and srhgara', vallabha (iv) in karuna and ra [gana]. 

281. Kalapa (v) is in sa [gana] ending in virama and in hasya rasa; kamala (vi) 
occurs in jhampa tala and adbhuta rasa. 

282-283ab. Some experts in the practice of music prescribe the gita named 
mantha in rangodyota tala and caccatputa. Thus the tala named mantha is specially 

TCC 276a 277c 280abd 281acd 281-285 283ab 
COT 275c 276cd-283ab 277b 280-28lab 


iii. TrfcTW: 

yPdHU6ir<c|^ri RSRT HU6cMdH, H W II 
^T^Tf^Trt ^ ^TMfcTt I 
cf? cj yfdH u ^H cTlcrR yfdHUd*h: II R6* II 
^qfs^MTT f^RIR: ^cRfq I 

3RTTt ^ui^d (i) II R6\ II 

$lHldl<rh R fl?t RT rtK'iH<+>: (ii) I 
f^RTR: M WR tai: (iii) II W II 

fa<IHH«R crld^uil^ RcT: (iv) I 

iv. T^R*Trft:W^: 

ft:U!*>dlRRr rRTRFT Ref: II W II 

c|$’<H’< e bHKl: RRTt cnP^dWRT I 
t^TTR^T R 1JR>: R^fRR: ^Rfa: II W II 

R^T R^(i) I 

Sblsicl KrH RTR*^ 3TR^ 'il'Mcl Rdl (ii) II R^ II 

Pdyd'PRWf^ chl-rlRt <PddlRd: (iii) I 

tm n^»H 1^# (iv) II R%° || 

cdddl< P«^i cnPo^d: ■H^P^Psd: (v) I 

el^R^^Rl^faVllc'IRi: (vi) II W 

v. R^fRRt^fcTlR: 

3^dl<rM dl<rHl|cTTeT: RffRRt R%^ I 
fttfl^l^flrlia RTCtSR RRRRRi: II W II 
faTOtfd, fR:?Tft dd^P^dl^ (i) I 

R ^n^yPddlefd: (ii) II W II 



iii. Four Varieties of Pratimantha 

283cd-284. All the characteristics of the vastus pratimantha etc. pertaining to 
udgraha etc. are as in mantha. Variety arises [here] because of tala [differences]. 
Here pratimantha is sung in pratimantha-tala. 

285. It is of four kinds: amara , tara, vicaramd kunda. Amara (i) issungwithasingle 
guru in srhgara. 

286-287ab. [The pratimantha variety] named tara (ii) is in jhampa-tala, vira or 
raudra rasa. Vicara (iii) is sung in karuna and [the tala] na-gana with virama. Kunda 
(iv) is said to be in three laghus with virama in the middle, in adbhuta [rasa]. 

iv. Six Varieties of Nihsaru 

287cd-288. Nifisarufgita] is declared by the learned to be composed in nihsaru- 
tala. It is declared by previous authorities to be of six varieties viz. vaikunda , ananda , 
kantara , samara , vahchita and visala. 

289. Vaikunda (i) occurs in the tala named kadukka^nd on auspicious occasions. 
Ananda (ii) is always sung in krida tala and for blissful occasions. 

290. Kantara (iii) is in vipralambha-srhgara and in rati tala. Samara (iv) is in 
hamsaVila-tala, abiding in vira[rasa\. 

291. Vanchita (v) is in a tala of three laghus [followed by] two drutas and confers 
every fulfilment. Visala (vi) is in the tala laghu , two drutas and laghu, in sambhogar 

v. Six Varieties of Addatala 

292-293a. Addatala-gita is composed in the tala [named] adda tala. It is of six 
varieties, viz. nihsahka , sahka , sila, earn, makaranda and vijaya. 

293bcd. Nihsahka (i) is in [the tala] laghu , guru , druta and in adbhuta [rasa ]. Sahka 
(ii) is in vira and srhgara rasas and in prati tala. 

TCC 283cd 284abd 286a 288-290 29lac 292a 239cd 
COT — 



^ (iii) ^KdiHdo: I 

^TT«n WJZ'&ii ^ T*T cTSIT (iv) II W II 

neM^sfa f^«n Tpnr ( v ) i 

IsdI'HdKrH "5 ^d: (vi) II II 

vi. 'drjTd^Tf TRT: 

TRT^t <Wdl<rH Tf ^MIMlfart I 
^Rptqt *T^I 'T ^ cT«TT II W II 
Pcldldl chwpig Pq*hd: I 

fl4<l'H<+^^ II II 

^PSq^Mdi icin'] fcj^d;: dPl^ "H^G) I 
31ldmsT^?t ^T ^dl-RJcfl (ii) II W II 
^MNPdP4d']$l^ (iii) I 

addTNlf^T chi^H: *f^(iv) II W II 

vii. ftfMkdfcfj 

y.didl^l dlG-Wdldl PdfqSTT ^RTT I 
TT*TT -dP^chl cTg^ fq^crldMSj crf^l^ II 3 00 II 
y4)J|lcHI M^ldl 1 ^ I 

H<M<fdl55qm:-mW (i) Tjf^cbl <J^TT II 3°^ || 

^TFt J IH c bldl l f^r I 

HdH TI^lcT: Wlflc^yW^dl (ii) II II 

^dldNM<l£i5« r: miciiHd'l I 

«TT^Tt5^T^: ^ ^ felled I MPidOPIdl (iii) II II 

TOI^T: TfsRfT^ S*J^IWRI<=l<r)*H>l: I 

fjt-mms Pd^Tbl: ¥iTO^*fa: II 3°^ II 



294. Slla (iii) occurs in jhampa-tala and santa[rasa\. [The one] named earn (iv) 
is, likewise [sung] in the tala two drutas , laghu , guru in viva and adbhutarasa(s). 

295. Makaranda (v) occurs in srhgara [rasa] and in the tala two drutas , guru. Vijaya 
(vi) is in dvitiya tala and vlra[rasa\. 

vi. Four Varieties of Rasa 

296-297c. Rasaka is [sung] in rasa-tala ; by having alapa at the beginning etc. It is 
of four kinds, but these are not seen in practice viz., vinoda , varada , nanda and 

297d. As a special case, a two-segment udgraha occurs in all rasaka varieties. 

298. Vinoda (i) has alapa at end of dhruva dhatu and is employed in (situations 
of) eagerness. Varada (ii) has alapa in the middle of dhruva [dhatu] and employed 
in praise of gods. 

299. Nanda (iii) has alapa composed in udgraha and employed in (situations of) 
prosperity. Kambuja (iv) is [of rasaka variety] wherein alapa is at the beginning of 
dhruva and occurs in karuna[rasa]. 

vii. Three Varieties of Ekatati 

300. Ekatali [gita] is [sung] in ehatdVi-tala\ it is opined to be of three kinds, viz. 
rama, candrika and likewise vipula ; now their definitions [will be given]. 

301abc. Wherein udgraha is of the nature of ( gamaka ) prayoga , dhruvais of words 
and alapa , abhoga is made with other words, it is rama (i). 

301d-302. Candrika (ii) is that wherein udgraha is in two segments, dhruva is 
[made] with gamakalapa , abhoga is of other words; it has yati (caesura) and 

303. Wherein udgraha is [structured] with alapa and words, dhruva is [made] of 
another alapa , abhoga is of different words; it is averred to be vipula (iii). 

304. Mantha and other prabandhashwe two ahgas [and hence] of tdrdvali [class]. 
They have three dhatus , but four dhatus when the antara is present. [They are] 

TCC 294acd 296b 298a 301bcd 304d 

COT 296-299 296c 298-299ab 296c 298-299 303-304 304b 




^HldldWd: WJ{ II %o\ || 
fiteaigdMI<94^°bdldlfd ^ ^cfT^ | 

V (V) yftera^TT: 

ypHc&l: ^2ZRf cdld^frld: II || 

y«bl^ d<=Kd=h: I 

<U|<^eh: || ^o\3 || 



^55TOT: ^KSKiteT*! II ^06 || 

i. d-sW+W: 

TsP»t: ^^Tf^^ycbl^l^^Rt: I 
yfcugus <*<^<*1 R^Hldl Hdlfafa: II || 
^R: RltRd?JT ^f4K: HcRi^cl: I 
TT^: ^t^lfawl^-WIcfe L|R J Ddc) II 3^0 || 
W"t5fnTir WI fad 3 I 

ii. ^4y=hlVI: 

<a u 4gi<;*ifa: *j4n«b 1 * 1*3 fdd^ II II 
^m i R^d i ^ i 

^IkiicW diqRs: ^Tf^Tf^RTt: II ^ II 


3T^WTRT( ?«TTT ? )R^^TT^TWT^cT8TT I 
*MKiKd<;<rllH H^rfM^T: shdic^ II 3^3 II 



[A Different Sudakrama] 

305-306ab. Some experts in the practice of music propound a different sudakrama 
[which consists] of dhruva , mantha, rupaka , jhampa-tala , then trivida , addatala and 
ekatali in [this] order. 


306cd. A few others which are well established in practice will also be [now] 
described according to their usage in the world: 

307-308. Candraprakasa , suryaprakdsa , navaratna , virasrhgara, rudraprakasa , 
ranarahga , dasavatara, sarabhaUla, caturahga, rtuprakasadwd srhgdrahara. Now [their] 
characteristics [will be described]. 

i. Candraprakasa 

309. Candraprakasa [is formed] by sixteen segments; in each segment a quality 
[lit. part, digit] of the moon and the king should be described by the intelligent 

310-31 lab. It is sung with svaras , patas, similarly tenas , birudas , words, sixteen j 

and as many /ate. The names of the patron and composer occur in the final 

ii. Suryaprakdsa 

311 cd-312. Suryaprakdsa is defined by twelve segments; the remaining [character¬ 
istics are] as in candraprakasa ; [it is sung] by describing (the twelve lunar months) 
caitra, etc. in as many ragasdnd talas with a slesa (paronomasia, equivoque) between 
the sun and the king. 

iii. Navaratna 

313-314. Wherein each of nine segments is composed with all ahgas, in nine ragas, 
nine talas and nine segments in order in clusters of nine ( ahka) , nine ( brahma) , nine 

TCC 305d 306a 307cd 308b 309c 313a 

COT 305cd-306bc 308d 309ab-31 lab 309b 310 311 cd-312 312bd 313-314 313a 



^P^^^iPd i 

d<l^ldH^«Ky<*>l¥l^ II W II 


^^TF^ T TIcT^t'^k^^K'H^=h: I 
mfa: WP^*dl<M^3Tft '*T^^TT II W II 
3U£RI^ : -qi^cf Tf^S^fr <a u 'S c bl: I 
y4lflP4E l§: ^MNP^dMd: II TO II 

<T 7 ftc^t^% : yRl<gu4 'H^PdPd II W II 
t f^: ^>FTf ^dlfcdH^fad: II II 

v. KSre»TCI: 

^Fri wfa ii w ii 

vi. FRf: 

^Tf^TFT: H^° H 

cfft ^ ^ <^Hs4dl<d "FTT^ <«K^r«f): I 

vii. dVIlddR: 

P^WJII^INdKI'Jli y<^=b ^'3^ II W II 

^Tf*T: M4^clin»?5d*A: I 

^nfr^nf^T: n w ii 



(rasa), nine ( khanda) < dhardkhanda ? >, nine ( graha ), nine (ratna) and nine (rasa) 
respectively, it is navaratna [prabandha]; the other [characteristics are] as in 

iv. Virasrhgdra 

315. [The prabandha ] named virasrhgdra should be sung in a single rdga but in 
seven talas and seven gltas (? segments?) in an arbitrary 7 manner. 

316. The first segment is sung only to words; the other segments are [sung] with 
words, various gamaka prayogas , with aldpa of words without tala. 

317. The dhdtu of the latter half of the first segment should be set to different 
words. .After singing it, conclusion is [made] with udgraha. This is true of every 

318. [The song] contains description of srhgara, with paronomasia between the 
hero (vira) and Manmatha. The final segment should be decorated with the name 
of the patron etc. 

v. Rudraprakdsa 

319-320ab. [The prabandha ] named rudraprakdsa is composed with eleven 
segments, [eleven] ragmandall [six] ahgas with tenakas at the end, containing the 
description of [the eleven] Rudras as depicted in the puranas ; the rest is as in 

vi. Ranarahga 

320cd-321ab. Ranarahga occurs [composed] in a single rdga, single segment set 
to patas, birudas and words, to a tala named rahga in vira and raudra [rasas]. 

vii. Dasdvatdra 

321cd-322. Dasdvatdra is [the prabandha] wherein each of the ten incarnations of 
Visnu as well as His excellent qualities are described in ten segments, set to six ahgas 
in any arbitrary order, and the abhoga is constituted in (other) words by the final 

TCC 316b 317ab 320a 322ad 

COT 314a 315-318 319-320ab 319cd 320cd-321ab 321cd-322 322abc 




-Wl-cm'd client: I 

t ’MO'dS’ , W r 1l 4 H' c 0'^'Hl5^T^T II 3^3 II 

iJrb^Hlfa =FfacT: ^qqlkdH, I 

ix. : 

Wf$ct: II W II 

cHch 4 : fKT^R^ft: $4^ ^Wi 1 

x. ^y+U?!: 

^«nura«n¥r W?ITf^[^^ II W II 
cpnft ^ w ^ wi<&y«*>isrc>: N W ii 

xi. ^pfRfR: 

ym T^ \ ^5T: TTSn^Ml^^fWRT: II W 

fqdi<nq>H<;iciiHiq^ HicL’Kiici^dlS'^dT: I 

an^Tt ^dlHI^t ^TTCT II W 

[^^rTt cT^t^f: I 


oJTrijTJJJ? U^i ^ II W H 

m ^ ftfjg wg. ct«tt t 

TJ% ^FJWT ^ftcf fq&fe: nMi^dl: II 33° H 

cf? oJTtT> ^id^UMIH^: (i) I 

Tjuf (ii) WvTTf^r^f^Ciii) 1133* II 



viii. Sarabhatila 

323-324ab. Sarabhatila is [composed] in eight talas , ragas and segments; it has all 
[six] ahgas , concludes with svara; or it is in namesake metre; or it is composed as 
muktaka [verse]; the rest is as [described] before. 

ix. Caturahga 

324cd-325ab. Caturahga is in four segments, in [all] six ahgas , rendered colourful 
with raga; it concludes with tenaka ; the final words are said to contain a description 
of woman. 

x. Rtuprakasa 

325cd-326. Wherein the [rasas], viraanA srhgara [or the hero’s srhgara ] and the 
six seasons such as spring, etc. are described in order with preponderance of the 
flower-arrowed [Manmatha] in six segments and in six ragas and (six) talas , it is 

xi. Srhgarahara 

327-328ab. In [srhgaraharaprabandha], udgrahais [constituted] by svarasr, srhgara 
is described in words, dAratwfollows [ gamaka ] prayoga ; (dhruva?) is marked with the 
names of the singer [composer] and the vastu (i.e. srhgarahara prabandha) in alapa 
with words but without tala; antara is set to patas in tala. 

328cd-329ab. Abhoga incorporates the patron’s name; conclusion is with udgraha. 
This is named as srhgarahara by exponents of practical music. 


329cd-330. Vyakta, puma , prasanna, sukumara , alamkrtam, sama, surakta, slaksna, 
vikrsta, madhura —these are declared by the learned to be the ten merits of song. 

331. Among them vyakta (i) accrues from clarity in syllable, raga, words and svara. 
Puma (ii) is perfection in all limbs and gamaka. Prasanna (iii) is instantaneous 

TCC 323abd 325a 327d 328c 330bc 331b 

COT 323-324ab 323b 324a 324cd-325ab 325cd-326a 327-329ab 329ab 329cd-334 331acd 



(iv) I 

(vi) clluiir^Kd: II 333 II 
^qg tci^icbdi^Tg <i<ThnM frft (vii) i 

Hl^|Tx|^dH^r4 (viii) II 333 II 

(ix) TTSp“’fr: I 

^|c|ui|^uf f^H ^RcMH^+H^x) II 33* H 

C jflddmi: 

^5 ^fa+ldfadfa ^ I 

didHI^i j mst>HHd| 2 fa^ II 33 ^\ II 
WQ <?PTT jfld^cTT I 

Tf^fj dioKi<)m T^T^rr^rr: n 33^ n 

+Mld|K<tqig % I 

S oiM^d+K: 

WT *TT<jlTfo II 33^> II 
TT^^zf xf T\ ^ c|H^ebH3>: I 

Hld|; \{^<\ ^Pd^OfdcTl II 33* II 
l^i<^cdiaici<ri^i I 

a^mqmfcT^T ^i)<Miyci>idi ii 33<i n 

II 3*0 II 

3^r^KlPMI ^l^lddc^ Tjjtim II 
TFTi^rfWT: ^TRk: ^TWI: II 3*^ II 



332. Sukumara (iv) is born of a tender (soft) voice. Alamkrtam (v) is ranging in 
[all] three registers. Santa (vi) is evenness (in the distribution) of i)arna(-alarhkara), 
tempo and register. 

333. Oneness of the voice with the sounds of vina, etc. is named surakta (vii). 
Smoothness (in movement) in low and high pitch, fast, middle, etc. (tempi) is said 
to be slaksna (viii). 

334ab. Vikrsta (ix) is utterance in high pitch. Again, madhura (x) is full of grace, 
faultless, pithy and appealing to people. 


335-336ab. Faulty in practical usage and in theory, inconsistency with sruti (Vedic 
authority) and with (one’s own) times, reiteration, exceeding the scope of the art 
(of music and literature), disorder, wrong meaning, vulgarity, ambiguity— these 
are ten faults of song. 

336cd-337ab. Faultiness of word, faultiness of sentence, faultiness in rasa and 
bhava —these [and other defects] in poetry and figures of speech—all these abide 
in song (also). 


337cd-338ab. Word is called rndtu , and musical element is declared to be dhatu. 
He who creates both is composer. 

338cd. [Qualities of an excellent composer are:] Expertise in grammar, lexicon, 
figures of speech, prosody, diction, style, 

339. discernment in sentiment, effective state, time units (phraseology?), tala , 
laya, kaku (vocal inflexion), intuitive brilliance in the totality of [all] languages, 
specialisation in desi-rdgas , 

340. capacity to compose different kinds of songs (in fast tempo?), learned in the 
ahgasprabandha, (vocal) maturity in gamaka, in (all) the three registers and skill in 
various forms of dlapti , 

341. absence of plagiarism, musical innovativeness, adeptness, avoidance of 
passion and hatred, excellence of voice, stage presence, 

TCC 335a 336d 338d 340ab 341a 

COT 332acd 334b 335-337 336cd-336 337-343 




cRt '3^\ II 3*3 II 

^fgch -TOS^ $ Hl^+R: Wtf^cT: I 

^o ycjviuifi^imq 

f3f#T W< J l'fa: ^TfcT: ^kTT II 3** II 

^ uilehuiid'Jiicft^ 



342. mental focus (attentiveness)- by these qualities is the composer [reckoned 
as] excellent. The middling [composer] is deficient in words but excessive in 
musical element. 

343. Composer of (only) charming words but of dull music is inferior. Composer 
of vastu [the matic songs] is excellent; composer of descriptive songs [varnaka- 
prabandhas ] is middling. 

344ab. [The composer who] sets words for someone else’s dhatu is [said to be] 


344cdef. For those who [seek to] know the limbs of nadaveda for composing 
prabandhas according to rules (of the sastra ), a facile pathway in melody has been 
made by (Pandarika) Vitthala. 


TCC 342c 343bc 344c 
COT 342-343 


(Text-Critical Comments) 



Primary sources used for collation of this chapterette ( adhikarana) are as follows: 
(Portions available are indicated in brackets). 

B (3.1.1 to 3.1.160 ab); C (complete); M (complete); RM (NN 3.1.23cd to the 
end minus 25 ab, 47,117); R (complete); T, (3.1.16b to the end); T, (3.1.213 to the 
end); T 3 (3.1.23b to 3.1.85 ab). 

Secondary sources used are SS (NN.3.1.34,49-52ab); AV (3.1.168 to the end); AS 
(3.1.168 to the end) and SR {inter alia). 

lc. satalo: B glosses with ‘ talena{sa ha) vartamanah’. 

l d. R: dittography: gitamyati, sa-yo gayati sa. 

3a. sadvitiyo: B contains gloss: (dvi)tiyena(sa)ha vartamanah. 

3b. sa-vpido: B has a gloss: vrndenasaha vartamanah; R -savrnda, R-haplographic 
lacuna upto ‘vmda ’ 3d. 

3b. gatr. M -gana. 

6a. rdgalaksma: M substitutes lectione facilior: ramalaksmana. 

6d. vagge- M.R.: vdgo. 

9c. B has an apostil: kramena laksananyaha. 

10d. R. MS damnum due to poor impression. 

12d. -nyatapa: C.R. daldpa. ^ 

16ab. All collative sources are unanimous in 

which is opaque. It may be translated only with a farfetched construction, 
by applying the ‘ac pratyaya: WH etc. and by interpreting fabb: asf^tVl 

Trfr: rather than tfrbtWh:. SR includes ‘ sdvadhdna ’as a gdyaka-laksana (3.15) which 
is explicated by Sirhhabhupala {Sangitasudhakara, comm, on SR loc. cit. p. 155) 
as ‘srutiniscayajhah’. This is appropriate. If this meaning is accepted, th e tex t 
in question should be conjecturally emended as ^ISfatTb: 

:’. This editorial liberty is taken here, though with some reluctance, on the 
strength of NS (33.15 ab) ^ ^ basing the avagraha 

on the double negative in ‘ avirakta’ found in this definition by Bharatamuni. 

18b. C dittography from ‘stv-avyavasthitah ’ to ' gay el ’ (19a). 

20c. tala is preferred to ‘kala ’ (R) because of the definition of ‘ vitala ’ (20d). 



23b. giyate : B has gloss: kathyate. 

23c. yuhkte : B glosses with ‘prerayati and for vivaksuh ’ it offfers vaktum-icchah ’ 
vivaksuh sa casau atma ca sah. 

23d. analah : B glosses: agnih. 

24c. anilam : ibid, vayuh; R reveals haplographic loss of ■ prananila . 

25ab. RM: lacuna; R adds: dhvani(h) dhvanistu nadah —as gloss? 

26b. vyavaharatah : B explains: ragadi vyavaharatah cf. 30c infra. 

26cd-27ab. RM: lacuna. 

27b. Dittography in C: dvigunascotarottarottarah. 

27c. nu : RM substitutes with ’through graphic similarity 7 . 

28a. sthanam is accepted in preference to "sthane (M) because of collative 

28b. vyavahare. C.M. vyavaharo. 

29b. sopana : R replaces ‘na with ‘na\ 

29d. R dittographic repetition: I 

30a. R dittography: - ccatarataratarah ’. 

30b. matratah : M -mattarah. 

30d. tasu : gloss in B -srutisu. 

31b. statha : B.R. satastatah. 

31b. Marginal addition in B: 

The letters in brackets are lost due to damnum and are conjecturally supplied. 
Compare with SR. 1.3.46cd-47ab. 

33a. vimsya ca: R vimsatya. 

33c. sadjadinam : B has gloss svaranam. 

34a. asapah svasvapuruatah. B offers exegetical note: 

RM, R: svapuwapurvatah; B: puwasmat. 

34d. gasca : B glosses: gandharah. 

35d. ganyoh : B has a gloss: gandharanisadayoh. 

36d. ragadisva-: T p T 2 , RM ragadyaira-; R ragadyaistva-. 

38b. saptake. R dittographs— saptasaptake. 

39a. anuvaditi : T 19 KM-anuvadi ca; RM -anuvadi tu. 

39a. paryayo : B contains gloss vadinah pa(rya)yah 
40b. - rantarah : R- rantara-. 

40d. i. gatya : C ganya; ii. vibhagatah; C tathanimaik, R tathanimau. 

41a. gloss in B- svarau. 



42abcd. RM, T 3 -lacuna. 

42d. nayet. R gatah 

43b. itiritah: 1, corrupts to -ratiritih. 

43c. prayoge. B adds scholiastic note— ' sati 
46c. nyadyaih : B adds a gloss ‘svaraih 
47abcd. M, T,, T 2 , RM-lacuna. 

48a. hatih: M corrupts to ‘ iti through graphical deterioration. 

48b. lagnajatff. T., lagnajate, simple lipography? 

50d. -masrite. C samsthite, synonymously. 

51c. -masritan: R-mansthitan. 

52a. tamah : R drops 4 ma . 

52cd-53ab. RM, T p T 3 substitute T RTT I 

53c. murchyate. Rpluralises to ‘murchyante and probably construes: murchana(h) 

54c. sadin R corrupts to ‘ nyasadin . 

56a. matsarikrta : R has matsankrd- 

56c. munibhih : MS damnum in C; uktdni (are declared). RM ‘ etanV (these are). 
57a. gitopayogatah : C, R have a restrictive variant: Wagopayogatah\ 

58d. bhavet M (tanakriya)tmakah; M repeats 58cd. 

60a. kancit R kramavit (tr. ‘a krama being written by an expert in krama) 

60b. parad : B glosses with ‘ svaraV . 

61 cd. B explains: tlFTcR^T 3T5T J Id W ^4 W-W; dW Wl *13^4: I 3?) «T: 

i m: ^ i 

61c. sistan: B explains with ‘ svaran . 

62a. - sthanka: (decomposes to sthahke). 

62c. i. antyad: B glosses with ‘ahkad) ii. -'dho’dho: second syllable added in bottom 
margin by scribal diaskeusis. 

62d. krtam: B glosses with < svaram\ 

63a. yadaika : R- tadaika 

64d. purvena : B glosses with ‘ ahkena ’. 

66a. i. & 5 «n: B glosses with ‘ahkan; ii. R has lacuna for one syllable. 

66c. yenahatih : B has the gloss ■ ahkena hananam. 

70a. sthitva sthitva : R sthitva so. 

7Id. sovarohiti: lacuna in R. 

74b. ‘-ntahvaya to ‘ madhya -V R loss due to poor impression in copy. 

75d. statah: M smrtah 

76a. hasitah: T 3 has literal inversion ‘sahitah ’. 

76cd. hypermetry for one syllable. 

79c. bindusiro is unanimous with all collative sources. Compare with ‘ mandro 



bindusira bhavet’ SR. 1.6.8b; R has lacuna for -staro rekhasirah. 

80b. yatha: tatha (similarly); RM punah (again). 

81d. alamkdravido viduh. R alamkaram vidurbudhah. (Scholars understand it as 
alamkara named mandramadhya ). 

84a. murchanadeh: R murchanadya-(the beginning svaras of the murchana). 

85a. T 3 breaks off abruptly at the end of this verse-foot. 

85d.- yutam param : M purvapunam; R param param. 

86a. -marohe. RM marohet (let it ascend). 

86c. kala’ntye. RM kalante. 

86d. -tima ” dime. RM -yadd ”dime 
89a. M has lacuna for ‘ kramam ’. 

90a. aruhyante. C, M. arohante. 

90d. capya : M catha ! 

91a. purvah purvah : R purvapurvah. 

91b. adhovarti kriyate. RM- adhastacca kriyate (is rendered below). 

93b. puna omitted in M. 

97d. gitvd: CR gatva (proceeding) 
lOlcd. C.R reveal lacuna. 

101c. hrada: M krada, indicating probable amanuensal origin of this part of the 

106c. tasya explained in B as ‘gamakasya’. 

107a. andolitavali: R lacuna for ‘tavali’ 

111a. kantha- parablepsia in R 
llld. R reads l komalogranthilo matah’. 

112b. humphito : B gumphito (strung together) 

112d. plutamanatah: B explains: ‘parimanatah’. 

113a. humkara: RM-humkaro; compare with ‘gambhiro ’ (deep), SR. 3.95,p.l69. 
113b. bhavet RM -tastatha. 

116a. cell'. RM-tWz 

116d. Compare with ‘prayatnad bhajanam matam’, SR. 3.128, p. 176. 

118a. parigrahyah: R-pratigrahyah (should be received, accepted). 

118b. pustatah: M- cestitah (made sweet). 

118d. khadgala: RM- khahgala, but khdhula in parallel texts (e.g. SR. 3.39, p.129). 

119a. bombaka: M combakal 

121b. sannipatajak. B, R sannipatikah. 

122c. narata : R -narahata. 

122d. - madhamah : M -nam madhyamah (middling among sounds!) 

125b. svarasrayasamsraya: RM sarhsrayat ; cf. svarantara SR. 3.121, p. 175. 

126b. tu : T 1? R ca 

126d. - rasraya : RM-rasmydt 



128c. -kottha’sau: cf. yantrottha, SR. 3.125, p. 176. 

130d. Repeated dittographically in R; -vauduva. The final W added in top 
margin during scribal diaskeusis. 

131a. Repeated in I ,. 

132c. alaptv. elision of 'p' in R. 

132d. ragavastu: M- ragarupa. Cf. SR. 3.190ab, p. 188: 74T TfcTI <.i 4 i<«'M e 6l ,2 li 

Thus ‘ragarupa ’ is a better reading; for, prabandha, vastu and rupaka are synonyms 
of nibaddha prabandha: SR. 4.6cd. 


133a. yd: R-yo! B has a gloss: alaptih. 

133c. raga(h)svare. RM ragasvaraih. 

136d-137a. T, shows lacuna. 

143c. anyatha: B contains a graphical corruption-] atyartha \ 

144c. stokaih stokaih: B, SR (3.196, p. 194) -stokastokaih. 

145a .fivasvara is glossed as amsasvara in B. 

146d. is repeated in R but ends in ‘ bhedacca ’. 

147ab. M shows lacuna; B has audava for auduva, always. 

148c. salaga : R salahga. 

148d. punah: B matah (are opined). 

149d. sarhjnakah: R samjhikah. 

151b. The two hemistitchs 158cd-159ab are interpolated here. 

151c. hindola: C, R hindola, occasionally. 

152b. nata-: T, natta-, always. 

154b. B explains: : I 

154d. mukhajastatak R mukhatastatah (then, from the face of-) 

155a. etesam: B contains a gloss suddhabhairavadlnam. 

156b. subhruvah: B glosses: striyah. 

157c. varall: M substitutes ‘varatV, always. 

157d. todi : M todika. 

158cd-159ab are interpolated between 151b and 151c. 

160b. B breaks off abruptly here and is available again only from NN 3.2.1. 
162b. sriragasya hi yositah: R, T, rage hi samasritah, C raga samasritah. 

163a. Karnata is always kamata in T g . 

164a. Alien is unanimously described as abhin (infra, s7.217) 

164b. suddhanatavara: M suddhanatasya ca 
164d. tatah: R tatha. 

166b. M -natanarayanasya, involving hypermetry for 1 syllable. 



166c. i. gaunda : C, T -gonda; ii. kedara: T 3 - kedarah; sahkarabharana- 
167c. Jnayatam is vulgate reading, but is a solecism: janantu ? 

168a. i. ganih : T x -jani RM, A V-gani-, ii. satri: M -sanil 
168c. srhgam: M-suhgam; R-srhgim. 

168d. i. prabhate (at dawn) : R prabhave (at birth); ii. vrsapo: R vrsabhol 
169a. i. bhusanadhya: R-nadya; ii. ri ga: R drops ga. 

169c. yukta (possessed of): C. mukta (dropped tear); lacuna in R from -vala to 
namna (for thirteen syllables). 

169d. Lacuna in R from pasyanti to dhanyadha- (for seventeen syllables) 

170b. sveta : C -scitra (wonderful, variegated) 

170c. bhale. M mala (garland); T -phale (synonym for bhale ), always. 

171a. vaktra : R vakra (curved)! through lipographical loss. 

171b. i. padma: R omits ‘ pa ’; ii. vipulasuR omits ‘ pu\ AV, AS -vilasita. 

172b. bahuvidha : AV, AS -vilasita, -rbhusita snigdhanetra; R -mabhusanairbhusita sa. 
172c. nay ana: R. nay am. 

172d. nrpatiganan: C nrpatim. 

173a. mani : R gani. 

175b. kanaka : R omits ‘naka. 

175c. mailt: RM maitn 

175d. dina: R repeats ‘di\ M haslacunafor thirteen syllables from ‘pratV to i nam\ 
176a, M has lacuna for seven syllables from ‘syamam’ to ‘ hastam\ 

176b. i. carim : RM -trarim; ii. vastram : R drops ‘ va\ 

176c. i. samukutam : R omits ‘ su \ ii. bhalam: Tj lolam. 

I76d. i. -hatra nake. M pratdke ; ii. suravarah: M sukhakan; R has lacuna from ‘fe’ 
to end of 178d. 

177d. Omitted in M. 

179a. gatigani : M matigati. 

179b. i. vasa : R-m«!; ii. dola : RM dola, always. 

179c. mukta : lacuna in AV; maha: AV-mahan; AV adds ‘manasvV at end. 

180a. i. rag*#: AV nim; ii. madi: AS gddi. 

180c. varatara: AV taruvaral (literal inversion). 

180d. i. yata': M (by graphic similarity); ii. sa: M yah ; RM-W. 

181a. calx: M loli. 

18Id. i. tvanala : RM hyanala\ R omits ‘ tva \ ii. nima: C gam; M nibha (by graphic 

182a. karatale. R kale. 

182b. i. liptahga: R liptahgam; ii. susabara: R sutasita\ AS susita ; M subhavara. 
182c. mukta: M bhukta through graphic deterioration. 

183a. rahita: R harita (literal inversion) 

183d. pura: RM dhural 



185c. ratipati : AS -nrpati. 

185d. rava : R svara ; vadyarava : AS vadasasvara. 

186a. matrika : RM satrika\ rato: AV, AS yutah. 

187b. Tara omitted in C, M. 

187c. racitatilakah : R omits ‘-tatff. 

188a. rupa: R adds pratapi, trisadjah. 

188b. i. pamahghrih : omitted in R; AV, AS padmabhah; ii. dadhanah: C dadhatte. 
188c. kanthamalam : C komalahga. 

188d. gamaka : repeated in R. 

189a. i. d/nta M ‘dhana’ by graphic deterioration; ii. kumuda : RM mukuta. 

190b. gaja: omitted in R. 

190c. i. muktaika : R ratnaika ; ii. khadgo : R khahgo. 

191b. kurpdsam : by graphic deterioration. 

191c. gzrara udgdrayanta vidagdha : M gate m/<m vastram dadhana : RM giram 
caratanti ; AS giram calapanti. 

192a. i. C, R - trsta; AV , AS -jata\ ii. ratoa: R-harita (by literal in version). 

192b. vilulita : T p C, R viluthita. 

193a. malam : R, RM mdldm. 

193b. kurpdsam : M kuryat. 

193c. i. ahanga : M prahanga; ii. sukara : C mukura , iii. samdadhdnd : R omits 
193d. rirapa: M raripa (inversion of vowels); R-lacuna. 

194a. i. snlavahgam. R-strirl ii. kundali: R kumbhika. 

195c. i. -gaurah RM ra&ta; ii. dvivasu: RM-omits ‘sw’. 

196a. desimele prajatah: C R jatastatasya mele. 

196c. i. mugdhastn: M muktasn; ii. satsamakse: RM syamalaksol iii. R omits 

‘ sati. 

197a. sabara. AV-sabala\ 

197c. prathama-mah : RM-prathama-dhah; AS-prathamatah. 

197d. vinayatdm : T -vinayitam. 

199d. panyavithyam : RM-/?anyam 9 flm! 

200c. i. chatra: M -ksatra; ii. camara : RM-otm. 

200d. i. yammanadyah: R omits ‘ya’. ii. sahito : R-/mato (literal inversion). 

201c. i. dhaivatonahiR, AV, AS-adhaivato’gahbuVdhaivatonas-tv-avagamanayutaK 
is preferred; cf. description of snrdga by Pandarika Vitthala in Sadrdgacandrodaya, 
2.2.25; avagamana: AS, AV omitii. grrnro: R-gmzn. 

202a. i. RM-j^yfl; ii. nz/uYa; R-harita (by literal inversion); iii. satridhd : RM- 
satrika\ iv. sodasadhya: RM -sodasabdd. 

202b. sukesi (with excellent hair): C swsl/a (of good character). 

202c. i. caitn mutant: M -caitnsul; M -caitramul-; RM-caitnmudra; ii. karpatibhisca: 
RM -bhiksa. 

203b. i. hantfi: M hartn; ii. nrtyabhiyuktd: RM, 



203d. hrdayanandini: RM hrdayanandini. 

204a. nyadi : RM sadi. 

204b. sitavara : AS varasita (by inversion). 

205a. gunavidhu: M-vidhuguna; ganiga; R -nigaga; the laksana is either ‘gunavidhu 
gani or vidhuguna niga ’ because it and its neighbours are derivatives of malavagauda. 
205b. jalaja: RM omits final ‘ja\ M repeats 204cd after 205b. 

205c. i. - madhyesad : R M-madhye sad; ii. nayani: R-nayana. 

205d. sau : RM-sa. 

206a. rakta : RM yiz/^a. 

206d. prayantiyam (RM) is prefered to the solecistic preksatlyam ? 

207b. sakataka : (with bangle): RM-5iztoafoz (good bangle). 

207c. w takko: RM -sutahko 
207d. vicarati : RM-wcanto 
208c. rasapati: C, M-raszzyata' (flavours, tr. verb). 

209a. i. rahito: R harito (literal inversion); ii. prajatoKM-sujato; iii. madhyanta: RM- 
madhyadi (actually ni-trika , i.e. m is graha, arhsa and nyasa). 

209d. prakatita: (expressed) RM prakatate (expresses). 

210a. i. sahito : RM rahito (!); ii. pah: C, M yah by graphic similarity. 

210b. jala: omitted in R 

211c. keyura kantheya : RM -ke puspa-keyura. 

21 Id. kausumbhy-usnisa : C V M -kausumbhosnisa. 

212a. i. isanasya : M-zsTmayy#; ii. ganiridhah: R omits g*zznz. 

212b. T 9 commences. 

213d. i. caknksepavakarsaih : R caknksepa cakarsaih ; cakri- AV, AS vakra; ii. bhramyati : 
RM-d/zflwzyafz; T -samyati\ T^-vamyatil 
214d. preksate MR preksatl; M -praksati. 

215a. mukulakuca : R shows lacuna by haplography. 

215d. devakanyd: T ( ,T -rajakanya (princess). 

216a. tanu-racita: R raczYa tanuh (lexical inversion). 

216c. Wzriz: RM-Wzi2-! 

216d. i. geham : RM-g^/ze; ii. tzzzra omitted in R; AS gives /ez/zz vice tzzzra. 

217a. susnigdha : RM-fti snigdha. 

217d. rasapati : T ^ramayati (fondles) (by graphic deterioration?) 

218a. vidhugati : T 2 ,T s -ramaya/z! 

218c. samurali : RM-sizmizra/z. 

220b. purvi: R-purya- 

221b. i. saratnah : T -saralah (straight, simple); ii. vasanah : RM-izzzazna/z; this 
reading would be plausible only with‘srazYzz’ vice ‘szYa’and mo’A meaning taste, 
instead of hue, lustre. 

222b. yauvanadhydh. T ,T K -nadhya\ 



223a. mugdhastn. R-mugdhah; accepted reading means that natanarayana is in the 
company of innocent women; the reading of R means that he is innocent and is in 
the company of women. 

223b. i. sikhi : RM -sikhina). ii. nati: RM-nati; iii. nartako : M -nartoki (by graphic 

223d. i. sada. M inverts to 4 dasa\ ii. yam: AM, AS -’sau. 

224a. Lacuna in C for -rajam vddyamana. 

224c. - yosas : AS -hyusasi 

224d. kurayi : RM -kurai; AS -kudayi. 

225a. satrikadhyanima: M-cha nivd; T^satridyutima val R-satrikadya. 

225c. bhala: M -mala (garland); T 2 omits bhusanaih but adds bhusitahgl vardhgi. 
226b. bhala: M-mala. 

227a. Lacuna for mrga in R. 

227c. i. vaktresad-vasa , M -sad-vasa; ii. dasarasa: M inverts to dasasara. 

227d. tu suhavv. AV-susuhavi. 

228a. i. rakta : M -yukta; ii. svara: R -svarasval 
228b. tate. M -tale (synonymous in this context) 

228d. yatl : AV, AS -bhati (shines, is radiant) 

229b. madana: C. vadana (face) 

229c. sikhigandn : RM -sikharinan 

229d. i. baramv. M -varami; RM -dharaml; ii. malaharo: M-malahafi. 

230a. yuto\ M -pluto 

230c. barhinam : R -barhino 

230d. i. rajate. R-raje; ii. gonda: M -gaunda. 

231c. datta : RM -tyakta\ japamanavestitah R-mano- 
23Id. i. npo : C-ridho ; ii. ’sti trividha ni: RM -strividha nih 
232a. jalaja : R omits 4 laja ’. 

232b. i. yaksa : AV, AS -padma; ii. pundrah: RM -mudrah 

232c. nrtyarambhapriyo mudrita sugamaka : AV- nrtyarambhepriyo'sau muditagamaka 
(this beloved moves with delight at the beginning of the dance). 

232d. pracarati: C pracarita. 

233b. i. puspesu : C puspesa; ii. virahi: C-virati (pause)! iii. dhanvl RM -dhanva. 
233c. maltr. RM -madhye 

233d. janirupa: M-janirati -; R, RM add 4 sy^’at end; the text of this line is confused 
in RM. 


(Text-Critical Comments) 



Primary sources used for collation of this chapterette ( adhikarana) are as follows: 
(Their contributions are indicated in brackets). 

B (complete) ;C (complete) ;M (complete) ;R (complete);T. (complete);T (up 
to 3.2.84). 2 

Secondary sources employed are SS (3.2.281-285,288-290,292cd, 294ab) and SR 
(inter alia). 

2c. -masambaddha-mabandha-C, L - hypermetry of 1 syllable 
3d. tasya: B contains gloss: prabandhasya 
4c. gita : M, R gati (vowel transposition) 

5b. melanat B has gloss: (sambandha) tvat 
5c. dhruva : M omits ‘ va ’ 

7a. sa: B glosses: antarabhidha dhatuh 
7d. - sea dvidha ta- T, lacuna 
8d. biruda : Tj viruda , always 
9a. pade. C padau 
9d. birude : C birudau 

10a. i. tat B glosses with ‘ tasya prabandhasya] ii. padam'xbxA. caranau 
11a. dyotakam : M lacuna from ‘ kam'to ‘ dhato vrttam \ 46c. 
lib. - rodbhavah : CR ‘ rotkaraK 

lid. Caccatputa : is probably a prakrtised form of ‘cancatputa] which is etymo¬ 
logically correct. Both forms are used in textual tradition. 

12d. stu : R-ioz 

13b. dipani : B, R dipini, always 
13c. bhavani: B, R bhavini , always 
13d. dvabhyam : B glosses: ahgabhyam 
14d. niyamad : R niyaman-nal 
16a. mas-trigo : B glosses: trayah gdh yasmin 

16b. i. Iddyo: B glosses: la ddir-yasya; ii. kayah C, M, T, T 2 , R rajah: B glosses: kdj 

16c. ro: C, M, T , T.,, R -tho 
1 6d. so: T, mo 

17a. ‘dhanakrc-chunyo’ C, R ambarajah; T,- cchaunyo 
1 7d. sahkaras-trilah : R sahkara; B explains: trayah lah yasmin 



20c. i. rati 1\ T-riti; ii. vijneyau B vijneyd 
21a. yoger. R -joge 

22b. bhrtya-mitrayoh 7, mitra-bhrtyayoh (transposition of words) 

22cd. Lacuna in C, M, T,, T 2 , T 3 

22ef. This enumeration is adopted to accommodate 22cd and to correspond to 
the Kannada edition ( Pundankamala) of NN. 

22d. syan-nisphalam T 2 ca nihphalam 
22f. satru : R tvari 
23d. ksayah R,T, ksayam 
24ab. found only in T, 

24b. bhrtyaorgrha (BR), but C, M, bhrtyayorgrhal 
26b. ’stau: R -chau 

26c. ratiga : C nzgalf (transposition of syllables) 

26d. banaganah T, T 2 lacuna 
27d.B has an explanation: 

28ab. M, T,, T f nava pancesu panca ; M -pancavedagnil 

29c. varnanam: R -vargdnam; this is a better reading in the context of what 
precedes and follows immediately; the fruits accruing from using these eight classes 
are as follows: ct-ayuh (longevity); ka-tejah (brightness, brilliance), ca-apakirti 
(? prakirtita ? illfame ? fame?) ta-saubhagya (auspiciousness or wealth), ta-sundaram 
(physical beauty), pa-vyddhi (disease), ya-marana (death), sa-sunyata (void); but 
vamanam is suitable in view of the topic. 

29d. ’pa: R pra- 

30c. hajhaghadhadharasabhdh: C -hajadyahrna? T -ghada-\ B has on right margin 
(f. 18): ghadhara janasa javachamabha hathama madaya (?) with the legend 

30d. varna: B; varno 

31a. i. at: B -ca; ii. gita: B -ritya 

31b. na prayojyd: B dittography 

32c. ma-kdrah: R bha-ma-kdrah 

33d. dhuri: T, bhuri (tr. copious splendour) 

34a. su( good): B. tu (expletive particle) 

34b. gramo: C gamo, T.-ramo 

35d. na-kdrad ratnam-uttamam: M ca nad ratnarucir-dnane 
36c. bhdrati: C tdruti by graphic loss 
37a. mrti: Tj lacuna 
37c. chatri: B ksatri 

39a. ksakard: B ksapardr\ R ksaya\- C ksapra ; by graphic ambiguity 



39c. pane. C pate by graphic ambiguity 
40c. yatra : C pyatra 

41c. hata : C hatha : wrong lectio simplior replacing correct lectio difficilior. 

43c. dhehki : C tehki, always 
43d. jhomba : T r dgomba ! 

44c .- svaro : C, R saro-\ this reading is possibly deliberate and not the product of 
transmissional elision; in vernacular literature, esp. Kannada, this prabandha is 
consistently mentioned as varnasara by poets over the centuries. 

46a. dvipatha : R lacuna 
46c. vrttarrv. M lacuna ends. 

47a. i. -svara: M -svara, by phonetic deterioration; ii. stalarnava : M talavarna 
(transposition/inversion of words) 

47b. i. ityali: lectio difficilior replaced with wrong lectio simplicior "ityadi in T } ; 
ii. samjnakd ; M -samjnayd 

49d. hamsalilo : R omits but adds ‘ pankirtitaK at end. 

50a. i .jhampatah: M-dampatah , always (by initial graphic loss), C-krampatah; ii. syat 
R sasyat 

50d. snvardhano : R omits rdha ’ 

51a. vadanam : T ] candanaml 
51b. paddhadv. R ghaddhadll 

52a. dhollan : C thollari (by phonetic deterioration in amanuensal transmission); 
T 2 - dhodrtra; T -dhojhallari (lectio simplior) 

52d. salagastu: Tj salagastu (collective usage) 

54a. tatraila : M tatraika by graphic gain. 

54a. varnasamyam : B glosses: anuprasam 

54d. mdtu : M corrected (wrongly) to dhatu; T -matra\ 

55d. tacca : M yacca 

56a. i. tatra : B explains ' pallave\ ii. adya : B explains dvepade. 

56b. trtiyam : B has a gloss: padam 
56c. tulya : M tulyam 

56d. i. geyarrv. T 2 bhayaml ii. dhatu forpada in B 
58b. B.M, T loss by homoeoteleuta 
59cd. R dittography for 58 ab after 59cd 
61a. vidhayasya : T, lacuna 

63d. i. susobhi : R omits; ii -kocitah preferred (SR 4.43) to -korutah derived by 
collative consensus. 

64cd. -ma ... na... ten syllables lost in M 
65b. dlptah: M diptih 

66b. Dasa omitted in R, T ] but R adds 'vacah' at end. savama\ M 
66c. nirvama : 

67c. - stam- : R -tarn- 



69d. purvapurvapadantimahr'. T 2 omits first puma; B glosses antimah as agrimah 

70b. -vottaro: B cottaro; R omits -ttaro 

70c. tattat M tat, R bhavet 

71a. pragiyante. B, T, M pragiyate, CR pragiyete 

71c. tana: C tala 

72b. svaradinam : C svaranam ca 

72c. samasatana: B synonymises with sahkocatana 

73c. prayoktus-ca: M -prayogas-ca 

74c. ganavamamatra: transposition of words: varnaganaft; ganamatravarna M, 

r r 

75b. i. na omitted in T,, T,,; ii. pradarsita ; B praklrtita. 

77b. -hgamisritah: C-ngani sritah 
Tic. yasya: B has a gloss: yasya prabandhasya 
77d. netr : M netra always 
80a. tat C, T 2 , tattat 

80d. i. pataih: C-padaih; ii. padaih T^-padaih 

81bc. T lacuna; i. M -sammatah; ii. yatra C, R catra 

82a. druvastada : M dhruvapado 

84a. pascat M yasca 

85c. tu: T -nu by graphic similarity 

86c. -mucca-. T, omits. 

88b. -valyadika : T -valyakabhidah 
91b. rasakad : R has only ‘ke 

93a. jneya: addition by propria manu at top of folio during diaskeusis 

94a. tridhatu : C dvidhatu 

95c. - gadhyo : gadyo 

96a. dhruvamabho : Tj dhruvabho 

97b. prati : lacuna in T, 

98b. samanya : M, T 2 sdmdnyam 
98d. granthasya : omits ‘tha 
99d. dvyahgat R dvyahgas 

102ab. Hypermetry of one syllable is avoided if pi'is omitted, as is done in B; M, 
Tj, T read taladinam aniyaman-niryukto ‘pi’; this is a contradiction in terms; for, it 
cannot be a niryuktawhen there is niyama relating to tala etc. So ‘taladinam aniyamad 
aniryukto bhaved-asau is preferred. 

102c. gatam. M omits ‘ga 
102d. sthanake. cf. (SR4.125d): sthankair 
103a. rasa : C rama by graphic loss 
103d. -vale. T 2 -vati- 

104a. dvir-udgrdhad : B omits final d ; M -ho; T, omits first three syllables. 



106d. niryukto : M omits r, B niryukta 

107ab. dhruvakau...baddhau\ M dhruvako-baddhah 

108b. i. tryahgah: B dvyahgah, T, dvyantah'. ii. dhdtu: R omits 

108cd. NN borrows Kallinatha’s quotation (p. 269 on SR. 4.181cd-182ab) 

108cd-109ab. cf. NN 3.2.261cd-262ab; SR. 4.310 

110a. varna : M, T -vamah 

110b. talatah : B labhatah 

111c. ekena : B contains gloss: ahgena 

112d. bandha: Tj bandhana 

114ab. litre... srita: M varegarni .... sriya 

115cd. sante sapadyam bharatyam pancalyam: T 2 sapadrte saram pan; T, omits first 
syllable in pancalyam 
116d. citram : M lacuna 
117b. - citraya : C citrita 
118b. vrttagandhibhilry. B explains: gadyaih 
118c. druta : B contains a gloss: (-)yagata(-) druteti 
118d. bahvalpa : Tj bahulya 
121b. i. -mante. M meter, ii. tarn: R lacuna 

122a. i. - ekatra : B glosses: ekasmin khande; ii. vastu: B synonymises: prabandha 
122c. - gadhycr. T-gadyo 

123b. vilambena : B explains: vilambitalayasahitena 
123c. drutam : BR drutan 
125a. pdtaih : T 2 -padaih 

125b. -kadhruvau : M-ke bhavet; M lacuna ending with - mudgraha , 125d. 

125cd. Hypermetry for one syllable; avoidable with ‘nyasanam-udgrahebhavet’or 
‘nyasam udgrahake bhavet’ 

126c. vira: T 2 omits ( ra ’ 

127a. padaih : T 2 padaih 
127cd. T 2 lacuna 
128c. gitau : M omits ‘tau ’ 

129b. padantaraih : R padanvitah 

129c. patake. B has ‘dhruve’ at top of folio margin; R patakenaiva 
129d. kandah : R omits. 

13Id. bandhat tu: C bandha tu. 

132a. vasva: (asvalalita chandas) M vasca (Ualita candas ?) 

132c. tala : M omits. 

132d. satalakau : M snatakaul 

133b. Hypermetry for one syllable, avoidable with rudgrahabandhat ; U-band- 

136a. -scante car. R lacuna 



139ab. i gandbhydm capabhyam: M -bhyo capadabhyam (lectiosimplicor); ii. talla: R- 
bhalln\ B glosses pdbhyam as paganabhyam, tat as taganat and laguto as laghuguru- 

139c. cha : R ca 

141a. Hypometry for one syllable: -prdgaksaranam vyuho ? 

141c. -rottara. M lacuna 
143a. - varhsa : T-mamsca 

145b. bhavineyakah: B ‘yam bhavedasau; T, ’yam dvidhatukah 

150a. i. - tala: M, I kdla\ ii. padaih C padau 

151c. caramabhdgah: B explains: dvitiyabhagah 

151d. param: M pare 

153b. panca: I padyam 

153d. -vatya\am T vedayam 

154a. dodhakena: B glosses: dodhaka namna (vrttena) 

158c. padodgrahe. M -dgraha; R -dgraho 
160a. puruam: B glosses with purvardham 

161 a.i. -dyardha: M dyardha: C dyarthal ii. yanmatra C, R vanmatra 
161b. - mitatenadya : M, B -mitoyatra 
161c. pddo: C pado 

163a. vrttena. B contains a gloss: vrttanamna 

164a. vapi: C, R cdpi 

164b. svarangam: T svarahge 

164d. purva: M puma 

165cd. M lacuna between kvacit ... kvacit 

167b-168d. M lacuna 

168c. ubhayoh: B explains: divyamanusyoh 

173a. pradhanyaih: R samanyaih, T, prddhdnye nan- 

174a. etasmad: B has an explanation: mukhyam nandyavartat 

175a. puma : C, R lacuna 

175cd. bhagau sta udgraha: C bhagavudgraha 

176a. khande khande. M khandaih khandaih 

176c. ’pyaT^tha 

176d. nyddi: T, lacuna 

177c. caccatputena: M cancat; vide lid supra, always; B glosses with ‘talma 
178a. tarn: M, T -te 

178c. manena: B explains: parimanena 

179a. -scatata: T, lacuna 

179b. - putena : T, lacuna 

179c. tvantara : R -tpancama 

180b. pancakam : M pankajam'. (transposition) 


180c. -ccantara: C, R - ttv-antara * 

181b. dala: B contains ‘ prabhandha- in explanation. 

182a. tato R. tatho 

182c. muraja : C, R muruja 

183c. i. udghatta : T 2 udgrahal ii. teno T 2 toa, Tj 

184a. - scaturdhatustri -: M niyukto sutri 

184d. Tj ends here. 

186a. -tahgaih : CM tongaih 
188a. -ge tva: CM. ga 0 - 
189b. panja : M puhga 

190b. i. ragtti: C rafai! ii. svara-C card; iii. ragaistalaihR-stalairagai (transposition) 

190c. prthvivan : B glosses: medinivan 

19Id. smrtah : R lacuna 

192d. birudu : T, biruda 

194d. rati: M, R iti 

195a. bhaga: M pdda 

195d. punah : C smrtah 

197c. nrpa : B deciphers the numerogram as sodasa . 

198a. yamakalamkrta : B explains: yamakena alamkarena alarhkrta 
199d. tardvatiyakak. C syadatra diparii 
200c. ganah : M gunah 
201d. svarair. C strayair 

202b. jivanada : B offers explanatory note: yasmin ra (-) yah praban(-)rah giyate 
(-) raga(sya) arhsasvarah (jivanada) khyah 
203a. tatfra: B glosses: sarvaiscaranaih 

203c. candragnlsu ahghrayah : B explains: prathamatrfiyapahcarnahghrayah 
204a. pdtau : M padau 

204ab. B explains: dvitiyasya caranasyante svarapatau syatam; sarasya-pahcama 
caranasthane svaratenakau syatam ityarthah I 
205d. niryuktasca : R niryukto’sau 
206c. pataih : R padaih 

209a. purvabhagdbhyam : B explains: (-) bhyam . .. MS. damnum 

209b. pardbhydm : B explains: dalena kabhydm 

213c. - mdrdham: B -mardhe 

215a. tripadi : B explains: trayah pddd yasyd \sau 

216a. dhdtur-niryukta : M dhatusca niryuktakas-td- 

216d. kandukah : Tj kandukah 

217a. jfrarffl: B pdda , M omits. 

218c. ekah : B explains: ekaprakdroyameva; itaraprakaran-aha-ekefi I 
218d. tanndmatdlatah : B explains: tribhaiginamatdlatah I Hvpometry for one 
syllable: ndnyasty tanndmatdlatah ,? 

219c. brahma : M brahma 



220. R lacuna 


22 Id. sabirudaih : B explains: biruda-sahitah 

223c. padaik T f padaih; padaih is preferred so as to accord with parallel treatises. 

224d. - stvayam : M svayam, C stuyam 

225a. pataisca : C, M padaisca 

226a. padaih : R lacuna 

228b. Hypermetry for one syllable. 

229cd-230ab. M lacuna 

230d. i. chagana : M, R chagana; ii. chadataih- M chadalaih 
23Id. bhavatyasau : C bhavedasau 
232d. dvau: B explains: caranau 
233a. ggw: B y'wgw 

233b. padaik B adds the note: krteti sesah 
235b. jaganato vina: B explains: jaganair-vina ityarthah 
236b. tanmatramitatdlatak Dvitiyatala is loo (NN. 1.140ab); talas of the same 
quantity are II and oooo. But B assumes the tala to be SS and gives its equivalents: 
55 ||5 151 511 INI 

239c. - raih krtabhogak M -rekatalo gah 

245c. C. lacuna 

247a. chayugmam : M cayugmam 

247d. adyaturyayoh : B explains: caranayoh 

248b. pena: C, M sena\ penais preferred for reasons given in comm. NN 3.2.247d. 
248c. prathame : B glosses: vikramasya prathame carane 
248d. sena : B pena, M yena 

250b. i. vimaladi : M vimalani ; ii. paddnvitah C paddnvitah 
251a. saruatra: B explains: (-) ranah bhavanti 
252b. ciralayena : B offers the note: vilambitalayena 
253b. sriya : sriyam 

253d. Hypermetry for one syllable; - rudgrahadhruvau ? 

254b. niryuktakastatha : M, T, niryuktastatha 
255b. -stadodita: B. rudirita variant reading? gloss?): 

255c. ovi : M urui , always 

255d. vrtti : M vrta 

256a. prasaik C prantaih 

256c. i. chandobhik C lacuna; ii. geya: Mjheya 

257d. loir. Tj lacuna 

258d. bhasa vi: C, M bhdsadi 

261cd-262ab. interpolated in NN 3.2.108 cd-109ab. Tele-dittograyphy? 

262a. yasya : M tasya 

263a. yadvaika : M yadaika 

264b. adimah : B explains: abhogasya 



266a. khande. R lacuna 

267c. kamado C, R kamodo 

269c. geyah : M jneyah 

269d. karune. B glosses: rase, M, T 1 karuno 

271a. vipralambhe. B glosses: rase 

271c. vira: C vlro 

27Id. talatak. C talakah 

276a. niryuktastridhatukasca : C, M niryuktakastridhatusca 
277c. tarn : B explains: a(n)taram 
280a. jena\ M yena ; B glosses: jaganena 
280b. bhena : B glosses: bhaganena; M ten# 

280d. rena: M tesa- 
281a. sena : M tena 

28led. kamalo’pyadbhuto: T, kamalepyadbhute 
281-285. quoted in SS (12, pp.147, 148, 152, 153) 

283ab. Occurs in SS; it is not clear whether this is of NN or of SS. The text is 
continuous in SS but this line is not found in any available collative source. 
283cd-284ab. Inserted between 285ab-285cd of NN in SS. 

284a. gatam saruam: SS gatah sarva- 
284d. talena : R tanena 
286a. ca : C ’tha 

288-290, 292cd, 294ab quoted in SS (loc. cit.) 

291a. yugmena : M yuktena 
291c. lena\ M tena 
292a. adda: M adu 
293c. rase. C rase 

293d. sahkarah syat pratitalatak. M sahka sydt pratitalakah 
294a. sante. B explains: rase 

294cd. B has the note: o o |5 ( iti) talena makarandogiyate; but this is the tala for cara- 
addatala; the tala prescribed for makaranada its °o5. 

296b. go matah : T, ganatah 
298a. vasana: M vamanal 
301b. padaih : T, padaih 
301cd-302ab. M lacuna 

304d. santaraccaturdhatavah: M -stottaraccadhidhatavahl C...rasca dvi... 

T,... raccalli ... 

305d. jhampa Tj rupa 
306a. trivida : M tritala 

307cd. T, lacuna; ranarangakah: R + rturahgakah 



308b. tilakhyasca C, M Rlasca 

309c. pratikhandam : M, B pratikhanda. R shows lacuna from 309c to 320b, 

313a. rasa : C dhard 

316b. i. giyatr. M; giyante; ii. khandakah M khandakah ; B khandakam 
317a. M ad/ya 

317b. - scdnya : M lacuna; MS is blank to indicate lacuna. 

320a. rdgah: M bhava 

322a. sadgunam : M, T, tadgunam 

322d. avatdro dasa- M is preferred to B, C: vataro dasamd- since it is faithful to the 
name of the prabandha in avoiding the ordinal number, at the price of a minor 

323ab. R tdlardgadaldvastdbhih syattu sarabharilakah 

323d. svanama: M omits sva 

325a. tenakantaih : M, T, tenakdnto 

327d. gatruastva-: M gdnayastva- 

328c. netmamanko: C netrndm R netrnandm 

330bc. R lacuna 

331b. padasvaraih : M paddmbaraih 
335a. lokena : R lokena 

336d. i. dosd : M lacuna; ii. bhdvayoh : M bhdsayoh 

338d. i. rv//;: M ddhrti; ii. ritita: M nrita 

340a. ndna : B, M, T, druta 

340b. pragalbhatcv. R pmbhasratd 

341a. -te'/d dhatu: C,R nirvandhu 

342c. nyuna : R nunam 

343b. dhdtukrt. M dhatukam 

343c. varnakavi: M, R lacuna 

344c. prabandhdkalana : M prabandhaland 

344d. vedinam : R omits ve and nam 



lab. Suddhacchayalaga refers to both ragas and prabandhas, ragas have another 
variety viz. samklma; prabandhas are also classified into suda, alikrama and vipraklna, 
of these suda is again divided into suddha (eld, dhehkl etc.) and chayalaga (dhruva, 
mantha etc.). So this phrase may be extended, by reading it as upalaksana to cover 
the totality of desi music. This requirement of the singer, viz. expertise in desi music 
is mentioned directly or obliquely in parallel definitions in other treatises also. The 
second phrase, murchandgrdmatdnavit may be similarly read as upalaksana for 
gandharva music or marga music. Therefore NN prescribes for the singer thorough 
familiarity with both desi and marga music. When NN was composed, it was a 
watershed in the history of Indian music; it witnessed the culmination of the 
transition of grama into mela. Pandarlka Vitthala is himself aware of this important 
change; thus he says that only ragas of sadjagrama were rendered, to the complete 
exclusion of madhyamagrdma-ragas, by his contemporary colleagues (NN 3.1.51); 
moreover, he describes mela in place of grama in all his works; therefore he requii es 
a musician to equip himself with both ancient music and modern music to cater to 
both the traditional elite as well as the common man, thus parallelling the laksana 
of gandharva (SR 3.12cd-13ab). 

Id. Gayana is synonymous with gdyaka, singer, even as gayani is equivalent with 
gayaki, i.e. woman singer in NN and elsewhere. This definition of gayakais the seed 
from which the contents of the entire chapter III of the NN arise. 

The gdyaka is described in three grades, uttama, madhyama and adhama (or 
kanistha) and their subvarieties uttamottama, uttma-madhyama... kanisthadhama by 
earlier treatises, a classification ignored by Pandarlka Vitthala. The qualities or 
requirements of a singer may be compared with those mentioned elsewhere. 
According to Somesvara ( Manasollasa , 4.16.87) the great qualities required of a 
singer are an (excellent) voice, nuances (dhvani), intelligence, scholarship, skill in 
employing gamakas, expertise in tala and fearlessness. According to him, the most 
superior singer has the following qualities: 

(=7TH) T F1%: I 

tfFTfcT ^ 41 y-tihlLKlPdcl: II 

Scfft fsrtqr^ -qt tfrci I 

^K u nP c ia: II 

3JTCT -ftTSZf ^ "TFlfcr I 

Td^Tl OMldl ^ II 



d'Maicri c ti<nK$Tl : I 

T TFF^ ■HcJ<rl J lt' c K: II (ibid. 4.16, 75-78, p. 8) 

Haripaladeva requires the uttamottama-gayaka to be possessed of the following 
qualities ( Sangitasudhakara , 5.8.15-22); specialisation in srutiand svara, scholarship 
in ragas and rdgahgas, knowledge of the seven gitiprabandhas, versatality in all 
languages, skills in tala varieties, knowledge of the application of all pdtas, accom¬ 
plishment in all forms of nrtta, self-experience in rasas, expertise in varnalamkdras, 
profound knowledge of the seven gamakas, accomplishment in simile, double 
entendre, poetry, etc., capacity to carry on the meaning initiated, awareness of the 
correct and inappropriate sthana, endurance, conquest of anger, affability, sweet¬ 
ness of voice, scholarship in mandra, madhyama and tarn registers, facile execution 
of gamakas in all three registers, respectability of family, cleanliness, lustre, gain of 
popular esteem, ability to champion and defend his own view point and to refute 
the opponent’s view, intrepidity in assemblies, lack of confusion, ability to generate 
aesthetic delight, pleasant personality and familiarity in the five vrttis. 

Somarajadeva ( Sangitaratnavati . extr. Bharatakosa, p. 827) requires the gayaka to 
have the ability to perform various modes of alapti, retentivity and attentiveness, 
knowledge of ragahga-ragas and their respective graha, amsa and nyasa, skill in 
performing all song forms, a voice with a range of three registers, knowledge of tala, 
deep and sweet voice, mastery over voice, firmness, endurance, special expertness 
in ragas. Gandharva-veda (extr. op. cit. loc. cit.) prescribes expertise in voice, 
different alapti forms, and in compositional forms as well as scholarship in raga, 
ragahga, bhasanga, kriyanga and upanga-ragas. 

Parsvadeva ( Sahgitasamayasdra , 8.88-92, p. 86) lists the following as the require¬ 
ments of a good singer: skill in various modes of alapti, efficiency in commencement 
and conclusion, use of all three registers, deep, sweet voice, ability to sing all vastu- 
prabandhas, cognoscence in tala, beautiful body outline, excellent organisation of 
practical details, skill in raga and raganga, endurance, mastery over voice, mental 
concentration, capacity to insert at appropriate places now and then of scholarly 
ragabhavas and training under a great teacher. If two or three of these qualities are 
missing, the gayaka is madhyama ; if four or five, he is kanistha. He is said to be 
uttamottama if he can sing suddhaand fhdydlagci songs, preceded by did pain all three 
registers; if he can do so in two registers only, he is uttama madhyama-, if merely in 
one register, he is madhyamadhama (loc. cit. 8.94-97, p. 86). 

Kumbhakarna ( Sangitaraja ,, p. 442) is very elaborate and comprehen¬ 
sive on the subject. Srikantha ( Rasakaumudi , 2.191) compiles the following quali¬ 




wiciiPwt W5f: Tf Puifcd) JiN«t>Ni ^t^T: II 

Music treatises also describe the requirements of a female singer, which is 
omitted by Pandarika Vitthala. Parsvadeva collects these from ‘Adi’bharata, in a 
comparative study of the male and female voices (NS. 33.5-6, pp. 398-399): women’s 
voices are naturally sweet, while men’s voices are strong; the former have the quality 
of instrumental tone; the latter, vocal sweetness (ibid; MS. in Sri Varalakshmi 
Academy, Mysore, p. 148). Sarngadeva describes her as possessed of beauty, youth 
and a voice surcharged with sweetness (3.24). Kumbhakarna has ( Sahgitaraja ,, p.443): 

hlPq-Ml TTf^TTtt OMH'^kj^l ^t)u||^H| || 

Srikantha (op.cit. 2. 189. 190, p. 37) waxes poetic on the subject of songstresses: 

J llPl'4l5pyd J Dd<dl^Pd^iJ|| dlrl ^ I 

1; TRfrr cTT: ?Tl^Ti T lt II 

2a. Ekello is uniformly called ekalo (=single, unassisted) in other music treatises,: 
e.g. Somesvara (op.cit 4.16. 54, p.6), Parsvadeva (op. cit. Ms. loc. cit. p. 146), 
Sarngadeva, (op. cit. 3.22,23, p. 154,155). Kumbhakarna (op. cit., p. 443) 
however, calls the solo vocalist, ekilla. In kannada epic poetry ‘ekkalagana’ has 
uniformly meant solo vocalist,: e.g. Nagacandra (C.1100A.D., Mallindthapudnam, 

^■qJVlluifd HlP^'-HdlPoi dld<)4lo(jfj|<p cTP^tPT J||U|}p®H 

Aggala (1189A.d. Candraprabhapuranam, 7. 96): 

J lldHd^ dW^ebd'iml^ 

Mangarasa (1508 A.D . Jayanrpakavya, 11.65): 


and idem. Snpalacaritre (3.14:) dlspH’WdWfdoiPlfaJd'} 



Astabhasakavi Candrasekhara (c. 1430 A.D., Pampasthana-varnanam, 74, p.26): 


I am not aware of musicological cognates of this word, if any in telugu and tamil. 
7cd-23ab. Gayana guna-gayana dosa: The importance of analysing the voice and 
vocalists into merits and faults as well as characterising these has been recognised 
from the earliest times in Indian music. Pandarika Vitthala offers an ecletic mixture 
of these. Occasionally authorities, e.g. Sarngadeva (on gayaka-guna) are content 
with employing selfexplanatory or descriptive terms: the majority however, render 
the terms more precise with further, detailed characterisation. The following is a 
compilation of gayakagunas (G) and gayak-dosas (D) from the more important 
authorities- Bharatamuni: G.-l . sravaka2. ghana3. snigdha4. madhura 5. avadhanavan , 
tristhanasobhi (NS. 33.12-15, p.400). 

D. 1. kapila2. avyavasthita3. samdasta 4. kaki 5. tumbaki (ibid. 33.16-20, p. 401). 
Somesvara G 1 . sarira 2. dhvani 3. medhd 4. praudhi 5. gamakakausala , 6. talajnata 

7. nirbhayata (Manasollasa , 4.16, 87, p. 9) 

D. 1. sthanabhrasta 2. apasvara 3. bahya 4. kapila 5. tumbata 6. kaki 7. samdasta 

8. avyavasthita9. phutkdri 10. jambuka 11. vakri 12. karall 13. vinimllita 14. ustragriva 
15. prasari 76. uddhada\l . kampita 18. dhvanikina 19. avyakta 20. udghrsta (ibid. 4.16. 
24-43, pp. 3-5) 

HaripalaG. 1. khdhula 2. bombala 3. narata 4. misrja (Sahgltasudhdkara , 5.8.40-44) 
D.l. sandamsa 2. anunasika 3. kakarvara 4. karall 5. vakri 6. nimilaka 7. aja 

8. phullagalla (ibid. 5.8.45 ff.) 

Sarngadeva G. 1. hrdyasabda 2. susarira 3. grahamoksavicaksana 4. raga-rdgdhga- 
bhdsdhga-kriydhga-upahga- kovida 5. prabandhagananisnata 6. vividhdlaptitattvavit 
7. sarvasthdnottha-gamakesu anayasa-lasad-gati8. ayattakantha9. talajnalO. avadhana 
\\.jitasrama\2. suddacchdydlagdbhijna\3 .san'akdku-visesamt 14. anekasthayasancara 
15. sarvadosavivarjita 16. kriyapara 17. yuktalaya 18. sughata 19. dharanavita 20. 
spurjat-nirjavana2 \. hari22. rahahkrt 23. bhajanoddhura 24. susampradaya (SR. 3.13- 
18ab, pp. 153-154) 

D. 1. samdasta 2. udghusta 3 .sutkari 4 .bkita 5. sahkita 6. kampita 7. karaR 8. vikala 

9. kaki 10. vitdla 11. karabha 12. udbhata \ 3. jhombaka 14. tumbaki 15. vakri 16. prasari 
17. vinimilaka 18. virasa 19. apasvara 20. avyakta 21. sthanabhrasta 22. avyavasthita 
23. misraka 24. anavadhana 25. sanunasika (ibid. 3.25-38, pp. 157-159) 

Kumbhakarna C. 1. alaptikarmani-vijhatah 2. alaptinirmanadaksa 3. rajendra- 
samsadi-aksobhyah4 . vasyakanthab. susarirasallb. anekakakupravinahl . raga-upahga- 
kriyahgadisu-avikala 8. bhasahgavetta 9. pravatukandm jeta 10. vahanimargagdna- 
aptamargah 11. tale kamapravinah 12. ubhayagaticatura 13. sawakdlam-visramah 
14. sastre susampraddyah 15. sughata patuvara 16. vastu-nirmanavedl 17. sphurjan- 
nirjavana patuh 18. patudhiyam-agresarah 19. gitodgrdhavidhdna-pesalah 20. vimukti 



padavi pandah 21. amitasiddhiman 22. nyunadhikyaga-savadhana dhisanah 
23. bahulldsavdn 24. aprayatna-gamaka-sthanatrayam-vyaptiman 25. suddhacchaya- 
lagajhah 26. sruti visadamatih 27. sthanasamsthasvarajhah (SahgUaraja, 
p. 442) D. 1. udghusta 2. kapila (vikala ) 3. kaki 4. sutkari 5. sanunasika 6. udghada 
7. apasvara 8. avyakta 9. virasa 10. vinimilana 11. tumbaki 12. bombakl 13. vakri 
14. sthanabhrasta 15. avyavasthita 16. prasari 17. karabha 18. bhita 19 sandasta 

20. anavadhanaka 21. kampita 22. sahkita 23. misra 24. karaR 25. vitalaka (ibid., pp. 443-445) 

Govinda Diksita G. 1. manojhasarira 2. hrdyasabda 3. gitagrahamoksa-daksa 
4. ragahgadisu vicaksana 5. nanavidhalaptisu tattvavedl 6. tristhana gamkesu daksah 
7. svddhina-kanthah 8. sudamukhyatdlaprabhedakalana-pravinah 9. svarasruti 
parimanavedi 10. bahuprabandhesu jitasramah 11. suddhacchayalaga-prabandhesu- 
patuh 12. kakubhede sthayesu nandvidhatam gatesu sahcaradaksah 13. margadesi-ragan 
sdstrdnusdrenamuhur-gayati. D. 1. sandasta 2. udghusta 3. sitkara 4. sahkita 5. kampita 
6. karali 7. kapila 8. kaki 9. vitala 10. udbhata 11. karabha 12. sirala 13. jhombaka 
14. tumbaki 15. vakri 16. prasari 17. nimilaka 18. virasa 19. apasvara 20. avyakta 

21. avayavastha22. misraka 23. anavadhdna 24. sanunasika (25. sthanabhrasta) 

Pandarika Vitthala gives only ten out of the twenty-five of gayanadosas described 

by Sarngadeva. The latter’s udbhata and vikala are transformed into the phonetic 
variants uddhada and kapila in the latter. While kapila is described by Bharata (NS 
33.17, p. 401) as a tonal distortion (vaisvarya) and displacement (ghargharayita) due 
to phlegm in the throat (sksmakantha). Abhinavagupta (op. cit. on NS loc. cit.) 
derives the word with the gloss ^fTRl eTWffcl I Udghusta of NN includes the 
kaki of SR. 

The defects of a singer may be briefly summarised from SR. A vocalist who sings 
with clenched teeth is samdasta. If he sings with divergent shouting voice he is 
udghusta. If he has a whistling, snorting or sucking breath, he is sutkari. If afflicted 
with stagefright, he is bhita. Sahkita is dubious and so sings fast to get it over with. 
Kampita trembles in both body and voice. KaraR makes awful faces and opens his 
mouth wide while singing. Vikala sings notes out of pitch; kaki crows harshly like a 
crow; vitala fails in tala. Karabha raises his neck like a camel. Udbhata the worst 
vocalist, has voice like a goat. Jhombaka has such a strain while singing that veins 
stand out on his forehead, face and neck. Tumbaki puffs up his cheeks like a bitter 
gourd. Vakri twists his neck while singing. Prasari moves not only in song but also in 
body on the stage. Nimilaka sings with eyes shut. Virasa is a bore. The apasvara sings 
the proscribed note. Avyakta sings with convulsive inarticulation. The sthanabhrasta 
fails in reaching the desired (pitch or) register. Avyavastha is disorganised in pitch 
and register. Misraka is mixed up in the various kinds of ragas and mixes up the 
shades of different ragas in the one he is rendering. Anavadhanaka is inattentive in 
executing characteristic phrases and gamakas. Anunasika has a nasal voice. 



The singing voice is coeval with the human body capable of musical expression 
with effortless ease. Its qualities are described as wide scope (in the registers), 
resonance, appeal, tenderness, sweetness, depth, denseness, smoothness, lustre 
and expansiveness. Its defects are enumerated as dryness, lack of appeal, weakness 
of upper partials, saplessness, thinness, harshness, crowing, and inaccuracy in pitch 
and register. The merits and defects of vocalists are found discussed in the 
following: Sathyanarayana, R., Voice Training in Indian Music, pp. 78-95 in Sangeet 
Natak, Nos. 53-54, July- Dec. 1979 

Idem. Kamataka-Sangitavdhini, pp. 122-128 

Idem. New Creations in Karnataka Music in ‘Smriti’, C. Narasimha Murthy Memo¬ 
rial Volume, ed. C.N. Mangala, pp. 95, 96 
Idem. Foreword, Visesakrtimale, pp. 1-3 
idem. Foreword, Sirigannadadincara, pp. iii, iv 

23cd-24. Manoyuhkte etc. This is an ancient theory of wada-generation in the 
gross body and is based on yoga. It is a polyvalent conceptual model, freely used in 
diverse disciplines. For example, Caraka ( Caraka-sarhhita, 28.6, 7) employs this 
theory in Ayurveda to explain how the soul becomes extrovert and expiessive, the 
same is used in phonetics by Panini in his Siksa (6, 7): 

tr: =hNllil9I^Pd iUdfa I * 

This model is adopted, probably for the first time by Matahga ( Brhaddesi ,• 18-21, 
p.3), followed by Nanyadeva (Bharatabhdsya, 1.2.9-10, p. 16), Jagadekamalla 
(.Sahgitacudamani , MS in Sri Varalakshmi Academy, Mysore, pp. 4, 5), Sarngadeva 
(SR. 1.3.3, 4) etc. to explain the origin of nada and musical sound in the gross 
human body. NN however, athetises the role played by brahmagranthi at the navel 

in this. _ . 

23c. Vivaksu, desirous of expression; in explaining ‘vivaksamana ’of SR (1.3.3) in 
this context both Simhabhupala and Kallinatha give a linguistic or verbal orienta¬ 
tion to the text. Thus Simhabhupala says ‘vaktumicchan’ (Sahgitasudhdkara on SR 
loc. cit. p. 65) and Kallinatha offers ‘bruvaicchdyamsani’{Sahgitakalanidhion SR loc. 
cit. p. 64), making out that the desire is for speech expression, thus excluding 
nondiscursive modes of meaning such as music. This is why vivaksd is translated 
here in its broadest sense. A further point merits consideration here: the above 
model explains the origin and manifestation of musical sound in the human body, 
but not the one generated on musical instruments outside the body. In this case, 
whatever nada form which the soul intends to generate on an external musical 
instrument, the soul realises the same within the body in the updrhsu form as an 



dbhasa (semblance) or virtual image cast upon itself and then externalises the same 
through expressional endeavour, technique, etc. Adding this semantic dimension, 
it is proper to interpret vivaksa as desire for expression, intention of manifestation. 

24b. Urdhvam caran: If the vital air (prana) moves upward (and fills the nadis) 
ahata-nada is manifested; if it moves downward, anahata-nada is generated accord¬ 
ing to Matanga ( Brhaddesi , 23, p. 3). 

Sirhhabhupala prefaces the extraction of this passage in explaining ‘urdhvapathe 
caran’ (SR 1.3.4) explicitly as follows (p. 65): 

Hcfrdqfd I ffrf 9$d9H^9I^TlSUHISdVI dK^ilAI^: 

Pandarika Vitthala does not speak of ahata and anahata-nada in his works. 

24c. Sirsa means head; but this has no resonating air cavity to generate the 
‘apusta ’or undeveloped sound. So, following Panini ( Panini-siksa 1.9) murdha/sirsa 
is translated into palate which envelops a resonating air cavity. 

24d. Asya: ‘Mouth’ as translated by Kunhanraja C. (English Translation of 
Sangitaratnakara chapter I, p. 46) is not appropriate in this context. When the 
mouth is closed and sound is generated, both facial muscles, maxillary sinuses and 
frontal sinuses resonate with it, producing artificial sound. Since it is not produced 
with open mouth and open throat in the normal way and since it does not have 
expressive power of natural voice, it is called krtrima, artificial. This is lucidly 
brought out by Matanga: suksmanada is produced in guha (navel?), atisuksma in the 
chest (hrdaya), vyakta (=pusta) in midthroat (kanthamadhye ), avyakta (apusta) in the 
palate (taludesagah) and krtrima (=artificial) in the region of the face (mukhadesa) 
(Brhaddesi, 24, 25, p. 3). Jagadekamalla (op. cit. loc. cit. pp. 4-5) endorses this view 
with acknowledgement to Matanga but calls vyakta and avyakta as pusta and apusta. 

24d-25a. Dhvani seems to mean specifically voice here, rather than ‘sound’ 

25a. Nadadhatoh: This is a grammatical derivation of the word ‘ nada ’ which is 
the substrate of all musical sound. ‘Nada ’ is obtained by elongating the vowel ‘ a’ on 
the first consonant ‘w’ in the verbal stem ‘nad’. Such elongation, called ‘ghah’ is 
applied when the sense of a verb is accomplished (Panini, Astadhyayi3.3. 13- ‘ bhave ), 
when applied causatively to a non-subject (ibid. 3.3.19- ‘akartari ca karakesamjhayam ) 
in both bhavaand karana (ibid. dA.Il-'bhdvakaranayoK) etc.' Xtid 'is an intransitive, 
set, parasmaipadi dhatu of the first (‘bhvadi ’) class ( Dhatupdtha 3.17) which means to 
sound, to make, resound, vibrate, to make resonant etc. It may also be derived from 



the verbal root ‘nad’ (unmanifest sound) by applying ‘ghan ’(Panini, 3.3.18). ‘Nada’ 
is described in the Pratisakhya literature as the fourth of externalised efforts 
( samghata=prayatna) involved in phonation resulting in speech (cf. Anantabhatta, 
comm, on Katyayana, Vajsaneyi Pratisakhyam, 1.9). Patanjali enumerates eleven of 
these outward efforts in his Mahabhasya: vivara, samvara, svasa, nada, ghosa, aghosa, 
alpaprana, mahaprana, udatta, anudatta, and svarita. 

A definition of nada from the Yoga view point would be : 

yi u l'9d 0 f>: I 'Ki'd snfTFSJFd "dK: : II Another approach is from mantrasastra 

according to which the syllables ‘na’ and ‘da ’symbolise the creative categories of 
prana air and (yoga-)body fire; their combination generates nada. This view is 
adopted by Mataiiga ( Brhaddesi, 22, p. 3) and endorsed byjagadekamalla (op. cit. 
MS loc. cit.), Sarhgadeva (op. cit. 1.3.6) etc. Simhabhupala (op. cit. on SR loc. cit. 
p. 65) attributes the derivation to lexicographers or grammarians while Kallinatha 
(op. cit. on SR loc. cit.) ascribes it to mantrasastra experts. 

25d. atipusta. This term is unique to Pandarika Vitthala who uses it in the same 
sense in his Sadragacandrodaya (1.18) also, but employs ‘ apusta for the same in 
Ragamala (5) andRagamanjari (1.17) in agreement with his predecessors Matanga, 
Jagadekamalla, Parsvadeva, Sarhgadeva etc. In this sense, ‘ ati means ‘beyond’ and 
accords well with textual tradition. It may be translated as very strong in the sense 
of ‘head’ sound or tarn register. 

26b. Caturdhavyavaharatah. While suksmaetc- denote five kinds of sound related 
to degree of subtlety, grossness and artificiality and to their origin in the human 
body, anumandra etc. refer to the range. These are regarded as of four kinds rather 
than as different regions of the tone continuum probably because of the difference 
in the quality of sound such as brightness, denseness, shrillness, hollowness etc. 
While the range of human audibility is some 16-16000 cps, i.e. about 10 registers, 
only three are admitted into musical transactions in ancient Indian musicology. A 
recognition is accorded to the difference in range between instrumental and vocal 
sounds for the first time in theory in the 16th century by Ramamatya who mentions 
anumandra in connection with the vina (Svaramelakalanidhi, 3.22, p.15; 3.44ab, 
p. 17), despite his conventional acceptance of only three registers earlier (ibid. 2.4, 
p. 9). For the first time Pandarika Vitthala offers a rationale for the recognition of 
such extention, viz. anumandra is inaccessible to the human voice but accessible to 
musical instruments (NN 3.1.27cd). Just about a generation later (1609 A.D.) 
Somanatha confirms the use of anumandra (Ragavibodha, 2.19, 22, pp. 62, 63) and 
also further extension into atitara (ibid. 2.37, 41, pp. 69, 72) in various vina 
keyboards. This came to be well established in the 17th century A.D. (e.g. 
Venkatamakhin, Caturdandiprakasika 1.76, p. 110). 

This range may be compared with that of various musical instruments of the 



SI. No. Instrument 








Threshold: Organ tube 32" 










Bass Viol 





Bass Tuba 





French Horn 










Bass Clarinet 





Tenor Trombone 





Kettle Drum 





Human Voice 
(a) Bass 




(b) Baritone 




(c) Tenor 




(d) Alto 




(e) Soprano 















Soprano Clarinet - 

























Highest: Organ tube 0.75" 





Limit of Overtones useful to 

music - 







Thus it is seen that except in the piano and the violin, the range is about three 
octaves and the total range is about seven octaves. Since pitch is not absolute in 
Indian music and is relative to a variable reference pitch (adhara sruti ), and 
considering that only a small region of the anumandra and atitara registers 
is covered, the range of musical sounds admitted into Indian music from early 
times and its extension in the 16th century seems well based on convenience and 




The Pratisakhya literature speaks of seven stages (sthana) for speech. For 
example, The Taittiriya Pratisakhya has (23.4-9) 

I 7117^ I 

The first four stages are subsonic manifestations. Vedic literature is repeatedly 
explicit on the use of only three octaves. The Samavidhana-Brahmana (Sayanabhasya), 
Rgueda Pratisakhyam (13.41-45 and Uvata’s comm, thereon), Panini-siksa (7, 8), 
Naradiya-siksa (1.1.7), Mandukya-siksa (68); this is true of Parana and other litera¬ 
ture also: e.g. Visnudharmottara-purana (3.18.1), Vayu-purana (25.4), Visnu-sarman, 
Pahcatantra (5.6.53, Apanksitakarakam, gitarata-gardabha-srgdla-kathd), Amarasimha, 
Namalihganusasanam (Amarakosa, 1.6. Natyavarga 2) 

27b.Dvigunah: (i) Physically it means doubled in pitch, i.e. in frequency (i.e. 
halved in string length etc.) Thus a note in the madhyasthana is double in pitch of 
its analogue in the mandra; note in the tara-sthana is double in pitch of its analogue 
in madhya. 

(ii) It is interpreted in terms of the effort involved in manifesting the note by 
utterance. Panini ( Astadhyayi 1.1.50) says ‘sthane’ntaratamah’. Kallinatha interprets 
Sarngadeva’s ‘dvigunascottarottarah’ (SR 1.3.7 p. 66) in this way: 

fgrpi: | 9^1lRcqt|^|c|dl T7Sq*8IHf7SlcT: 77 "0=7 T^TT- 

r<°49^MiWd)5fqfgjpi: I'^TSlPlfTSTcTT^sb^'Jll^^ 

Thus the ancient musicologists in India hold that the force of the air generating 
the experience of the octave note is double that generating experience of the 
fundamental. Nanyadeva quotes Narada ( Naradiya-siksa ?) to purport that such 
doubling is effected by narrowing the epiglottal orifice in the throat and expelling 
the breath through it under pressure ( Bharatabhasya , 2.42,43, pp.19, 20) 

TPimf flW: 7^ TTJcTcn II 

cfFTl: TcfTT^ ^ W OdHItl 7^3-RTT ^ quf^i | 

He makes it clear that low svara is generated by enlarging the epiglottal orifice 
(ibid. 2.44, 45, p. 20): 



cfcuofqq^ TJSpTT gpqt : ^ I 

R?n^q*H Iq^^iTi cRT'tjTO: || 

It may be noted that the rule ‘dvigunascottarottarah’ is restricted by Pandarika 
Vitthala and other earlier authors to only three octaves. This is testimony to their 
keen power of perception; for, the higher (or lower) one ascends (by octave, fifth) 
or descends (by the just fourth), the less and less the derived octave coincides with 
the fundamental, leaving a gap. I have discussed this as ‘Assonance Defect Effect’ 
elsewhere (Sathyanarayana, R., Nihsahkahrdaya, pp. 196, 411, 415-418, 485-488 
etc.). It is this (dviguna) acoustical phenomenon that places all the svarasthdnas of 
the octave spirally in the tone continuum and makes possible the predictability of 
their colour. The octave phenomenon inheres three fundamental principles of 
musical organisation viz. 

(a) realisation in practice of the mutual relationship of every note in the octave 
with its predecessor and successor; the mutual relationships between pairs of 
successive notes and of the relationship of each note with the fundamental or any 
other given note. 

(b) extrapolation of this to, and application in, various tone regions. 

(c) application in temporal rhythm dimension to derive musico-semantic modes 
such as song or its abstraction, the raga. 

26bcd-27a. Anumandro... murdhni syat: Considerable research has gone in 
recent times into the determination of the relation between a pitch range and the 
body region believed to generate it. Revesz, for example, admits of a rough ad-hoc 
relationship between the notes of mandra, madhya and tarn (low, middle and high 
registers respectively) to chest, throat and head; but he rejects the existence of a 
direct spatial association with tone level and its sensation in the body organ: 
(Revesz, G., Introduction to the Psychology of Music, p. 68): 

“However, if we compare the tone sensations with the actual spatial impressions 
(optical and tactual), we soon find that there is not the slightest phenomenological 
similarity between the spatial and the acoustical concepts of‘height’ and ‘distance’, 
let alone ideational identity.” 

Revesz terms this relationship as association by analogy. E. von Hornbostel 
(Musicalische Tonsysteme, cit. Revesz, op. cit. loc. cit.) and W. Koehler ( Akustische 
Untersuchungen, cit. idem, op. cit. loc. cit.) do not relate the high-low relationship 
to height or distance in space but to the intensity of tone-brightness or dullness. But 
these views are open to question: the spatial association of the high and low tones 
of the tara and mandra-svaras may not be absolutely valid, but it is acoustically 
established that low notes are generated by slow vibration and high notes, by fast 
'oration. The frequency of a note is a function of the speed, volume and pressure 
: the air which is forced through the epiglottis and sets it in vibration. If the air at 



the bottom of the lungs is expelled without compression, the vibration is low; if it 
is compressed upto the region of the throat or to a small volume, the force of escape 
is larger and so the epiglottal fold vibrates faster, and without spreading, directly 
reaches the head (i.e. the palate). This has been described as ‘ murdhni taro’ by the 
authorities. Therefore, the sound levels are related to body space in some sense. 
The same applies to instrumental sounds by intrapolation into body consciousness. 
Every vocalist is familiar with the ‘feeling’ that the mandra notes are ‘belly’ notesand 
the tarn notes are ‘head’ notes. The view of Hornbostel is based on an intersensory 
experience (i.e. visual, such as brightness and dullness); in Western music low notes 
are believed to be dull, and high notes, bright. This does not appear to be true in 
Indian music, or is, at least, controversial; the brightness of a note depends, among 
other things on svarapusti (strength or richness of a tone). Also, the brightness of 
a note is integral to its nature and cannot be isolated as a variable component. 
Therefore, this, depending on the quality of the voice, tone colour etc. does not 
seem to be related to regions of sound. On the other hand, ancient Indian music 
theory recognises that the same note acquires different personalities in different 
registers: e.g. Matanga (op. cit. p. 4) 

and the sixty-six srutis propounded by Kohala (ibid. p. 7) 

28c. Hetu: Matanga poses five schools of thought on the relationship between 
sruti and svara viz. tddatmya (identity), vivartatva (inversion), karyatva (causality), 
parinamita (transformation) and abhivyahjakata (revealing, manifesting) avayava- 
avayavi (part-whole) and himself prefers parinamavada. I have discussed these in 
detail elsewhere (Sathyanarayana, R., Nihsahkahrdaya, pp. 493-517). On the other 
hand, Sarngadeva prefers causality: This is seen (a) in his expounding an ablative 
relationship between sruti and svara: ‘srutibhyah syuh svarah’ (SR 1.3.23) (b) his 
explicit statement to this effect: 'evam svarakaranam’ (SR 1.3.25) (c) his use of the 
term ‘hetu ’ (generating) cause (SR 1.3.26). Pandarika Vitthala seems to subscribe 
to this view in using the word 'hetavah. ’. According to this causal relationship, sruti 
is the material cause for svara (upadana karana) just as clay is of the pot. 

28d-30a. The first available reference to the stair-case analogy for the stepwise 
progression of dhvani is found in Matanga ( Brhaddesi , 27ab. prose) coherently but 
differently extracted by Sirhhabhupala (op.cit. on SR 1.3.22, p. 68) and Kallinatha 
(op.cit. on ibid. loc. cit. p. 70). According to Matanga ( Brhaddesi, impressi typis), 
dhvani is manifested by the union of body-fire and the body-air (prana). It is then 
swept upward like smoke, by wind and volition. It then fills up body space (chest and 
above, i.e. components of voice apparatus) step by step. It is thus manifested in 
these respective places, (by assuming the exact shape of the respective organ of the 
voice apparatus) differentiated and quantified forms such as catuhsruti. 



The extracts of this passage by Simhabhupala and Kallinatha suggest a different 
theory: dhvani is manifested in space of which it is an attribute. Space is actually one 
but appears discrete, plural, distinct and finite because it fills different objects (such 
as a pot). Such occupation is perceived (and evidenced) through the plurality of 
objects. Dhvani possesses the property of filling up and therefore appears in plural 
manifestations such as sadja, rsabha, etc. and thus produces awareness of exactness, 
finiteness and distinctness in them even though it is but one. These intervals 
constitute phenomenal reality (of musical sound) as do the differentiated and 
proliferated forms of space. Such individuation of a single undifferentiated entity 
occurs by purusaprayatna, i.e. volitional or conscious effort. It rises and fills like 
smoke in various body spaces (of voice apparatus) lying above the navel step by step, 
and is, in this manner, manifested in plural appearance. This theory has overtones 
of the grammarian’s (vaiyakarana) viewpoint as engendered in the Pratisakhyas and 
siksas (for detailed discussion see Sathyanarayana, R., Sruti , Dhvaniand Sphota in the 
Indian Theosophist, 82.10-11, Oct-Nov. 85, pp. 30-47). 

According to Matanga, it is dhvani itself which pervades the supranavel region 
progressively. It is only later that the concept of nadi , evidently inspired by yoga and 
ayurvedawas introduced, and sruti was conceived as generated because the vital air 
flows through the nadis and fills them. 

Kohala would appear to be the first theorist to relate the upper nadis and 
volitional effort in the generation of strain the human body (extr. Matanga, op.cit. 

p. 12): 

A later work, called Kohalamatam , originating in Kerala claims to derive this theory 
from (an unspecified) Agama work (or sahgitasdstra) and apportions the nadis (said 
to be) belonging to the various components of the voice apparatus; the origin of the 
svarasis traced to these components in the Ndradiya-siksa. Kohalamata (Ms. copy in 
Sri Varalakshmi Acadmy, Mysore) reveals a parallel in the number of srutis and 
number of nadis from which a given svara arises (p. 1): 

*I^M «b«d*iMir?rai: I 
^ fcerai: I 

^TT^rr WW3RTT: | 
d-dUN^J I 

cb'Mdlc'dU’rUI I 



T^u ( 5 lft)*ir<Hteiit Tf^( ?^)^JT if? f^TT: I 

^N'-HWI^ HKWI4J 3T%8r E rfcI I 
^Idta 2JT?: ^fcPfrlTT: I 
^5cfl?ITF«t: «+MM^d<=6"T?^: I 
IMSKf? ?t?T fjcR: I 

oqf^sjphj ^Jlfai T3TW I^TftTIT: II 

Sarngadeva seems to be the next authority to adopt this theory (SR 1.3. 8, 9), and 
being a great ayurvedic authority on human anatomy of his times, was probabh 
struck by an anatomical analogue: 

‘Although no trace of transverse segmentation is visible on the surface of the 
spinal cord, it is convenient to regard it as being built of a series of superimposed 
spinal segments or neuromers, to each of which is attached a pair of spinal nerves. 
Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves spring from the spinal cord, each nerve having an 
anterior and posterior root, the latter being characterised by the presence of an oval 
swelling, termed the spinal ganglion... The pairs of spinal nerves are grouped as 
follows: cervical—eight, thoracic—twelve, lumbar—five, coccygeal—one and for 
the sake of convenience the spinal cord is divided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar 
and sacral regions, corresponding with the attachments of the different groups of 
nerves’ (Gray’s Anatomy, pp. 908,909). This seems to have been extrapolated onto 
the yoga body, and extended into the postulation of three sets of twenty-two pairs 
of transverse yoganadis corresponding to the three registers, mandra, madhya and 
tam. It must be strongly emphasized here that prana, agni, brahmagranthi, yoganadis 
etc. have only a postulatory status and do not warrant exact analogy or correspond¬ 
ence in the physical human body. 

30b. Sravyamatratah. This offers a definition of sruti in terms of aural acuity and 
suggests the pitch limen criterion as definitive base. The earliest known definition 
is due to Dattila ( Dattilam, 9) “dhvanivisesds-tesravandc-chruti-samjnitdh ’’wherein the 
‘visesa ’served as a seed for the ‘dhvani-vailaksanya of Abhinavagupta (Abhmava- 
bharatl on NS 28, 26 pr., p. 23) and ‘ nairantarya and ‘ dhvanyantarasruti’ of 
Sarngadeva (SR 1.3.12). Therefore ‘mdtratah’ may be taken in the sense of 
‘samarthya ’. Otherwise, if it is understood as ‘merely’, everything that is, or may be, 
heard, including nonmusical sound, becomes ‘sruti s; so, there would be left 
nothing which is distinctive, differentiating or definitive in the term. 

The word sruti is derived by applying the pratyaya Mm’ which enjoins action or 
activity to the verbal stem ‘iru’ (class I, transitive, parasmaipada, ‘ anit\ but class V 
according to Monier Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, p.1100; Dhdtupdtha, 
22.44) which means to listen, to hear attentively, to obey. It has been transmitted 



in two formal streams—the Vedic and Secular. Nanyadeva (Bharatabhasya, 3.5.82) 

s£9cl I 

c h4fql^cl frt>Pi 'Jiidcl II 

In Vedic literature sruti generally means ‘that which is heard’; ‘prthak sruti ’means 
‘heard as a distinct or separate entity’ e.g. Rkpratisdkhyam of Sakatayana, 13.40 and 
Uvata’s comm, thereon; ‘ekasruti ’means ‘heard at the same pitch’ in Rkpratisakhya, 
Taittiriya-Pratisakhya, Vajasaneyi Pratisakhyaetc.; ‘uccasruti ’ in Rktantra of Sakatayana 
(3.3.1, p. 15) means ‘high tone’ (cf. Rktantra-vivrti, p. 10 and Paribhasika-vacana on 
the same). Naradlya-siksa employs the word sruti in technical contexts which seem 
to be seeds for several conceptual evolutes for sruti in secular music (Sathynarayana, 
R., Nihsahkahrdaya, pp. 200-202). 

In secular music, however, sruti implies aural threshold, and pitch limen or aural 
acuity. Kallinatha offers seemingly different explanations. While commenting as 
‘sravnat’ (SRI.3.8) he takes it as ‘fit to be heard’— sravanayogyatvat This seems to 
be related to the quality of the svara, viz. anuranana sakti (overtone formation), 
dirghatva (continuity) and anantarata (contiguity) because the sruti is karana, svara 
is karya; the karana-e specially the upadana karana must include the quality of the 
karya (op.cit., p. 68). However, while commenting on SR 1.3.12cd: 

WlfabtHcfl I 

he aligns his viewpoint appropriately to ‘nirantarata’ (ibid. pp. 69-70) 


He further takes up the untenable position that dhvani in its first perception, i.e. 
at the moment of generation is called ‘smh’and that dhvani in its subsequent 
perception with continuity and resonance (or overtone formation) is svara (ibid, 
p. 67). I have discussed this temporal view of the sruti elsewhere ( Nihsahkahrdaya , 
pp. 356-361, 514-518). Pandarika Vitthala repeats the sruti-nadi relationship in sruti, allocations of svaras (2.20-22). Besides this, he likens 
the srutis to mercury resting in grahaka-s (pits) and gives the names of the srutis, viz. 
tivra, kumudvati, etc. in his Ragamahjan (1.19, 22-24). 

By and large, the treatment of sruti in NN is cursory; what is left unsaid is far more 
than what is said therein. I have discussed the sruti in some detail in its manifold 



facets in Nihsahkahrdaya, Sruti: the ScalicFoundation, Srutijati: A Four Component Theory 
and Srutijati: A Psycho-Acoustical Study, etc. 

30cd. Ragadi...sthitah: Most authorities, including Pandarika Vitthala tend to 
regard the sruti as a primary referential matrix from which the svaras are derived, 
while it is more systematic to regard it as a theoretical model. The antaragata sruti 
propounded by Visvavasu as well as the four srutis declared by Pandarika Vitthala 
(viz. 5,6, 18, 19) as having no musical potential, support this. In any case, the unit 
of musical transactions is the svara and not sruti. Sruti is an explanatory and 
quantifying device of svaras. 

Ragadi —M’means gjta, i.e. the various kinds of prabandha, vastu and rupaka. 

33d. Prathama: These positions are defined as suddha in parallel works. 

34a. Asapah, i.e. ri-ga-ma-dha-nr, this appears to contain a nuance; ri-ga-ma-dha-m 
move on to the srutis subsequent to the positions of their initial (suddha) state to 
become modified. Does it mean that sa and pa themselves move downward for 
modification? No, they do not move at all; they are invariants. This is a direct 
consequence of the obsolescence of the grama, in which sa occupied the third, viz. 
manda-sruti and to become vikrta , i.e. cyuta-sadja, causing ri to become vikrta at the 
seventh sruti and causing ni to became vikrti (kaisiki) by occupying the first (tivra) 
sruti; or sa remained at the fourth sruti (chandovati) and yet became vikrta (acyuta- 
sadja) because ni became vikrta (kakali) at the second (kumudvati) sruti; similarly pa 
was called vikrtapahcama (in madhyama-grama) when it occupied the 16th (sandipani) 
sruti instead of the 17th (SR, 1.3.39-45) 

34a. Sva-sva-purvatah e.g. reckoning from its suddha position viz. seventh sruti , 
if ri moves to the eighth, its gati is the first; if it moves from the eighth to the ninth, 
its gati is second; if it moves from the ninth to the tenth srutiitsgati is third; similarly, 
for ga the svapurva srutis are the ninth, tenth, eleventh and twelfth for its first, 
second, third and fourth gatis. 

34cd. Tristri-gatlh. Gati is translated as degree of movement, abbreviated to 
‘degree’. Each of rsabha, madhyama, dhaivata and nisada has three gatis, while 
gandharahas four gatis. The seven notes sa riga mapa dha mare defined to be in their 
initial state (prathama-sthiti) at the 4th, 7th, 9th, 13th, 17th, 20th and 22nd srutis 
respectively, when their respetive gati is zero. The different gatis of the svaras are 
compiled in the following table eclectically from Pandarika Vitthala’s NN, Sadraga- 
candrodaya (1.26-30) and Ragamahjan (1.27-32). 



Svara Gati Textual name Sruti _ Modem name in _ 

number Karnataka Symbol Hindustani Symbol 






































satiruti rsabha 



g a 




suddha gandhara 













antara (original) 



gu * 



laghu ma 



g u 


g a 

antara gandhara 



























(dvitlya?), pratinidhi 







pratinidhi, laghu pa 












































satsruti dhaivata 








suddha nisada 







kaisiki nisada 






kakall (original) 







laghu sa 




kakali nisada 







The text on svara-vihrti in Ragamanjari is somewhat confused and opaque; the 
first gati ri-dha are not explicitly stated or named, but used in sriraga (2.68cd), 
malavakaisika (2.64). The third gati ri-dha seem to be named atyucchrhkhala (1.32), 
but are simply referred to as third gati rirdha (2.36.38). Again, the fourth gati ga 
seems to be named urdhvakhala (1.31) but mentioned only as fourth gati ga in 
ragalaksana (2.44a). Mudduvenkatamakhin ( Ragalaksana , 2.141) has called it, 
appropriately, a la Ramamatya, (cf. cyutamadhyamam-gandhara, cyutasadjanisada) 
suddhamadhyama gandhara, a name which Tulaja claims to have introduced 
( SangUasaramria, p. 111). Pandarika Vitthala has designated sadja of the third sruti 
as laghusadja, madhyama at the twelfth sruti as laghu-madhyama and pahcama at the 
sixteenth srutias laghu-pahcamain the Sadragacandrodaya (1.26,27). Ramamatya has 
called them cyutamadhyama-gandhara, cyutapahcama-madhyamaand cyuta-sadja-nisada 
respectively ( Svaramelakalanidhi, 3.29,31-33, 38, 39, 41,43); Somanatha has named 
them mrdu ma , mrdupaaud mrdu sa respectively (1.24 comm.). However, Pandarika 
Vitthala, despite the nomenclature in Sadragacandrodaya, continues to mention 
them as third gati ga, ma, ni in the Ragamala, Ragamanjari and NN. In an opaque 
passage in Ragamanjari (1.32ab) he seems to indicate the names kaisiki, (?) and 
urdhva for madhyama in its three gatisv iz. at the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth 
srutis; but he refers to the first gati ma as such in the laksana of vibhasa (NN 3.1.197, 
Ragamala, 175). 

It is interesting that about a generation later Somanatha has used gati for 
svaravikrti in the same sense ( Ragavibodha, 1.29 and comm.). 

35cd. Ganyor-gatl-smrtau. The ga-ni of the second gati viz. antaraand kakaliat the 
eleventh and second srutis respectively were acoustically complex and muscially 
unsatisfactory intervals. This is why their use was prescribed to the minimum in the 
music of the grama and jati; Mummadi Cikkabhupala extracts Bharata to say that 
antara and kakaVx notes were to be used only in such jatis in which ga and mwere little 
used (Abhinava Bharatasarasahgraha, p.150); 

3JWI<rMrHNK'll**JKRi ^TfcFJ ^RTR: I 
Sarngadeva is even more explicit (SR 1.5.6): 

In fact, they were not regarded as independent svaras at all, and did not have the 
status or function of amsa-svara. This is because they had no consonance richness 
etc. The ga and ni manifested at the twelfth and third srutis respectively (i.e. the 
modern 'antara and ‘kdkaVi notes) were obtained by the grama-sadharna technique, 
and were employed exclusively in the madhyamagramaaud sadjagramajatis and ragas 
respectively. This restriction arose because the maximum intervallic size was 
restricted to four srutis. However, when the grama gave place to mela , the conceptual 



and empirical parameters had to be realigned to the notion of the mela] one such 
realignment related to the antara-kakaU notes. When madhyama-grama merged into 
the sadja-grama , madhyama-sadharana was sought to be accommodated in the 
sadjagrama itself. Both the antara and kakah were now (in the 16th century A.D.) 
tempered to their next sruti positions; as tribute to tradition and convention, they 
were still named as ma (laghu ma , mrdu ma , cyutamadhyama-gdndhdra) and sa (laghu 
sa, mrdu sa, cyutasadjanisada) . The original antara and kakall became diffuse and 
ambiguous for some time, continued to be used in some ragas in the 16th century, 
during the transition of the grama to the mela. For a while cyutamadhyamagdndhara 
and cyutasadjanisada were made to represent the antara and kakaVi notes in such 
ragas as employed the latter, and in course of time displaced them completely. 
Soon, when sadjagrama became uniquely established the practice of calling the 
notes at the twelfth and third s rutis as madhyama and sadja and of employing the 
antra-kakaCi notes was given up; the former were tempered, and out of respect or 
loyalty to the grama system, the names antara and kdkaVi were retained for the new 
tempered notes. Pandarika Vitthala is probably indicating this situation when he 
repeats the second gati ga-ni with the names antara and kakaVi in this hemistitch. 

36. The four srutisv iz. 5th-18th, 6th-19th, though separated by twelfth srutis and 
therefore could constitute samvadi pairs are unique in the octave; they are always 
antaragata-srutis and can never manifest svaras. This is a direct consequence of the 
rule that sa and pa could never be vikrta svaras and that only svaras other than sa- 
pa (hence the use of the phrase asapah in NN, 3.1.34a)—but never sa and pa could 
move upward into subsequent srutis to attain vikrti. Ma however was divested of its 
nonomissibility (avinasitva) and invariability but was characterised with three gatis 
to align with the transition of grama to mela. 

37ab. Sesa.bodhakah: The disposition of svaras in the remaining eighteen 

srutis is as follows: 

1. third gati dha/ first gati ni (kasiki ni) 

2. second gati ni (kakali ni) 

3. third gati ni ( laghu sa) 

4. sadja 

5. — 

6 . — 

7. suddha ri 

8. first gati ri (catuhsruti ri) 

9. second gati ri /suddha ga 

10. third gati ri/ first gati ga (sddharana ga) 

11. second gati ga (gantara ga) 

12. third gati ga {laghu ma) 

13. fourth gati ga/ suddha ma 




14. first gatima 

15. second gati ma 

16. third gati ma (laghu pa) 

17. pahcama 

18. — 

19. — 

20. suddha dha 

21. first gati dha (catuhsruti dha) 

22. second gati dha/suddha ni. 

37cd. Nyunadhika... yadi Cf. Sadragacandrodaya , 2.27, where the principle is 
extended to anumandra (also, Somanatha, op. cit. 2.34, p. 68). This principle is 
discovered for the first time in the 16th century. This implies that exact intonation 
was expected only in the middle register, while a certain amount of latitude was 
allowed in the same notes when executed in the lower or higher registers. This 
concession was made probably because of the ambiguous status of notes like 
catuhsruti ri-dha , antara gandhara, kakali nisada , and pratimadhyama (which at this 
time oscillated between the 15th and 16th srutis). This situation must have then 
existed in both Karnataka music and Hindustani music because Pandarlka Vitthala 
and Somanatha enunciate this principle; significantly it is no longer stated in the 
18th century and later. 

38-41. The fourfold classification of svarasinto-vadi, samvadi, anuvadi and vivadi 
is an important contribution of Indian music theory to the understanding of the 
aesthetic experience in music. 

Every semantic mode depends for effective expression on an efficient organisa¬ 
tion of its symbols. The meaning may emerge from sequential (discursive) or 
simultaneous (presentational) appearance of the symbols. The clarity and intelli¬ 
gibility of the meaning depends on organising the symbols into groups each of 
which has a discernible pattern such that there is inter-group and intra-group 
consistency. The meaning is determined not only by integration of the unitary or 
group meanings; but syntax, of (i.e. the way in which the symbols are organised or 
arranged), proximity and distance, relative importance or prominence etc. of the 
symbols are also relevant to express an intended meaning. Both homophonic music 
and language have discursive symbols; polyphonic music consists of a progression 
of simultaneous (or presentational) symbols. The symbols have three functions, viz. 
signification, connotation and denotation, which are mutually complementary. In 
language these are more or less fixed and therefore cannot readily be interchanged 
or displaced, except in special situations involving complex equations. But the 
symbols in music have only more or less fixed signification while connotation and 
denotation are impermanent, fluid and limited by personal equations. Therefore, 



they possess unlimited general, polyvalent application. So possibility for conjuga¬ 
tion and reciprocation arises in svara , and not word. A more detailed discussion of 
symbolistic philosophy of meaning may be found in Susanne K. Langer: Philosophy 
in a New Key and Emotion in Music, A.N. Whitehead, Symbolism: Its Meaning and Effect 
and Bertrand Russel, Our Knowledge of the External World (chapter on Logic as 
Essence of Philosophy). 

In defining vadi-svara as most expressive of the personality of a raga through the 
most prolific recurrence and possessing an interval of twenty two srutis, in defining 
samvadi as a conjugate of the vadi at the distance of the (just) fourth or (just) fifth 
and defining it as a svara at the distance of nine or thirteen srutis from the vadi, 
ancient Indian musicologists such as Bharata have shown amazing perceptive 
brilliance. Similarly the vivadi is difined as a svara of two srutis , reckoned from the 
vadi; all other notes are anuvadis. This means that aesthetic (or sonance) potential 
of svara varies directly with pitch distance. This quality accrues from similarity or 
identity with itself, which is greatest in the octave note; the next most similarity 
occurs in the fourth (madhyama) and then in the fifth (which is an inverted fourth 
from the octave), next in the anuvadis, and least in the most proximate, viz. the 
vivadi. These are very appropriately named in Western music theory in terms of 
sonance (assonance, con-sonance, dis-sonance and in Indian music in terms of 
expressive potential ( vad ): vadi, sam-vadi, anu-vadi and vi-vadi. Vivadi should be 
interpreted not as a note to be avoided, but as antilogical to the vadi, which 
heightens the effect of the vadi by contrast. 

The samvadi etc. are defined in two mutually consistent ways, as explained by 
Abhinavagupta (op. cit. on Bharata, op. cit. 28.22, 23, pp.16, 17): Bharata and 
others describe samvaditva as a phenomenon perceived in single note having a 
magnitude of nine or thirteen srutis , reckoned from the vadi ; this is an extension 
of the concept of svara -pramdna, e.g. dvisruti, trisruti, catuhsruti svara. So samvaditva 
refers to the quality or nature (svarupa) of the note, which accrues to it because of 
its size, rather than as an interval (antarala); that is, consonance is a quality of the 
note, not of an intervening interval. This is the view of BhattaTauta,Abhinavagupta’s 
teacher. In commenting on Bharata’s 

cllcM'M ^‘cIIRhI I (NS. 28.22 pr. p.15) 

Abhinavagupta says (loc. cit.) 

^ ^ eft I 

The last sentence here would mean prima facie that if there are two notes A and B 
such that they have magnitudes of nine and thirteen srutis respectively when 




reckoned from a third note C, then A and B are mutually samvadi notes. This is 
untenable because it leaves the vadi (viz. C) out of consideration; samvadi, anuvadl 
and vivadi exist only in relation to the vadi as indicated in their names. Also, in other 
contexts such as formation of auduva etc. Bharata unambiguously means the just 
fifth (a thirteen sruti note from the given sadava- causing note). Therefore the 
above last sentence should be construed thus: each of A and B is mutually samvadi 
with the vadln ote. Otherwise, two notes, e.g. madhyamaandpancama (of sadjagrama) 
separated by only four srutis would become mutually samvadis', thus the samvadl- 
laksana enunciated by Bharata becomes futile and inconsistent. 

The second view of samvaditva is interval oriented; it considers the phenomenon 
in terms of a pair of notes, that is, a relational value; two notes are said to be mutually 
samvadis if there is an interval or distance of eight or twelve sruti : 

eftTeft- (SR 1.3.48,49). Here both the notes are regarded 
as contributing to the samvadi character through mutual participation; both notes 
are samvadins and the first has (no longer) the character of vadi. Further, this 
relationship is independent of the vadi note; i.e. any two notes separated by eight 
or twelve srutis would be samvadins, whatever the remote maybe. In the first view, 
the samvadi is manifested at the ninth or thirteenth sruti , in the second, it is at a 
distance of eight or twelve srutis. Quantitatively both mean the same; qualitatively 
however, they seem to be based on different premises. 

Abhinavagupta prescribes, besides nine-srati thirteen -sruti magnitude, another 
condition of samvaditva, viz. sameness of the number of srutis (op. cit. loc. cit. p. 17) 
elaborating the scope of ‘anyo’nya’in the above passage from Bharata. 

3T%^rfcT ^FT *idlP<Hl ^ ^dlPMpd UdlPd-fi I 

He owes this idea to Matanga (op. cit. p.14): ddld : dd c ll'd<- 

c^dN^o&otii; I This condition is well satisfied in the illustrations offered for 
samvaditva by Bharata himself: sa-pa, ri-dha, ga-ni, sa-ma in sadjagrama ; ri-dha, ga-ni, 
ri-pa, sa-ma in madhyama-grama. While Bharata seems to have restricted samvaditva 
specifically only to these pairs, it was extended by others, (e.g. Matanga through the 
mandala prastara method, p. 14) to the vikrta notes. Matanga’s discussion of 
consonance is very lucid and very illuminating (op. cit. pp. 14-17; extr. Kallinatha, 
op. cit. on SR 1.3.47-51, p. 92). 

d cMdlh^-ldlM: I fidddld.W^ I 4glP«dl TFTFT TFR^ 

dBHdfedK^ I I dltUlP<P*f: ^TcWTFMT T^f^TRl^K^ I 



That samvaditva here refers to a pair of conjugate (or interchangeable) notes is 
abundantly borne out by the description and illustrations which follow. 

Pandarika Vitthala aligns himself with this latter view (eight or twelve srutis — 
interval between a pair of notes); in his Sadragacandrodaya (1.35) he further adds 
that (notwithstanding the fulfilment of this condition) (suddha) ma and (suddha) 
ni do not bear mutual consonance: 

^^5-gfcTTTl fgqt(o|| wTdHl ^ famcf*! ^1 I 

He does not explain the reason for this exception. Abhinavagupta notices it; but 
because he mentions it contiguously with ‘samana-srutikatva ’, it is to be inferred that 
the lack of consonance between this pair arises because of the lack of samana- 
srutikatva (op. cit. loc. cit. p. 17): 'W Trundle4 m y'dlRcq ... 

Kallinatha is explicit on this point (op. cit. loc. cit. p. 93), and rejects this 

He does not subscribe to samana-srutikatva as a criterion for samvaditva and holds 
the twelve- or eight-iruti interval alone is both necessary and sufficient for conso¬ 

^ir^uiifprd fas i 

It may be noted that Sarngadeva and later authorities do not restrict consonance 
to specifically named pairs; so in the 13th century A.D. the samvaditva relationship 
was extended to the vikrta .swum also. This is clear from Kallinatha’s commentary. 
Kallinatha comprehends both viewpoints and conciles them as not really different 
(op. cit. p. 93): 

Tfa ‘ Hd^tbW TfaTf^TWPTlfq I 

Pandarika Vitthala’s definitions of vadietc. are general and uncontroversial. For 
example, he defines vivadins as a pair of notes which are separated by one 
intervening sruti (NN 3.1.41ab). But Sarngadeva, probably influenced by 
Abhinavagupta’s words, offers three alternative views on the vivadi (SR 1.3.49). 

I faPTlfa cTT RM cff cfafaf II 

(1) Ni-ga are vivadins with respect to all other notes; (2) they are vivadins of ri-dha 
(respectively); (3) ri-dha are vivadins of ga-ni respectively. These are widely diver¬ 
gent views. The first means (rather improbably) that each of ga and ni is a vivddin 
of each of sa, ri, ma, pa and dha. If so, the condition of one sruti intervening interval 




is flouted; it means (probably) that they are vivadins to the other notes when this 
condition is fulfilled. For example, ni is vivddi to sa when the former is kaisiki or 
kakall and the latter is cyuta or acyuta respectively; to dha when both are suddha. 
Similarly, ga is vivadinto nwhen both are suddha', go is vivadinof iwawhen the former 
is sadharana or antara and the latter, cyuta or acyuta respectively. The second view 
is valid when the pairs ri-ga, dha-ni are both suddha, and is included in the first as a 
special instance; this view suggests that the vivaditva (and samvaditva) apply only to 
suddha-svaras (as was prescribed by Bharata-muni). The third view presents an 
unusual concept of vivaditva', when we say that ga is vivadin of ri, this antilogicity 
accrues not because of its own nature, but because of the nature of ri, in other words, 
vivaditva is generated in ri, but it culminates, manifests or is reflected in ga. The 
same applies to ni-dha also. 

Sonance has attracted much discussion in Western music and covers a wide range 
from the ingenuous theory of pleasing-displeasing to a volumetric theory of sound 
postulated by Henry Watt {The Psychology of Sound, cit. Glen Hayden, Introduction to 
Musicology, p. 91). These theories may be classified into three groups mathe¬ 
matical, physical and psychophysiological. From Plato and Euclid to Euler and 
Liebnitz consonance is attributed to simple numerical relationships, e.g. 1.1, 1.2, 
2:3, 3:4 between frequencies of notes. It sounds attractive and appeals to one s 
aesthetic sense of simplicity but presents only a partial view of the phenomenon. 
More detailed and complex theories of consonance-dissonance have been put 
forward from the ancient times by Pythagoras, Aristoxenus, Democritus etc. to the 
later Helmholtz, D’ Alembert, Rameau, Tartini, Stumpf, Watt, Seashore, Malmberg, 
Revesz, Koening etc. The more important among these are due to Helmholtz, 
Malmberg, Revesz and Stumpf. Helmholtz offers an acoustical theory based on the 
phenomenon of beats. Beats may be defined as the periodic variations in the 
intensity of sound at a point because of the coexistence of two wave trains possessing 
slightly different frequencies. The difference between the frequencies of the two 
primary sounds give the number of beats. According to Helmholtz, consonance is 
a continuous sensation of tone while dissonance is a discontinuous, (intermittent) 
sensation (roughness). That is, consonance is the absence or the minimum 
occurrence of beats, while dissonance is the opposite. He classified consonance on 
this basis as absolute (octave, double octave), perfect (fifth and fourth), medial 
(major third and major sixth), imperfect (minor third and minor sixth) and 
dissonance (second, seventh, augmented fourth). Beats are most noticeable when 
they occur at the rate of thirty-three per second, and cease to be sensible at 132 pei 
second. In other words, what is dissonance at low pitch range would cease to be 
dissonance at higher pitch ranges, and could, at appropriate pitch levels, even be 
transformed into consonance. The phenomenon is explained with an mtersensory 
(visual) analogy. Just as a flickering light would tire the eye nerves, so also the beats 




prove tiring to the ear (Helmholtz, Sensations of Tone, cit. Charles Culver, Musical 
Acoustics , pp. 82-84; cit. Revesz, Introduction to the Psychology of Music, pp. 81-84). This 
theory has received general acceptance but has certain inconsistencies. For exam¬ 
ple, there is sa-pa consonance at thirtytwo cps—sixtyfour cps but is accompanied 
with beats while there is dissonance at 2093 cps—3951 cps ( suddha risabha-kdkari- 
nisada) beats are absent as shown by Stumpf (Carl Stumpf, Konsonanz undDissonanz, 
cit. Revesz, op. cit. p. 82). In other words, the beat rate depends on the pitch range 
and not on the nature of the intervals, i.e. not on consonance or dissonance. The 
main argument against this theory is that consonance is basically a psychoacoustic 
phenomenon, and the theory leaves out the psychological aspects of the experi¬ 
ence altogether and depends only on the physical laws. Basing on the differential 
tones discovered by Helmholtz, W. Preyer and F. Krueger developed the differen¬ 
tial tone theory according to which i. consonance depends on the number of 
differentials and ii. consonance is inversely proportional to the number of differ¬ 
entials occurring between two tones. This theory has no empirical foundations; 
there are two-note clangs in which differentials have no effect whatsoever but still 
the clangs are very dissonant (F. Krueger, Die Theorie der Konsonanz, cit. Revesz, op. 
cit. p. 84). In summary,^ the physical theories of consonance, including the 
foregoing, propose that the difference between consonance and dissonance lies in 
the degree of continuity of the tone sensation. 

Carl Stumpf proposes the theory of fusion, in a psychological perspective. The 
concept of fusion per se is not original to Stumpf, but has been mooted from the 
earliest times by Euclid, and in recent times by Kulpe, Meinong, Titchener and 
Theodor Lipps. Stumpf defines fusion as the approximation of a two-note clang 
towards unison; consonance is directly proportional to this sensation of unison; 
dissonance is inversely proportional to it. A statistical analysis of his comprehensive 
experiments shows that only degree of fusion can be determined but no sharp 
dividing line may be drawn between consonance and dissonance. Unison, i.e. the 
sensation of hearing a single tone, resulting from the fusion of two notes, is 
perceived in toto, in a complex way in a single stage and cannot be resolved into 
simpler elements (Carl Stumpf, op. cit. ibid., pp. 85,86). Revesz levels many serious 
objections against this theory such as its validity only in a very limited pitch range, 
lack of its applicability to two tones not lying within the same octave (fusion 
diminishes as the octave difference between two consonant notes increases) etc. 
(Revesz, op. cit. pp. 87, 88). Revesz characterizes the Helmholtz theory as a 
causative-genetic theory of consonance which endeavours to determine the objec¬ 
tive physical basis of the consonance phenomena; on the other hand, Stumpf s 
theory of fusion represents a descriptive phenomenological concept that strives to 
trace the consonance phenomena to an ultimate psychological fact, i.e. fusion. The 
experiments of Seashore and Malmberg also reveal that there are no incontrovert- 




ible foundations for the theory of fusion (Carl E. Seashore, Psychology of Music, p. 
131). Malmberg’s experiments show that consonance decreases in the following 
order: octave, fifth, major sixth, major third, just fourth, etc. The listener was 
required in this experiment to evaluate consonance on the basis of three criteria 
viz. smoothness, purity (absence of partials) and unison. These results appear to be 
acceptable in the context of Western music (C.F. Malmberg, The Perceptions of 
Consonance and Dissonance, la. St. Psy. 8.1918, pp. 93-133). Seashore claims that the 
principle of consonance may be accommodated broadly on two simple criteria viz. 
smoothness-roughness and purity-resonance. 

Investigations in Gestalt psychology and phenomenology on consonance 
and dissonance have opened up a new dimension towards the understanding of 
this phenomenon: it has been shown that consonance is compounded of such 
special features as independence, unitariness, definiteness and balance of pro¬ 
portions. On the other hand, dissonance manifests dependence, need of resolu¬ 
tion, instability and dynamic tendency (C.W. Valentiner, Appreciation of Musical 
Intervals, British Journal of Musicology, cit. Revesz, op. cit. p. 90; S.F. Nadel, 
“Zur psychologie des Konsonanzerlebens”, Zeitschrift fur Psychologie, 101, 1926, cit. ibid., 
loc. cit.) 

The relevance of a discussion of theories of consonance-dissonance in W estern 
music may be questioned at this point by some. This has been answered in the 
introduction to this discussion. As mentioned therein, the problem is both general 
and universal to any mode of semantic expression and gains special interest and 
importance in the context of nondiscursive areas of meaning such as in music. 
Sonance is a fundamental and universal aspect of every system of music; there are, 
therefore some similarities in the phenomenon, be it in Indian music or in Western 
music. The introduction of equal temperament has distanced the problem in 
Western music from natural consonance-dissonance. Nevertheless, experience 
shows that tone sensation is not momentary but somewhat spread out in time, and 
is related to a precedent and successive sensation of tone. In this sense, consonance- 
dissonance in polyphonic music has semblance with that in homophonic music. 

Two other considerations are also relevant here: (i) consonance-dissonance is 
not absolute; acoustically it varies with pitch range; (ii) it varies with aesthetic taste; 
it is well known that habituation, i.e. longer and more frequent exposure, dissolves 
out dissonance rapidly and may even render it pleasant; the dominance of vivadi 
in newly created ragas and in the ragas revived from the past in Karnataka music 
practice of today is an example of this. Nevertheless, consonance-dissonance has 
also an objective aspect, and this cannot be negated, neglected or ignored in favour 
of purely psychological reasons. 

Again, the need to resolve tension or stress to rest is a fundamental trait of the 
human mind. Music may be regarded as involving the process of creating and 



resolving aesthetic, affective or structural tension in the locus of a moving tone. 
Such tension is created by interaction of vwadi with the vadim the main and to a 
lesser degree with jam^iand anuvadi in the unfoldmentof the melodic form and 
is medially resolved by the apanyasa and finally by the nyasa. Among the factors 
which generate such tension are distance from the graha (point of origin), gamaka 
and the sizes of the intervals involved. In situations where sadja which is the 
universal graha, arhsa and nyasa f or all ragas in Indian music since the 16th century 
assumes a secondary role, consonance-dissonance takes the appearance of 
simulacrum, and the conventional consonance-dissonance becomes displaced. 
This is comparable with Auffassungs-dissonanz of Louis and Thuille (R. Louis and 
L. Thuille, Hannonlelehre, cit. Glen Haydon, Introduction to Musicology, p. 92). 

A quantitative or statistical approach to sarhvada-vivada is conspicuously absent 
in Indian music theory. The Characterisation of degrees of sonance in terms of 
number of srutis is essentially nonempirical, and largely conceptual. It is notewor¬ 
thy that the attributes of the experience of samvada are analysed in Indian music 
theory into the psychoacoustic attributes of the svara (the unit of musical experi¬ 
ence) such as snigdhata, anuranana, srutyanantara-bhavitva, svato-rahjana, etc. 
The concept of anuvadi lying between samvadi and vivadi and ‘vadi-samvadi- 
sampadita rakty-anukula ’ attribute is a distinct contribution of Indian music to 
consonance-dissonance; the concepts of conjugability in the samvadi and of the 
accommodation of vivadinWxthm the alpatva-ragaprana and in nigraha-tanaknya are 
equally brilliant. 

43ab. Kvacit is related to svarabhedah in 44d. 

43cd-44. Ragapranas mandra, tara, alpatva, bahutva, sadava and auduva are 

athetised by Pandarlka Vitthala. It is interesting to note that arhsa 
(= vddi-sthdyi-jivasvara, cf. NN 3.1.39cd, 145), nyasa, graha, etc. are treated as 
varieties of svara rather than as ragapranas. 

45. sadjah ... svarah. This is found in Sadragacandrodaya (1.51) 

^rf: 1 g cl cfT: || 

Whenever phrases like nidhapamagarisa, d ha pa rnaga nsa n i are used at the beginning 
of a song, or occur as the scale of a rdga, ni, dha, etc. at the beginning were regarded 
as graha and the scale or phrase classified under sadja-grdma or madhyama-grdma 
depending on the vikrta-svaras they contained. When the gdndhdra-grdma and 
madhyama-grama had disappeared altogether leaving only sadja-grdma behind in 
musical practice such ni, dha, etc. should not be regarded, says Pandarlka Vitthala, 
as graha despite their initial occurrence; for, sa is the universal graha for ali ragas 
because all extant ragas now belong only to sadja-grdma; such usages do not have the 
force of svaras, but only of ordinary syllables. Also, the scales nidhapamagarisa, 



dhapamagarisani, etc. should be regarded as murchands of sadja-grama only; that is, 
the initial ni, dha, etc. of these are established in the position of sa (cf. NN 3.1.46c) 
to derive these scales by modal shift of tonic; this is why ni, dha etc. are in reality sa 
itself, though they are pronounced as ni, dha, pa, etc. It is true that notes other than 
sa are prescribed as graha, arhsa and nyasa for some ragase. g. kamati, saveri, desdksi. 
In such cases, these notes should be understood as specially contributing to the 
manifestation of the rdgabhdva, besides 5a which also cofunctions as the general 
graha, which when so used does not mar the purport of the rdga. To summarise, 
suppose that phrases such as nidhapamagarisa, dhapamagarisani, pamagarisanidha or 
the suddha tanas or kuta tanas generated by them have to be employed in ragalapti 
or song to obtain rakti. These should be regarded neither as murchanasnor tdnasbut 
are the varndlamkdras (q.v.). The scale of any rdga in contemporary usage belongs 
to sadja-grama and sadja-grama alone. In this way, Pandarika Vitthala loses no 
opportunity, however small, to concile laksanaWith laksya, especially in the context 
of the revolutionary changes which were occurring in both the theory and practice 
in music of his times. 

46b. Munisvaraih is an anachronistic and apocryphal reference, made in the 
hope of gaining the respect and authority of antiquity for changes which were 

occurring in his own times. .... 

47a. Cataka. The bird cucculus melanoleucus which is believed to live only on 
rain drops. Risabha is likened to the cry of this bird by Kohala and Mahesvara (extr. 
Matanga, op. cit. 63, p. 13) and by SR (1.3.46) , Sahgitasiromani (165), SahgUasdrdvaVi 
(3, p. 7),’ Sahgitamakaranda (1.13.14), Catvdrimsac-chatardga nirupanam (1.30-32), 
etc. It is likened to the cry of the bull elsewhere e.g. Yajnavalkya-siksd (8.9), 
Sahgitaddmodara (3.2.3), Aumdpatam (20.5, 6), Bharatabhdsya (3.15-18) etc. Simi¬ 
larly, dhaivata is likened to the neighing of horse instead of the croaking of the frog. 
Pandarika Vitthala omits other attributes of svara, first mentioned by Matanga (op. 
cit. pp. 13,16-18) and elaborated by Sarngadeva (SR 1.3.52-59) and others. 

48a. Hatih: striking (the nadis by pranavdyu or striking the medium, e.g. string, 
skin, etc.) to generate musical sound; this is the cause of all ahata-nada. This 
sequential theory of sruti-svara relationship seems to be quite old and based on the 
Naiydyika (Logician) philosophy. Pandarika Vitthala has subscribed to this theory 
of pitch-perception time in his Sadragacandrodaya also (1.32cd-33). 

TIl^ ^ I dh l dliid^ II 

Abhinavagupta compiles this theory from contemporary or earlier times and 
discusses it at some length. Musical sound is distinguished from noise in possessing 
the attributes of continuity and covibration (in partials: anu-ranana). These 
attributes are found in a vibrating string or bell, but not in a vibrating rope or stone. 



The former have anuranana while the latter have only Tatiana. All four have the 
common property of ranana- sound generation, but only the string, bell, etc. have 
anuranana also, which is born the very next moment after ranana. It is this which 
confers continuity (longevity), naturalness, sweetness and smoothness on the 
sound and thus makes it svata. The sound generated at the very moment of striking 
or collision ( abhighata ) is called ‘sruti’ and the one which is joined at the next 
moment by anuranana (resonance) is called svara. Thus the difference between 
sruti and svara lies in the sequence of appearance and the anuranana. Abhinava- 
gupta recognizes this theory, but refutes the argument viz. that the element of time 
needed for perception of pitch is sruti, by saying that such perception time is an 
integral component of the sruti (here, perceived sound) (op. cit. pp. 12, 13, 19). 

Kallinatha on the other hand, firmly subscribes to the sequential theory while 
commenting on the definition ‘sravanat srutayo matah ’(SRI .3.8), he says that srutis 
are heard because they are fit to be heard (sravanayogyatva). Such fitness accrues 
from anuranana which extends (tana) the tone into longer and longer life. Even so, 
the sound which is just heard at the very first moment of birth is sruti (op. cit. on 
ibid., loc. cit. p. 67). 

According to the 7 arkikas (logicians), dravya (matter) and guna (property) are 
not born (or perceived) at the same moment; dravyais born first and at the moment 
of its birth it is absolute, i.e. without attributes. At the next moment, owing to union 
with the sensorium, guna unites with dravya-, then the form, nature, etc. of the 
matter become perceptible. Similarly, nada the dravya, generated by collision of 
objects, is at the moment of generation, absolute, independent. Then it is called 
sruti. Then, at the very next moment, the attribute (guna) called anuranana joins 
it; as a consequence, acquiring snigdhatd, mddhurya, srutyanantarabhdvitva, etc. it 
becomes svara. This theory should be considered only in the context of Indian 
music theory; for, elsewhere, nadaor sabdaisnot dravyabut is itself the gunaofakasa, 
space. If this is allowed, the theory becomes invalid. 

According to this theory, there is a time lag between the perception of sruti and 
perception of svara (so the theory may also be called Time-lag Theory). Kumbha- 
karna asserts that the duration of this time-lag is perceptible to the ear of an acutely 
intelligent (sensitive) person as the time taken to pierce with sharp needle through 
thirty-two lotus petals placed one above the other (this is 0.32 ksana which is the 
fundamental unit on the time scale of the talaprana called ‘ kala ). This is the time 
measure (srutermanam) of the sruti. Just as dhvani vailaksanya is pitch limen in the 
perception of the sruti, this measure of duration is the time limen. If it is less than 
this threshold value, the sruti is not perceived (Kumbhakarna, Sangitardia,, 
88, p. 79). 

The purport of this theory is that there is a time-lag between appearance and 
sensation. Postulated more than a thousand years ago, it has received abundant 




experimental support in the area of experimental psychology of music. It is 
generally found that pitch perception time is inversely proportional to the pitch 

1. Carl Seashore writes {Psychology of Music, pp. 61, 62): 

“Duration. There are three types of musical situations which may be recognized 
in the measurement of pitch discrimination: (i) going from one note to another 
with a complete break between them as in the standard test where we sound two 
notes, each of which is one second in duration but differing in pitch and separated 
by a very short interval of time; (ii) legato rise or fall in pitch or pitch vibrato and 
(iii) sudden shift in a single note without break in tone as an erratic intonation. 

“The discrimination is different for each of these, the necessary increment being 
about twice as large for the first type as the third, and the second falling between 
these two. These differences are related to the differences in total duration of each 

“The minimum duration necessary in order to identify the pitch of a tone clearly 
varies with the frequency and to some extent with the loudness. It has been found 
that in order to be heard clearly as a definite pitch, a tone of 128 cps must have a 
duration of 0.09 second; for 256 cps, about 0.07 second; for 384 cps, about 0.04 
second; and for 512 cps, about the same.” 

2. Charles Culver agrees that a certain minimum time is necessary in order to 
recognise a definite pitch and pitch difference, but feels that this duration is not 
related to the pitch level. He opines that not withstanding differences of opinion 
on the actual time-lag, it may be generally said that there is such a minimum time 
(Charles A. Culver, Musical Acoustics, pp. 47, 48): 

“Another aspect of pitch perception which is coming to have increased signifi¬ 
cance concerns the minimum time required for the ear to recognize a definite 
pitch. The data bearing on this point are, as yet, not very concordant, but it would 
appear that the ‘pitch-perception time’ is more or less independent of the 
frequency, being of the order of one twentieth of a second. 

“Not only can the ear catalogue a note as to pitch in a remarkably short time 
interval, but it can also a recognize a sound as such when only two vibrations are 
made. This means that in the region of c 3 we can become conscious of the existence 
of a sound if it persists for two or three hundredths of a second. However, to 
recognize the characteristics of a note, anywhere from two to twenty oscillations are 

Modern experimental psychology has collected much data on the time required 
to perceive the attribute of an object by union with a sense such as sight, hearing 
or touch. 

3. Thus Dashiell (John F. Dashiell, Fundamentals of General Psychology , p. 45; 
ms=millisecond= 1/1000 of a second): 




“Simple response to auditory stimuli varies from 120 ms. to 180 ms. to visual 
stimuli, from 150 ms. to 225 ms. to tactual pressure, from 130 ms to 185 ms. 

4. Robert S. Woodworth (Experimental Psychology, pp. 298-339) has obtained 
comparable results. 

5. Harvey Fletcher has this to say: the minimum time that a pure tone must excite 
the ear for definite pitch to be perceived is about one twentieth of a second and this 
is nearly independent of frequency (Speech and Hearing , pp. 152ff). 

6. Fritz Winckel states that the time difference between appearance and percep¬ 
tion of sound arises because of the indeterminacy of time and frequency. He reports 
the investigations of M. Joos (Acoustic Phonetics, inter alia) who calls this time-lag as 
‘perception-time smear’, which is about 50 ms. This is a remarkably large value; for 
a phoneme in rapid conversational speech also requires this span of time. Four 
other factors are relevant in this connection; the onset times (durations required 
for sounds to become steady or recognizable from the moment of excitation) are 
different for different musical instruments: trumpet 20 ms, clarinet 50-70 ms, 
saxophone 36-40 ms, flute 200-300 ms. The average tone colour of a sound series 
varies with the speed of execution of the series. Secondly the above time constant 
of 50 ms has a further far reaching significance: it is the time we require to become 
conscious of one of our sensory impressions. This is called human factor and shown 
in recent precise measurements, to have a value of 55 ms. This is of great 
significance in music because this is also the value obtained from damping 
decrement of the ear resonators. The ability to distinguish pitch has been mea¬ 
sured at 50 ms at 100 cps, 20 ms at 1000 cps, and 14 ms at 4000 cps (R. Feldtkeller, 
“Horbarkeit von Instrumentenklangen”, Acustica, 4:1 1954). However, the time con¬ 
stant varies inversely as power, according to the Bunsen-Roscoe Law, so that 
stronger stimulations require shorter pitch-perception time smear and vice versa. 
A third factor which is relevant to the time-lag phenomenon is that while a 
sound event in music cannot occur more rapidly than about twenty in a second, (i.e. 
50 ms), it is also found that the boundary necessary for an elementary sound even 
to become musically effective is from 50 to 100 ms. Fourthly, physiological 
parameters involved in boundaries of tone spectrum, the speed of succession of 
tones, evaluation of tone colour, ‘space’ perception of sounds, ability to determine 
the direction of a sound source also influence aesthetic perception (Fritz Winckel, 
Music, Sound and Sensation, pp. 42-54). 

Abhinavagupta shows amazing awareness of the components involved in the 
perception of tone at the srutileve 1 and of factors involved in the transformation of 
sruti to svara such as dhvanivailaksanya, nairantarya, urdhvasparsa, sarhskara-pradana, 
niskasa, kalakala, nddamsa, ayuh, sthana and karana. I have discussed these in 
(i) Nihsahkahrdaya (ii) Sruti : the ScalicFoundation and (iii) Sruti-jati: A Psych acoustical 
Approach and (iv) Sruti-jati: A Four Corrtponent Theory . A fitting conclusion to a 



discussion of Pandarika Vitthala’s treatment of sruti-svara relation (Sequential 
Theory or Time-lag Theory) would be Abhinavagupta’s observation (op. cit. p. 22). 

y^ ■'=11^4 'T e h<. u llHffl I 
48. Svara. Pandarika Vitthala defines svara in Sadragacandrodaya also (1.24): 
WllM ^T: STfjRTTcCfT I 

His definition agrees with that of SR (1.3.24cd-25ab) except that Sarngadeva, 
probably following Abhinavagupta, gives ‘srutyanantarabhavi’ (co-born with sruti) 
and Pandarika Vitthala changes it to ‘bhdvidiptam’ (illuminated at the future, i.e. 
next moment) in accordance with their own schools. The attributes are: 
srutesca nairantarabhavika: contiguous with, inseparable from the sruti. 
snigdha: smooth, without harshness or roughness. 

anuranana: heard together with the partials which are self-generated and coeval 
ojas: lustre, light, illumination, intensification; body strength, power, vigour; 
energy, life force; splendour, support; manifestation, appearance; abode. 

‘.Sry ’and ‘svar’ are parasmaipadi verbal roots of the first class (‘bhvadi j and mean 
intensification, lustre, light, illumination. Chandogyopanisat which implies these 
meanings says that prana is the gati or course for svara, i.e. svara abides in prana. 
The strength, power, vigour, energy or vitality of the expressive potential and 
appeal which nada possesses accrue for svara. Svara is also the support or abode of 
srutis. Ojas is a distinct, unique contribution of Pandarika Vitthala to the definition 
of svara. 

svato: independently; without co-operative reasons and without auxiliary causes. 
The term ‘svara’ may be derived from three verbal etymons: ‘raj’ is a ubhayapadi- 
dhdtu of the first class— ‘bhvadi’ (Dhdtupatha , 19.74) which means to shine, to 
appear, to delight, to be illustrious, radiant or resplendent; ranj is a ubhayapadi 
dhatu occurring in both bhvadi (first) and divadi (fourth) classes ( Dhdtupatha , 23.30; 
26.58) which means to colour, to be affected, delighted, charmed or to illuminate. 
Kallinatha gives the etymology and grammatical processes involved in deriving this 
word (op. cit. on ibid., 1.3.24cd-25ab, p. 82). 


The third is due to Abhinavagupta who derives it (op. cit. on NS 28.21, p. 10,11) 
from the root 'sirr' which is a parasmaipadi-dhatu of class I ( bhvadi ) which has two 
streams of meaning: sabda and upatapana. The first includes ‘to sound, to resound, 
to shine’ etc.; the second includes ‘to warm up; to heat, to hurt, to go’ etc. 




(. Dhatupatha , 22.34): svara is so named because it warms up the heart and causes it 
to give up its ‘middle state’ of neutrality or self-abiding and to this end, manifests 
to be or express itself or coloured, to be aesthetically delightful. Abhinavagupta also 
gives the conventional derivation: to afford aesthetic delight by itself (i.e. without 
outside agency): 

3TfasTR (37fqT3FT) I 

The variant readings in brackets are from Bharatakosa (p. 754). 

Matanga explains (op. cit. pp. 12,13) that the symbols s, r, ge tc. are derived from 
Agama, they are called svaras (vowels) for two reasons: they are only incidental 
carriers of vowels; this is the name taught by credible, respected authorities; he 
further explains that of all the vowels (svara) only two ( a , i) are used because they 
have the extraordinary property (asadharanatva) of upward movement (urdhva- 
gamitva). This is an extremely perceptive observation and anticipates the recently 
discovered acoustic phenomenon of formants, which is explained by Charles 
Culver (Musical Acoustics, pp. 157, 158): 

“A great amount of research has been carried out in an effort to arrive at an 
understanding of the acoustical structure of both vowel and consonantal sounds. 
Such knowledge is highly desirable if one is to make even a beginning in the 
improvement of the singing or the speaking voice. So far as the vowels are 
concerned, the following facts have been definitely established: 

1. Any given vowel sound is characterised by the presence of one or more definite 
groups of partials. 

2. The partials which go to make up a given characteristic group are more or less 
symmetrically disposed about some dominant partial. 

3. The frequencies appearing in these characteristic groups are much the same, 
regardless of the fundamental frequency. 

4. The various vowel sounds are produced by means of a ‘modulating’ process 
which consists of so shaping the mouth and pharyngeal cavities that the proper 
order and intensity of partials is developed by resonant action.” 

The formant theory is further useful in explaining colour differences of different 
musical instruments. Glen Haydon says that the quality of an instrumental sound 
arises out of the roughness characteristics of the exciting method (op. cit. pp. 78, 
79). The investigations of L. Hermann, Helmholtz, F.C. Donders, R. Koenig, W. 
Koehler, Gutzmann, Carl Stumpf, Leray T. Laase, Seashore, Barret Stout, Horton 
C. Talley and others into the formant phenomenon (compiled by Revesz, op. cit. 
pp. 48 et seq.) have established unequivocally that the vowels ‘a’ and V (as well as 
their combination, 'at) have groups of the highest partials and are generated 




naturally without the need of any voluntary effect in shaping the mouth and other 
parts of the voice apparatus. Further investigations (which ought to be undertaken 
by musical acousticians in India) may throw light as to why the consonants s rgm 
p d n were selected to symbolise these sounds. 

49-52ab. Grama: Adi (49b) includes varnalarhkara, tana,jati , raga , etc. Grama has 
entered into the English language as 'gamut' through Arabia, Persia, Greece and 
Spain. Matanga emphasizes that it is a theoretical model erected to comprehend 
and organise the totality of melody, and confers vedopavasati' on it by deriving it 
from Samaveda (op. cit. 89ff. pp. 20-21). Parsvadeva confirms the organisational 
function of grama (Sahgitasamayasdra, MS No. 67, Oriental Research Institute, 


Thus the grama quantifies intervals, their modification, sonance etc. relations 
through the sruti. It offers scalic models for ragas through murchana, suddha-, 
kuta-, auduva and sadavatanas\ it explains melodic structuring by comprehending 
the dasa pranas in raga and jati; it comprehends melodic movement and phrasing 
through varnalamkara ; it includes directional tendencies of melodic gravitation 
such as multiple tonicity in the threefold grama , and tone curvavures (gamaka) in 
terms of sruti. 

Pandarlka Vitthala borrows the laksanas of sadja-grama (sa-grama) and madhyama- 
grama (ma-grama) from earlier authorities, e.g .'pancama is manifested at the 
seventeenth, i.e. its own final sruti in sa-grama awhile it does so at the sixteenth, i.e. 
its penultimate sruti in ma-grama. Given a sruti allocation of 4,3, 2, 4, 4, 3, 2 for the 
suddha-svarassa, ri, etc., Sarngadeva offers an alternative definition (SR 1.43cd) viz. 
dhahas three srutisi n sa-grama, but four in ma-grama , the reverse of which is true with 
pancama ; both refer to the same, identical sruti allocations. Bharata is elaborately 
explicit on such intervallic fixation in the two gramas (NS 28.24-26, p. 19; compare 
with the corresponding text in the NS Kavyamala edn. 28.26-29, which is even 
more explicit). Pandarlka Vitthala reiterates uniformly in his works that in his 
time all ragas were performed only in sa-grama and none in ma-grama (e.g. 
Ragamafijari, 1.44, Sadragacandrodaya , 1.36). 

Bharata (NS 28. 23 pr. p.15), Dattila ( Dattilam , 11) and Matanga (op. cit. 92, p. 
20) describe only 5^-and ma-gramas. The Ramayana also mentions only two gramas 
and seven (suddha) jatis (1.4.4). Among literary sources which mention three gramas 
may be mentioned Harivamsa , ( Visnuparuan, ch. 82), Pahcatantra (5.6.3: 
gardabhasrgala-katha ), Vayupuranam (11.24.36), Markandeyapuranam(\0?>.b6) , Visnu- 
dharmottara Puranam (Bombay edn. III.19, p. 315), etc. Gandhara-grama is defined 
by Narada ( Naradasiksa , 1.2.4, 5, 6, 9, pp. 10-12; Sahgytamakaranda, 1.50, 62), 
Nanyadeva (op. cit. 3.2.36, 44; 3.4.76-80), Yastika (cit. Pandarlka Vitthala, Raga- 



manjan, 1.46), and Ahobala ( Sahgtaparijata , 1.102). Pandarika Vitthala actually 
describes this grama in Ragamanjan (1.46) and implies it in the expression 
‘ mukhyatama in NN (3.1.52a). A brief discussion of ga-grama and Vitthala’s contri¬ 
bution thereto is therefore relevant here. 

Narada-siksa is opaque in the description of gargrama. The Sahgitamakaranda 
contains a descriptive passage which finds literal correspondence in SR (1.4.4, 5), 
for which SR claims the authority of Narada. But the author of Sahgitamakaranda 
attributes it to Brahma— ‘idam laksanam brahmanoktam\ According to this, a sruti 
each from ri and ma accrues to ga; dha assumes a sruti from pa\ ni takes on a sruti 
from dha and sa. This yield the scale ga( 4) ma( 3) pa( 3) dha( 3) ni( 4) sa(3) ri(2). 
It is to be noted that both ga-ni have four srutis each, and the seventh (ri) has two 
srutis as sa, pa and ni respectively in sa-grama but that the consonance of the fourth 
(eight-sruri interval) which also bestows symmetry and has a size of four srutis as well 
as a two -sruti third (occurring in sa-grama) are absent in ga-grama. 

The gandhara-grama scale as defined from Yastika differs from the foregoing. The 
quotation from Yastika is invoked by Pandarika Vitthala as late as in the 16th century 
but is not sought by Matariga and Sarngadeva for definition of this grama, while they 
do so for ragalaksana. According to this definition, ri-dha occupy the positions of ga- 
ni, ni-ma assume the positions of laghu sa and (laghu) pa, ga takes up the position of 
ma (of sa-grama). Mention of laghu sa-pa clearly makes this a contemporised 
definition; presumably, the positions of the notes referred to are those of sa-grama. 
This definition leaves out the position of saandpa. Consistent with the prescription 
for other notes, these may be presumed to occupy the positions of ri and dha 
respectively. Under these circumstances the scale has the following sruti allocation: 
ga( 4) ma( 3) pa( 4) dha( 2) m(3Jsa(4) ri(2). This is unacceptable because it fails to 
have the thirteen-sruti (just fifth) consonance; the trisruti of ni is reminiscent of the 
vikrta pahcama of mar grama, as also the catuhsruti of the sixth note (sa) . Pandarika 
Vitthala borrows another definition of ga-grama from Sarngadeva (Ragamanjan, 
1.43, 44) in which the available text of the Ragamanjan fails to include a significant 
part of the definition, viz. so that from the scant 


^TTcT: Vll^d II 

the scale would have the sruti allocation ga(4) ma(3)pa(4) dha(2) ni( 4) sa( 3) n( 2). 
It is inexplicable, unless attributed to a transmissional defect or damnum, how 
Pandarika Vitthala would retain such an incomplete definition. 

The text in Bharatabhasya describing gargrama suffers a lacuna, but the scale may 
be reconstructed from the mandala-prastara. According to this, six horizontal lines 




are crossed by five vertical lines. Ga is placed at the isana (northeast) corner, ma is 
placed at the fourth from it in clockwise order, pa on the fifth bottom vertical line, 
dha on the second of the same, ni at the left extreme of the ma- line, sa on the 
extreme left of the ga -line and ri at the upper extreme of the dha- line. This gives a 
scale for ga-grama having the following sruti distribution: ga(4) ma{ 3) pa( 3) dha( 3) 
ni( 4) sa(3) n(2) which is exactly the one defined by Sarngadeva. 

Ahobala offers, as late as the 17th century, the following definition for ga-grama : 

According to this, ga is at the mem, (i.e. the tonic) and has three srutis ; all others, 
including sa have three srutis e ach, except nisada which has four srutis. Therefore, 
the sruti distribution for this scale isgw(3) ma( 3) pa( 3) dha( 3) ni( 4) sa{ 3) ri( 3). It 
is not known on what authority Ahobala gives this definition. This scale possesses 
the madhyama-(e ight sruti) and pahcama -(twelve sruti) consonances for ga\ but 
neither the tonic nor its fourth have four -sruti magnitudes, nor are the consonances 
abundant. Since ni has four srutis , it is sometimes called nirgrama , but with entire 
lack of theoretical sanction. 

The si^radispensationsin the three gramas may now be tabulated and compared. 
(Abbreviations: Sg -sadjagrama, Mg-madhyamagrama, Gg-gandharagrama , N-Narada 
cit Sarngadeva, Y-Yastika cit. Pandarlka Vitthala, Al-Ahobala original, A II-Ahobala 

Sruti Sruti 

No. Name 

s g 






1 2 







1 . 
































g a 





























g a 




































The following is noteworthy in the above comparative table: 

1. Sa and ma which were the most important notes of the octave have retained 
their positions and have yet become thr ee-sruti intervals in Gg-N. 

2. Just as sa-ma-pa in Sg and sa-ma-dha in Mg, ga the most important note in Gg 
and ni its fifth are four -sruti intervals in Gg N. In Sg, garni are vivadins and 
ri-dha , anuvadins , sa-ma-pa are samvadins. In Mg, sa-ma y -ri-pa, ri-dha are 
samvadins, ga-ni are vivadins and the rest, anuvadins. In Gg ga-dha-ni are 
samvadins, ri is vivadi, sa-ma-pa are anuvadins. 

3. Vis-a-vis the notes of Sg and Mg which were in practical use at the times of 
Bharata, Matanga etc. the notes of Gg are too sharp or too flat. 

4. Because of textual contiguity, Gg is derived by some (e.g. Fox Strangways, 
The Music of Hindostan, p. 110) with the following sruti allocation: 3, 2, 4, 
3, 2, 4, 4; but such a derivation is not in accordance with textual tradition 
on Gg. 

5. When the sruti allocations of Sg, Mg and Gg are written in order in descent 
commencing from sa, ma and ga respectively, it is found that the first 
tellachord is identical and that the seventh (i.e. the second in ascent) is 
always a thr ee-sruti interval 




1 2 
4 2 

4 2 

4 2 

3 4 5 6 7 
3 4 4 2 3 
3 4 2 4 3 
3 4 3 3 3 

6. Consonances among suddha svaras are: sa-ma y ri-dha, ga-ni in all three 
gramas', ma-ni consonance, not admissible in sastra (vide supra) in Sg, Mg; 
sa-pa only in Sg; ri-pa only in Mg; ga-dha and ga-ni in Gg. 




The question is sometimes raised: Gg should be derived from which grama ? 
N. S. Ramachandran ( Ragas of Karnataka Music , p. 28, for example), states that 
there is no clear indication about this. The question does not arise if Sarngadeva 
is attentively studied. He does not derive the Mg or Gg from Sg, but derives all 
three from the sruti allocations of notes which he has independently derived in 
connection with the dhruvavina-calavina experiment on srutis. He obliquely indi¬ 
cates this when he says ‘svacaturtha srutisamsthite’ (SR 1.4.2d) and 
‘svopantyasrutisamsthite (ibid., 1.4.3a) to locate pa in Sg and Mg respectively, and 
implies the sruti allocation scheme of Bharata et a/when he says ‘yad va dhas-trisrutih 
sadje , madhyame tu catuhsrutih \ It is thus clear that he derives the Gg scale from sruti 
allocations empirically and objectively derived for the above mentioned sarana 
experiment. This is supported by another observation: If Gg N had been derived 
from Mg, pa , in donating its final sruti (viz. no. 16 sandipani) to dha , would move 
down to the 15th sruti , rakta. Then, because it would be separated by only one 
sruti , viz. ksiti from ma, ma-pa would be vivadins\ this is contrary to established 
and consistent textual prescriptions or descriptions. Secondly, if Gg is derived from 
Mg the disposition of the svaras would be: ni at tivrd (1) sa at chandovati (4), ri 
at rahjani (6), ga at vajrika (10), ma at marjani (13), pa at rakta (15), dha at rohinx 
(19), giving a scale sa (3) ri (2) ga (4) ma (3) pa (2) dha (4) ni (4); this is but the 
dha-murchand (asvakranta) of Sg and cannot, therefore, be an independent 
grama (as is claimed in the Sahgitasiromani of Panditamandali, extr. Bharatakosa , 
p. 172). 

Gg is generally believed to be posterior to the Sg and Mg. There is no musicologi- 
cal or literary evidence to this effect. Earlier obsolescence cannot be regarded as 
evidence of earlier genesis. There is no authority which describes Gg alone nor 
mentioned it as first born. Similarly the equation or ascription of Gg to saman music 
is fanciful. On the contrary, Venkatamakhin ( Caturdandiprakasika , 5.75) mentions, 
as late as in the 17th century that samavaratx (which may be shown to be the kakali 
variety of uttaramandra murchana of Sg) is born of Samavedal 

Why did Gg become obsolete? It should be remembered that grama was a 
theoretical model created to perform certain functions which were largely 
organisational. As the materials of music such as intervals, consonance-dis¬ 
sonance etc. changed with change in popular aesthetic taste and because of internal 
and external stresses, a corresponding change in the conceptual frame¬ 
work became inevitable. Therefore the primary or basic scale which epitomised 
such framework had also be changed accordingly. Matanga is probably the first 
authority to explicitly state such theoretical function or use of the grama (op. cit. 
P- 21): ' 




tTFT ? ^'Hh' ^ ■q r «TT-W<^rd*^HIdH'i|ircHHII'J|i oqcRsnWci ^ 


Nanyadeva (op. cit. 3.1.54-56) clearly explains why Gg departed to its heavenly 

^ TTFft TTHTT fTF^K l |4=h: I 

3iraclKlRlH'51^(I^^T^f; : II 

^wf 4l«l4d J|)4t) lcT«IT^^fTTcT:-“TT'5^flMd«^”^T(drtldH r lld) 
T TT^I°f 7 ff^ ill-nl : I 

3lfddKlfd*Kc^MM TTI^d TTTW: || 

The last verse here has the flavour of a quotation; if so, this explanation dates from 
a pre-Nanyadeva period. The notes of Gg proved to be too flat or too sharp when 
compared with the actual notes in use; it was poorer in consonances; catuhsruti ga 
(antara) and ni (kakall) were denied the status of independent notes in Sg and Mg 
and were prescribed to be used as little as possible; ga-ni (suddha) were according 
to one school (cf. SR 1.3.49b) vivadinsoi all other notes in the scale. Gg yielded sa 
and ma of three srutis each which was inadmissible in sastra ; it also yielded a 
succession of three sruti intervals (for ma-pa-dha) which again was contrary to 
musical principles because the three sruti interval is weak. (This is why it was 
relegated to anuvaditva.) 

It is interesting that nevertheless, Gg continued to enjoy an after-life continuity 
or description-in-absentia at the hands of later traditionalists; its murchanas are 
named in Narada-siksa (1.2.9, p. 13), Sangitamakaranda (1.95), SR (citing Narada, 
1.4.25, 26), Sangitasuryodaya (3.55, 56, pp. 284, 285) etc. Its tanas are named in 
Visnudharmottarapuranam (III. ch. 18) and Vayupuranam (24.41). Nanyadeva men¬ 
tions the following ragas of Gg (MS copy in Sri Varalakshmi Academy, Mysore, pp. 
279-292); kosala, rudrahasa, gandharvamoda, virahasa, jimuta, sadavaka, pinjan, 
raticandra, gandharasddava, tumburupriya, sarada, vegamadhyama, gandharalalita, 
dravidi, sardiiti, parvati, dhanasika, kacchelU, pulindi, sakavalila, sindhuvalita, 
cutamanjan, himakrti and svabhavakrtion the authority of Mataiiga, Vrddha Kasyapa, 
Yastika, Kasyapa and Vrddha-Satatapa. Mataiiga and later authorities do discribe 
some of these ragas in. their works but under Sg or Mg into which ragas were 
rationalised at their times, even as Ramamatya, Pandarika Vitthala and Somanatha 
accommodate the ragas of Mg into Sg. 

The scales of Sg and Mg were fixed in ancient times through enunciation of the 
principle of equivalence. Dattila (op. cit. 26-28) gives a formula for their intercon¬ 




^rd^m^l "TTPMKlt^ I 


That is, ga of sa-mQrchana in Sg is raised by two srutis; it is then regarded as dha; 
and from this position, a murchana is executed (dha m sa riga mapa) such that they 
accord with the sruti magnitudes of (raised) ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa and ri. The 
murchana so obtained will be identical with the ma-murchana of Mg. 

Sg 4( sa) 3 (ri) 2 (ga) 4 (ma) 4 (pa) 3(dha) 2 (ni) (i) 

If ga is raised by two srutis, ga has now four srutis, and ma, only two: 

Sg 4(sa) 3 (ri) 4 (ga) 2(ma) 4 (pa) 3(dha) 2 (ni) (ii) 

This ‘ga’ is regarded as dha and a murchana is executed with dha as base: 

Sg 4(sa) 3(h) 4{ga) 2(ma) 4 (pa) 3 (dha) 2 (ni) 4 (mi) 3(h) (iii) 

4 {dha) 2 (ni) 4 (sa) 3(h) 2 (ga) 4 (ma) 3 (pa) (iv) 

If (iv) is rewritten to commence on ma, it is found to be identical with 
mamurchana of Mg: 

ma( 4) pa( 3) dha( 4) rh(2) sa(2) sa(4) h(3) ga( 2) 

Secondly, dhaoisa-murchanain Mg is reducectby two srutis (donating them to ni ): 
Mg 4(tna) 3 {pa) 4 (dha) 2 (ni) 4(sa) 3(h) 2 (ga) (v) 

4(ma) 3 (pa) 2 (dha) 4 (ni) 4(sa) 3(h) 2 (ga) (vi) 

This dha is regarded as ga and made the base of a murchana-, 

2(ga) 4 (ma) 4(pa) 3 (dha) 2 (ni) 4(sa) 3(h) (vii) 

If (vii) is rewritten to commence from sa, it is found to be identical with sa- 
murchana of Sg: 

sa(4) h(3) ga( 2) ma(4) pa{4) dha{3) ni( 2) 

The following reciprocity between ga and dha may be noted in the foregoing: 
Ga of the first murchana of Sg raised by two srutis and transformed into dha 
murchana gives first murchana of Mg. 

Dha of the first murchana of Mg diminished by two srutis and transformed into ga 
murchana gives first murchana of Sg. 

The reason for such reciprocity becomes clear if the first murchanas of both 
gramas are inspected: 

Sg 4324432 (viii) 

Mg 4342432 (ix) 

Thus both are identical except that the third and fourth notes in (1), i.e. ga-ma are 
reversed in (ix),i.e. dha-niof Mg. The simplest way of rendering (viii) (ix) identical 



with (ix) is to raise the third note ( ga) by two srutis, thus diminishing the fourth note 
(ma) by two srutis. The raised ga of (viii) corresponds to dha of (ix). Hence the dha- 
murchana is the same as Sg. The same is true, mutatis mutandis of lowering of dha 
of (ix) by two srutis and making it ga-murchana of (ix) to give Mg. 

In this way Dattila muni had provided the musicians of his day a practical and 
simple method of moving freely by transposition, from Sg to Mg and vice versa. 

52cd-56. (i) Murchana. The word is derived from ‘murch’ or ‘murch’,dLparasmaipadi 
of class I ( bhvadi ) which means ‘to become solid, congeal, become consistent, 
assume shape or substance, pervade, spread over, have power to take effect on, 
cause to sound aloud’, etc. The raga bhava becomes crystalised, consistent and 
congealed because of the murchana-, the raga assumes shape (contours) and 
substance (content) in terms of murchana ; it pervades the tone continuum as well 
as (performer’s and listener’s) consciousness through this means; it has the power 
to affect the listener ( rnoha) ; it elevates the performer and listener ( ‘murchyate yatra 
rdgo hi sroto vd ’) as well as the raga to the highest pitch (samucchrdya). The Dhdtupdtha 
(7.32) has ‘moha samucchrayayoh’. It confers such elevation at an objective level 
within the frame of physical or referential parameters and at a subjective level 
within the frame of psychological parameters of individual performer and listener. 

(ii) Sarayet. The word ‘sarana ’is derived from the root Tr’which is a parasmiapadi, 
classified in both the 1st ( ‘bhvadi’) and the 3rd (' ‘juhotyadi j classes in Dhdtupdtha 
(22.37.25;17) and means (‘sr-gatau’) to run, to go, to extend; here, to project or 
extend the svaras in a series. 

(iii) Murchana is defined slightly differently by different authorities: thus 
Matanga (op. cit. p. 22), Sarhgadeva (op. cit. 1.4.9) and others define murchana as 
a series of seven notes taken in regular ascent and descent. Kallinatha supports this 
etymological definition with a grammatical derivation (op. cit. on ibid., loc. cit. p. 

Haripala borrows from Tumburu and Kohala and bestows yet another semantic 
dimension on the word (Sahgitasudhakara, 5.2.4ab, 5cd, 6) 

T TracTT sj^cTT^jfq I 

Hd'Hl H'JJH <Hl(c1 'hi??!: II 

cTRT8TT% efleR ^ || (4K<Hcl) II 

According to Visakhila murchanaand tana are really synonymous (cit. Matanga, op. 
cit. p. 26): but according to the variant reading in Bharatakosa. p. 502 the two differ 




from each other only minutely. Matanga rejects this view and defines murchana as 
regular ascent of seven notes while tana is their regular descent (loc. cit.). The 
variant reading adopted by Sirhhabhupala (op. cit. on ibid., loc. cit. p. 114) makes 
murchana the ascent and descent of seven notes in order and tana, only the ascent. 

(iv) Kramat has a special significance: it is murchana only if the svaras ascend and 
descend in order; if they are disordered, it becomes kutatana. 

(v) The murchana performed two functions: i. to provide and to generate scalic 
models for comparison, contrast, standardisation and classification of melodic 
materials such as raga, jati and gita prevailing in actual musical practice: 
‘jatibhasadisiddhyartham’ , (Nandikesvara, cit. Matanga, op. cit. p. 32; ‘jatiraga- 
bhasadisiddhaye’, Kohala, cit. Matanga, loc. cit.) ii. to derive theoretically the 
registers: two registers with seven-note murchanas and three registers by twelve note 
murchanasas propounded by Nandikesvara (Matanga, loc. cit.). In Karnataka music 
it continues to serve as a basis of deriving secondary ragas by grahabheda during 

(vi) Murchana is of four kinds: puma (having all seven notes), sadava (having six 
notes), auduva (having five notes) and sadharana-, sadharana is again of three kinds, 
viz. with antara-gandhara, with kakali-nisada and with both. Thus each of the seven 
murchanas has four varieties, thus totalling twenty-eight murchanas in Sg. 

(vii) Each murchana may be subjected again to the modal shift of tonic, giving rise 
to seven secondary scales called kramas. They have different intervallic permuta¬ 
tions and are used in practical music for melodic variety and in theory as secondary 
melodic models, through permutative techniques known as prastara. 

(viii) Yasyam....murchana. This is a simple device to determine the serial number 
of a murchana-, this number is the same as the serial number of sa in the given 
murchana. Sarngadeva extends it to Mg also (SR 1.4.18); it may be applied with equal 
validity to Gg as shown below: 

No. Name Name 

(Bharata) (Narada) 1. 

Saptasvara murchana 
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 







4 3 












uttaravarna sa 


g a 





dha ni sa ri ga ma 
pa dha ni sa ri ga 



abhirudgata ni 



g a 




ni sa ri ga ma pa 
dha ni sa ri ga ma 



asvakranta dha ni 



g a 



sa ri ga ma pa dha 
ni sa ri ga ma pa 




sauvm pa 







ri ga ma pa dha ni 
sa ri ga ma pa dha 


1 2 
















dha ni 




ga ma pa dha ni sa 

ri ga ma pa dha ni 




g a 




i ni 



ma pa dha ni sa ri- 

ga ma pa dha ni sa 









. ni 


pa dha ni sa ri ga 


ma pa dha ni sa ri 











sa ri ga ma pa dha- 

ni sa ri ga ma pa 




g a 







ri ga ma pa dha ni 

sa ri ga ma pa dha 





g a 






ga ma pa dha ni sa 


ri ga ma pa dha ni 











ma pa dha ni sa ri 


ga ma pa dha ni sa 











pa dha ni sa ri ga 

ma pa dha ni sa ri 











dha ni sa ri ga ma 

pa dha ni sa ri ga 











ni sa ri ga ma pa 

dha ni sa ri ga ma 
































































58-59. Tana is derived from the verbal stem ‘tan’ which is classified as a 
ubhayapadl, transitive and 'set’ in the 8th ( tanoti ) class; it means ‘to extend, spread, 
stretch, propagate, shine, reach to or towards’ etc. It belongs also to the fourth 
(‘ divadi ) class and means ‘to sound’. Kallinatha describes (op. cit. on ibid., 1.4.27, 
p. 115) the grammatical devices involved in deriving it: 

fq«ii4a <*4^1 fcjfa dH <|4l 


Pandarika Vitthala does not seem to make a clear-cut distinction between 




murchana and tana. As pointed out earlier (comm, on NN 3.1.52 cd- 56, iii, supra) 
Visakhila rejects any difference between murchana and tana, while Matanga offers 
a weak explanation that in the former the seven notes are in both droha and avaroha 
while in the latter they occur only in droha (Sirhhabhupala’s reading) or that the 
former occurs in ascent only while the latter is in descent only ( Brhaddesi , p. 26). 
However, he somewhat inconsistently also says (ibid., p. 24) ‘iddnlm pravaksydmi 
sadavauduva-murchanah’. On the other hand, Haripala (op.cit. 5.2.8) says that tanas 
are rendered only in ascent. 

Suddhatdna: NN describes sddava and auduva under murchanas, but defines 
suddhatanas as sadavas, auduvas (so rendered for purposes of gita) ; the clarity in 
meaning has here suffered because of brevity. Sarhgadeva (SR 1.4.27) brings out 
the difference very clearly. 

cTFTT: • 

By placing an ingenious construction on suddhah here as applying to both murchana 
and tana to concile with Bharata’s position on the subject, Kallmatha says that if 
related to murchana alone, ‘tana’ in this passage would include kuta tanas also in 
which case the immediately next passage on tana number (fortynine sadavas and 
thirty-five auduvas, thus totalling eighty-four in both gramas) would be inconsistent; 
therefore, suddha-murchanas are those which are without kakaU and antara notes, 
suddha-tanas are sadavas and audavas derived from suddha-murchanas such that the 
notes are taken in regular order (vyutkrama-rahita), even though similar tanas are 
possible in the other (three ? only sddhdrana ?) murchanas. Sarhgadeva describes 
only these eightyfour to be consistent with the Bharatiya text (op. cit. p. 116). The 
omission of derivation from sddhdrana-murchanas\% in any case justified: antara and 
kakall notes were ruled to be used very sparingly; if these notes were omitted, they 
would no longer characterise the murchana. If however, these tanas are reckoned 
for all four vareties of murchana, they would total up to 84 x 4 = 336 inclusive of both 
gramas. However, the tanas are consistently apportioned as Sg 14, Mg 21, Gg 14 
(= 49) uniformly in Vayupurdnam (24.36), Visnudharmottarapuranam III.18. p. 315). 
Markandeyapurana (21.54), Pancatantra (5.6.52), Naradasiksa (1.2.7,8) etc. These 
fortynine tanasv/ere named by varada and prescribed to be sung (i.e. used as scales 
for different samans which were rendered) in various yajhas in the propitiation of 
gods according to Nanyadeva (op. cit. 4.137, 138, p.130): 


On the other hand, the tanas applicable in music are eightyfour, as mentioned by 
Bharata: (ibid., 4.138cd) 

'lldlMdlPMWHl htcl'llH^r^ldl; I 



However, the eightyfour tanas are associated with the eightyfour yajhas and are 
named after them by Matahga (op. cit. 106-117, pp. 26-28). Such use is noted by 
Nanyadeva also (op. cit 4.105, 106): 

... cTFft Tcfrj "513# I 

Nanyadeva counts altogether 19873 tanas from all three gramas (ibid., 4.168). 
However, Matahga and Sarngadeva follow Bharata in the enunciation of eightyfour 

How are the eightyfour tanas obtained? Bharata prescribes these rules: in Sg. 
each murchana may be transformed into a sadava by omitting sa, ri, pa or ni', in Mg, 
each murchana may be rendered ( sadavakrta) sadava by omitting sa, ri, or ga; so each 
murchana gives (4+3) seven varieties of sadava tanas:, there are, in all (Sg 7 X 4 = 28 
and Mg 7 x 3 = 21, i.e. 28 + 21 =) 49 sadava tanas from both gramas. Next, auduva 
tanas are formed by omitting also the respective pahcama-samvadins: sa-pa, ri-pa, ni- 
ga in Sg, ga-ni, ri-dha in Mg. This gives (7 x 3 =) 21 in Sg and (7 x 2 =) 14 in Mg, giving 
a total of (21 + 14 =) 35 auduva tanas from both gramas. So the grand total of tanas 
is (49 + 35 =) 84(NS 28.33 pr, p. 27). The precise reasons for omitting these 
particular notes for obtaining tanas are not given by any authority. Datula’s dictum 
(op.cit. 20, p. 4) is helpful in understanding the process of making tanas. 

WT wmuih I 

In Sg, ma and dha cannot be omitted: of the remaining notes, sa, ri, pa, ni may be 
omitted, one by one. How can pa, which differentiates Sg from Mg be omitted? 
Kallinatha poses this question and answers that a tana of a grama is identified by the 
omitted notes: this itself serves to associate it with the parent grama even in the 
absence of pa (op. cit. on ibid., 1.4.27-31 p. 116): 

Still, this does not explain why ga could not be omitted for sadava formation in 
Sg, and dhaoT ni in Mg. Textual tradition relies heavily on Bharata’s injunction as 
authority on this topic. In auduva formation, the rule was to omit the sadavar 
forming note as well as its pahcama-samvadin. The original purpose was to maintain 
balance and symmetry in the two tetrachords. But in course of time this proved too 
restrictive and failed to accommodate many ragas of desyn origin. Therefore, it was 
relaxed with the concession that the pahcama-samvadin or an anuvadin could be 
omitted to form auduva tanas:, e.g. Matahga (op. cit. p. 24): 



Matariga raises and answers a relevant question: there are certain overlaps or 
repetitions in reckoning the tanas; for example in the tanas omitting sa in Sg and 
Mg, the first and seventh tana have both the identical form, viz. ri ga ma pa dha ni. 
Why are such repetitions not excluded? They are included for the sake of complete¬ 
ness: further one stretches into the low ( mandra ) and the other, into the high ( tarn) 
register (op.cit. pp. 29-30): 

As indicated above, kuta tana is formed by a group of notes taken in irregular 
order (SR 1.4.32). It is formed from a sampurna or asampuma-murchana. The 
number of kuta tanas which may be obtained is governed by the simple algebraic 

principle of the factorial, viz. p = n (n-1) (n-2) (n-3).(3) (2) (1), where ‘n’ 

is the number of svaras and ‘p’ the number of tanas obtained by systematic and 
complete permutation. Therefore, the number of kuta tanas obtained for the svaras 


1 note: 1; 2 notes: 2 x 1 = 2; s 3 notes: 3 x 2 x 1 = 6; 4 notes = 4x3x2x1 = 24; 
5 notes: 5x4x3x2xl =120; 6 notes: 6x5x4x3x2xl = 720; 7 notes = 7 x 
6x5x4x3x2xl = 5040. 

Tanas containing 1,2,3, 7 notes are called arcika, gathika, samika, svarantara, 

auduva, sadava and sampurna respectively. * 

Visakhila is probably the first authority who is aware of this principle and of the 
scheme of tabulation ( prastara ). This is indicated by Nanyadeva (op. cit. 4.89, p. 
123). They are discussed by Matanga et al. But it is the matchless Sarngadeva who 
calculates with vast patience, perseverance and precision the total number of 



sampurna kuta tanas 


Repetitions in 

sadava kuta tanas 


i. uttaramandra-suddhamadhya 


auduva kuta tanas 


ii.. rajarii-margi 


svarantara kuta tanas 


iii. uttarayata-pauravi 


samika kuta tanas 


iv. purna kramas 


gathika kuta tanas 


sadava kramas 


arcika kuta tanas 


auduva „ 




svarantara „ 


samika „ 


gathika „ 


arcika „ 







Thus the actual number of kuta tanas = 3,22,582—4652 = 3,17,930 

Sarngadeva seems unaware of twenty-three more repetitions (which I have 
shown elsewhere): matsarikrt-sauviri = 1; asvakranta-harinasva = 5; abhirudgata-kalo- 
panata =17 (total = 23). If these are subtracted further, the actual number of kuta 
tanas is 3,17,907. 

Finally, we may attempt to answer the question following Matanga (op.cit. p. 30): 
Description of murchana may be justified because they are applied in jati and rdga: 
but why are tanas described? 

As mentioned earlier, the suddha-tanaswere used for two purposes: religious and 
aesthetic; the former is endorsed by Dattila (op. cit. 30,31), Matanga, Sarngadeva, 
Nanyadeva and others; this soon became obsolete because faith in the accrual of 
their invisible fruits dwindled in course of time, as stated by Haripaladeva (op. cit. 

cTFTPTf cllft ^ I 


The second purpose has been mentioned by Bharata and his followers viz. 
gitopayogita. Matanga elaborates this further: they are useful in understanding the 
differences between ragas and (between?) jatis, and in understanding nasta and 
uddista (vide infra) (Matanga, op. cit. p. 30): 

^414414^1^^^^ ^ ^11 : dHTfg 

S4lilfo4l4rcHMIMcdyrd l ll<HI«f !>l4) J l4dl4l4|tf I '*TgT HyY^9|^lRH<6d*f 94)44414141^ I 

58d-59. Tanakriya is the musical act of forming a tana, first described by Bharata 
(NS 28.33 pr, p. 27). This is illustrated in strings (of the vino) for facile understand¬ 
ing, but can be extended to all musical instruments of the chordophone and 
aerophone classes. This is indicated by Pandarika Vitthala when he says that 
tanakriya may be applied to all tanas (by suitable performance techniques). 
Deflecting a string to make the next higher note enter, i.e. manifest itself at the 
position of a precedent lower note is pravesa, by this technique the precedent 
svarasthana is made to resemble ( sadrsyam) its next higher one; in nigraha an 
unwanted note is slurred over. (Earlier authorities prescribe total omission of the 
unwanted note. These are thus methods of adding or subtracting a note to form a 
desired tana. 

69a. ‘Varn’ is an ubhayapadl-dhatu of the tenth ( curadi ) class and is transitive: it 
means 'to paint, to colour, dye, depict, picture write, describe, relate; explain, 
spread, extend; extol, proclaim qualities’ ( Dhatupatha, 3.5.83: varnakriya-vistaraguna 
vacanesu prerane ca). 

Methodology adopted in the treatment of the subject matter of this chapter—as 
indicated in the sequence—by Sarngadeva (whom Pandarika Vitthala follows) is 




noteworthy: sruti , quantum of musical sound, its accumulation into unit of melodic 
expression, the svara\ its modifications, varieties and attributes, its comprehensive 
theoretical organisation, the grama-grama apparatus in conceptually genetic se¬ 
quence, i.e. murchana and tana —aids to their precise knowledge, the prastara, etc. 
pratyayas —phraseology and organisation of tanas viz. varnalamkaras. As indicated 
above, the kutatanas number some 3,17,907 and comprehend theoretical possibili¬ 
ties. It is not possible to remember or practise them all in normal practice. Hence 
Indian music theory has codified the more commonly used melodic phrases under 
the name of varnalamkaras. 

Varna is ganakriya , i.e. the act of singing (and playing); in other words, melodic 
kinematics. Just as varna (syllable) is the fundamental unit for organisation and 
meaning in language and is a dynamic entity in an articulated flow and phrasing 
from which meaning emerges, varna , the articulation and flowing of clusters of 
svaras (varna) is the fundamental unit of organisation and meaning in music. This 
principle was known from the earliest times in Indian music theory and has been 
explicitly stated by some authorities. Thus Matanga, in a beautiful and lucid 
passage, gives the etymology of varna (op.cit. p. 33): 

TJ ^ ^ifd^fd: ? TSTcf—M quMpi+tfiipd jflddV I lc^ l Rl^d WTft^T 
q u f*q Ih^Iti: I 

Simhabhupala (op.cit. on SR 1.6.1, p. 152): 


Kallinatha (op.cit. on ibid., loc. cit. p. 151) 

TTHfsMAII W9<l^4ufdl^fq*dKdH<J|ld s | 

Bharatamuni extols the varna in glowing terms (song without varna is like night 
without the moon, river without water, creeper without flowers and woman without 
ornaments, NS 29.45, p. 92) and gives to it the meaning of linear extension (op. cit. 
29.18, p. 81) 

He adds that the theoretical model of the varna is set up so as to derive the alarhkaras 
in both the voice and vlna (as well as other instruments; op.cit. 29.17, p. 80) 

m1<W9^dlPfdWrd^|ij)-q<| : | 

Abhinavagupta expands this to say that the varnas occur in vina etc. also (op.cit. on 
ibid., loc. cit. p. 81): 



M^dlfcl 1 

cfluiKiI^rd crafq 

70d. Sthayi. Compare with Matanga’s lucid definition (op.cit. p. 34): 

71b. Arohl. cf. Matanga (loc. cit.) 

^ TfaT: 3 J|(tePd M'^l: TTRTCT ^TTf 37 TMc*pr^ I 

71d. Avarohl: Matanga (loc. cit.) restricts the descent to one by one: 

3W'lSP'd Ml sffeiT ^ I 

^ $ WRR: II 

72b. Sancari: Matanga elaborates this further (loc. cit.): 

^ cTFt UsRPd T3TT 3R*rR*WfecTT: I 
k$>=h*Fl fellqI "FT <J-»4cl II 

73c-105. i. Alarhkaras: Pandarika Vitthala describes the selfsame alarhkaras in 
Sadragacandrodaya (1.52-80) and Ragamala (50cd-82) but athetises the topic alto¬ 
gether in Ragamahjan. Since fhe initial note of the murchana is also called prasanna 
or mrdu in the context of alarhkaras (SR 1.7.7d-8a), he used the synonym prasanna 
as an adjectival prefix in the names of the sthayi-alarhkaras in Sadragacandrodaya (in 
agreement with most authorities) but replaces it with ‘mandra’ in NN and Ragamala. 
Prahmukha (sancari alamkara) (NN 3.1.92) has been called preksaka in 
Sadragacandrodaya (1.73), where skhalita (sahcan alamkara No. 8) has been listed as 
lalita (op. cit. 1.71) obviously due to graphic deterioration during textual transmis¬ 

A brief review of the treatment of alarhkaras by the more important authorities 
would help in focussing the same in NN in perspective. 

Matanga explains alamkara in analogy with ornaments of men and women 
(op. cit. p. 34) and draws a parallel between visual and aural delight. 

3ld$kVI<fe chd.ch4i^UfeM^l\u| 'TTTf *ffr§cT: #HW|ckfe 

ckJT M > cU<n|;i\: y^isilfdf^Kci^cii q u ibN , Mi 7 TlfcT: T T1^4feii y<giq£i ^qcflfci I... °^csiri§r 

Wefts-4k I 

I. Bharatamuni (NS 29.30-44, pp. 87-92; Kavyamalae dn. 29.22ff. differs substan¬ 
tially from what follows in Matanga’s extraction, pp. 43, 44) 




i. sthayi 1 .prasannadi 2. prasannanta 3. prasannadyanta 4. prasannamadhya 
5. kramarecita 6. prastara 7. prasada. 

ii. arohl 1. niskujita 2. cakora(?) 3. hasita 4. bindu 5. prehkholita 6. aksipta 7. 
vidhuta 8. udvahita 9. hradamana 10. sampradana 11. sandhipracchadana 12. 
prasannadi 13. prasannanta (i.2 ?) 

iii. avarohl 1. vidhrta (ii.7 ?) 2. gatravarna 3. udgita 4. udvahita (ii. 8) 5. venu 

iv. sancari 1. mandrataraprasanna 2. bindu (ii.4) 3. prehkholita (ii.5) 4. kuhara 
5. venu (iii.5) 6. rahjita 7. upalolaka 8. avartaka 9. paravarta 10. ? 11. ? 

v. sarva-vamasaya 1. prasannadi (i.l) 2. prasannanta (i.2) 3. bindu (ii.4, iv.2) 

4. kampita 5. recita (i.5) 6. prehkholita (ii.5, iv.3) 7 tdramandra-mandra 
(taramandraprasanna?) 8. sama 9. samnivrtta 10. pravrtta (samnivrttapra- 
vrtta ?) 11. upalolaka (iv.7) 12. venu (iii.5) 

These are compiled from Matanga’s extraction (op. cit. pp. 43,44). When eleven 
repetitions, two omissions in (iv) one decomposition in (iv) are considered, these 
alamkaras are reduced to 33. Mummadi Cikkabhupala’s extraction of Bharata 
(AbhinavaBharata sarasamgraha, pp. 162-166) contains thirty three alamkaras , though 
with differences in name and description. The inconsistencies in listing and 
definition maybe reconciled thus: the total alamkaras listed are 39 (7 sthayl 13 arohl 
5 avarohl and 14 sancari ); of these 6 are equivalent and hence repetitious. Among 
the listed alamkaras eight, viz. kramarecita , prasada , prehkhita, recita , avalokita, ksipta, 
vistirna and udvahita are left undefined. But six unlisted alamkaras viz. urmi f 
apahgita , tarn, taratama , taramandra-prasanna and mandratara-prasanna are defined 
additionally. Among these, the pairs urmi-prehkhita, apahgita-avalokita are synony¬ 
mous. The other alamkaras may be studied similarly. 

II. Matanga (pp. 35-43) also describes thirty-three alamkaras without classifica¬ 
tion, a comparative study of which with NS and SR is instructive. 

1. prasannadi 2. prasannanta 3. prasannadyanta 4. prasannamadhya 5. sama 
6. bindu 7. nivrtta-pravrtta 8. venu 9. kampita 10. kuharita 11. recita 12. prehkholita 
13. taramandraprasanna 14. mandratara-prasanna lb.prastara 16. prasada 17. udva- 
hita 18. upalolaka 19. krama 20. niskujita 21. hradamana 22. rahjita 23. avartaka 
24. parivartaka 25. udghattita 26. aksiptika 27. sampradana 28. hasita 29. humkara 
30. sandhipracchadana 31. vidhuta 32. udgita 33. gatravarna 

III Dattila (op. cit. 97b-108) 

i. sthayl: 1 prasannadi 2. prasannanta 3. prasannamadhya 4. prasannadyanta 

ii. arohl: 1 prasannadi (i.l) 

iii. avarohi: 1 . prasannanta (i.2) 

iv. sancari: 1. bindu 2. nivrttapravrtta 3. prehkholita 4. taramandraprasanna 

5. mandrataraprasanna 




v. miscellaneous: 1. kampita 2. (ku)harita 3. recita 

IV. Parsvadeva (op. cit. 1.42b-46) largely borrows from Dattila but without 

V. Haripala (op. cit. 5.7.1-20) 

i. sthayi: 1 .prasannadi 2. prasannanta 3. madhyadlpta 4. prasanna- madhya 

ii. arohl: 1. sama 2. kampita 3. kuharita 4. tecita (+prasannadi , i.l) 

iii. avarohl: 1. prasannanta (i.2) 

iv. sancari: 1. bindu 2. sannivrttapravrtta 3. prenkholita 4. taramandra-prasanna 
5. mandratara-prasanna 

VI. Sarngadeva (op. cit. 1.6.1-65) 

i. sthayi: 1. prasannadi 2- prasannanta 3. prasannadyanta 4. prasannamadhya 
5. kramarecita 6. prastara 7. prasada 

ii. arohi: 1. vistirna 2. niskarsa 2(a) gatravarna 3. krama 3(a) 4. abhyuc- 

caya 5. hasita 6. prenkhita 7. aksipta 8. sandhipracchadana 9. udgita 10. wdi/a- 
hita 11. trivarna 12. t'tfm 

iii. avarohl: same as ii. 1-12 but in descent 

iv. sancari: 1. mandradi 2. mandramadhya 3. mandranta 4. prastara (i.6) 5. pra¬ 
sada (i.7) 6. vyavrtta 7. skhalita 8. parivartaka 9. aksepa 10. fo'ndw (ii.3a) 

11. udvahita (ii.6) 12. urmi 13. sama 14. prenkha (ii.13) 15. niskujita 16. syena 
17. krama (ii.3) 18. udghattita 19. ranjita 20. nivrttapravrtta 21. venu (ii. 12) 
22. lalitasvara 23. humkara 24. hradamana 25. avalokita 

v. prasiddha: 1. taramandra-prasanna 2. mandratara-prasanna 3. avartaka 

4. sampradana 5. vidhuta 6. upalola 7. ullasita 

VII. Kumbhakarna ( Sangitaraja ,, pp. 168-182) describes exactly the 
same sixtythree alamkaras of Sarngadeva, but suggests that the twentyfive sancari 
alahkaras , like the aro/w, could be taken in descent too, thus giving a total of 
eightyeight alamkaras. 

VIII. Nanyadeva (op. cit. 5.1.1-17): 

i. sthayi: 1. prasannadi 2. prasannanta 3. prasannadyanta 4. prasannamadhya 

5. kramar{recita) 6. prastara 7. prasada 

ii. arohl: 1. niskujita 2. humkara 3. hasita 4. bindu 5. prenkholita 6. ksipta 
7. vidhuta 8. udvahita 9. hradamana 10. sampradana 11. sandhipracchadana 

12. prasannadi (i.l) 13. prasannanta (i.2) 14. prasannadyanta (i.3). 

iii. avarohl: 1. vidhuta 2. gatravarna 3. udvahita 4. udgita 5. rmw 

iv. sancari: 1. mandra 2. prasannadi (i.l) 3. prenkhita 4. fc'A (ii.5) 5. 
vrtta-pravrtta 6. recita 7. kampita 8. salrca 9. kuhara 10. venu 11. ranjita 12. 
upalolaka 13. pravartaka 14. paravrtta 

If the repetitions are synonymous, the total reduces to thirty-five. 




IX. Sahgitasarani (extr. Bharatakosa , p. 586) : 1. ekasvara 2. dvisvara 3. trisvara 4. 
catuhsvara 5. srhkhali 6. nagapasa 7. mahgala S.yatimahgala 9. nandana 10. sundara 
11. kunda 12. sarala 13. kutila 14. udbhata 

X. Ahobala ( Sahgitapdrijdta , 1.221-297, pp.18-33) describes the selfsame alamkaras 
as Sarngadeva under the same scheme of classification in the same way: however, 
he gives additional name for the sthayi-alamkaras: bhadra (prasannadi), nanda 
(prasannanta), jita (prasannadyanta), soma (prasannamadhya), gnva (krama-recita), 
bhala (prastara), prakasa (prasada)\ like Kumbhakarna, he counts sahcan in the 
descent also (1.278d, p. 30). He also describes seven other alamkaras which are 
specially interesting to the historian of Karnataka music; for, these are practised 
even today as beginner’s exercises in the name of tala-alamkaras (and simply 
referred to as alamkaras) set to the seven suladi talas. These are believed to be 
composed by the great saint singer Purandaradasa in the 16th century and are 
described by Venkatamakhin ( Caturdandiprakasika , 3.82-116). Ahobala describes 
the svara patterns for each of these talas and gives their name, for the first time: 
indranila (dhruva), mahavajra (mathya), nirdosa (rupaka), slra (jhampa), kokila 
(triputa),avarta (adda), sadananda (laghutala). He has replaced the name ekatalaWwh 
the more descriptive laghutala ; the svara patterns given by him are somewhat 
different from the ones practised today, but the tala ahgas are the same. His 
statement that these talas are found applied in songs of his times (exclusively?) is 
interesting (op. cit. 1.288). He also describes five more alamkaras which are used in 
ragas: cakrakara, java, sahkha, padmanibha and varida (op. cit. 1.288cd, 289, p. 31): 

srafRI: ‘'FT: W TmVl4)pH: TJJcTT: II 
■qsMchi^l ^Tjg 7 : TfcT: I 

cTTf^fcT ffaT ff eTSPt ^ITpT II 

Thus the total numbers of alamkaras described by Ahobala is 68 (7 + 12 + 12 + 
25 + 7 + 5). Sawai Pratapasimha borrows the seven, indranilae tc. (Sahgitasdra, 1.205- 
207) from Ahobala without acknowledgement. 

74c-105. (i) Just as the names of the varnas are appropriate, the names of 
alamkaras also are both appropriate and meaningful. Thus mandra = mrdu = 
prasanna = initial note of murchana\ dipta = tarn = octave note of mandra. Pandarlka 
Vitthala introduces the term ‘madhya for the fifth note to fulfil a transient need. 
However in alamkaras such as mandra-taraprasanna , taramandraprasanna (not de¬ 
scribed in NN) the term prasanna appears to be used to indicate the initial note 
obtained after a descent. 

The names of the alamkaras are beautiful and apt. The meanings of some of these 
are compiled below from Monier Williams, Apte, Macdonell, etc. 




83d. kramarecita —bereft of order 

84cd. vistirna —enhanced magnitude: in this instance, enhanced duration; 
drawn out 

85a. sannikarsa —close contact, vicinity, proximation 
86b. prenkha —swing 

87b. pracchadana —covering, overlap; sandhipracchadana : covering a joint 
88b. aksipta —drawn together 

89b. bindu —dot, point, spot; here, touching the next note in a point, like flash. 
90b. hasita —normally, smile or laughter; here, bloom, enlarge (from root ‘ has\ 
cl. 1, p) 

91c. prasada —lucid, luminous, calm, unagitated 

92d. pranmukha —turned back 

93d. utksepa —to throw up, raise, to erect 

94d. parivartaka —turn round; artificial hiatus to bring out something new 
95d. udvahita —raised (by one svara) 

96d. nih(-s)kujita —not sounding (the same note) 

98b. recita —emptied, drawn out 

99b. skhalita —staggered, slipped, fallen, dripping down 
99c. krama —ordered, regular 
101a. ranjita— coloured, appealing 

101c. hradamana —making a sound; hladamana —giving delight 
103b. syena —eagle, falcon, a kind of array, a metre. 

73c-105. (ii) NN has borrowed the description of varna-alarhkaras freely from SR 
without acknowledgement but with minor changes. So a brief comparison is 
appropriate here. 

Sthayi alamkaras: NN has athetised prasada and prastara , and has subsdtuted 
mandra-prasanna in the first five alamkaras r, this has led to some confusion because 
SR describes a sancan alamkara of this name (1.6.30) and Pandarika Vitthala 
assumes its definition in the description of skhalita , ranjita and hradamana (NN 
3.L98-101) without describing it, thus rendering his text opaque and ambiguous. 

Arohl: NN has athetised the listing and definition of gatravama (ii. 2a), 
abhyuccaya (ii.4), udgita (ii.9), trivarna (ii.ll) and veni (ii.12) from SR. Again, SR 
repeats the names (but not definitions) of prastara (i.6, iv.4), prasada (i.7, iv.5), 
dksepa (iv.9) aksipta (ii.7), bindu (ii.3,4,10), udvahita (ii.10, iv.l 1), krama (ii.6, iv.17), 
veni (ii.12), venu (iv.21). 

Sancarins, NN has omitted mandradi , mandra-madhya, mandranta (these three 
should not be confused with prasannadi , prasannd-madhya and prasannanta de¬ 
scribed under sthayi-alamkaras ), vyavrtta, urmi, sama, udghattita, sannivrtta-pravrtta, 
lalitasvara and avalokita (which may be synonymous with preksaka = pranmukha). 
Further, NN has also omitted the seven prasiddhalamkaras of SR. 

The twentyfive alamkaras ot NN have correspondences in SR shown in brackets 
in the following (i = sthayi ii = arohi iii = avarohi iv = sahcari): 




i. 1. mandrddi (i.l) 2. mandranta (i.2) 3. mandradyanta (\.?>) 4. mandra madhya 
(i.4) 5. kramarecita (i.5) 

ii. 1. vistirna (ii. 1 ) 2. sannikarsa (ii.2a niskarsa ) 3. prehkha (iv.14) 4. pracchd- 
dana (ii.8 sandhipracchadana) 5. aksipta (ii.7) 6. bindu (ii.3; iv.10) 7. hasita 

iv. 1. prasada (i.7) 2. pranmukha = preksaka (iv.25 avalokita ) 3. utksepa (iv.9 . 
aksepa) 4. parivarta (iv.8) 5. udvahita (ii.10; iv. 11) iv. 6 niskujita (iv.15) 
7. recita(-) 8. skhalita (iv.7) 9. krama (ii.6; iv.17) 10. ranjita (iv.19) 11 . hrada- 
mana (iv.24) 12. humkara (iv.23) 13. syena (iv.16) 

80abc. Mandradi and mandranta are different from SR because of the introduc¬ 
tion of madhya = pa in NN; however, prasannadi and prasannanta of Sadraga- 
candrodaya (1.58cd, 59ab) are identical with those in SR (1.6.9) 

81cd. Mandra-madhya differs from prasannamadhya of Sadragacandrodaya ( 1.60, 
pa sapa) but identical in SR (1.6.23) 

83ff. Other parallel texts, (e.g. SR 1.6.13) describe two more sthayi alamkaras’. 
prastara, -sa ri sa sa ga masa sa pa dha ni sa) and prasada (sa ri sa sa ga ma °sa sa pa 
dha ni sa) 

84ab. Sannikarsa is identical with the first jantivarise in abhyasagana of Karnataka 
music and illustrates sphurita gamaka (q.v. infra) 

90ab.ff. Other texts, (e.g. SR 1.6.19, 24, 25) add five aroki-alamkaras , viz. 
abhyuccaya (sa ga pa ni), udgita (sa sa sa ri ga ma ma ma pa dha), udvahita (sa ri ri 
ri ga ma pa pa pa dha), trivarna (sari gagaga ma pa dhadhadha) and veni (sasasa 
ririri gagaga .... ninini). 

lOOcd-lOlab. Ranjita: The definition of this alamkara is obscure in all the works 
of Pandarika Vitthala because he inserts the term mandradi-(alamkara) without first 
introducing it. This is yet another instance of his borrowal from SR without 
contextuality. Mandrddi is defined thus in SR (1.6.30): 

f^RI 55UT I 

^ II 

^T8JT—TTTTft WI Trfro 

lOlcd. Mandradestu: vide commentary on NN 3.1.100cd-101ab. 

91cd-104ab. Sri Bharato munih is a both anachronistic and apocryphal. These 
are actually statements of Sarngadeva (SR 1.6.33b): ‘ tamaha sfikaranesvarah' and 
(ibid., 1.6.53d) 'srikaranagranih' (or variant reading in Anandasramaedn. ‘nihsahkah 
praha sanmatih ) 

105. Alamksuraprayojanam: Vayupuranam resolves to describe thirty alamkaras 
(Calcutta edn. 25.1-21) but in a passage full of corruption and lacuna (ibid, 
loc. cit.) gives only seventeen: 1. sthapani 2. kramarejina(-ta ?) 3. pramada ( pra - 



sada ?) 4. apramada 5. kumara 6. syena 7. uttara 8. bindu 9. durghatita (udghattita 
?) 10 .aksepa 11 . kaka 12. aksipta 13. proksamadhya 14. prehkholita 15. praksipta 
16. ghrasita and 17. maksi- pracchedana (sandhi-pracchddana ?) (Anandasrama edn. 
87.1-24, pp. 314-316). The Calcutta edn. of Vayupuranam adds eight more: 
1. visvarostraka , 2. avarta 3. kramotpatti 4. vistara vamana 5. apahga 6. kutareka 
(kuharita ?) 7. aksepa skandana (aksepa + skhalita ?) 8. hrasita (hasita ?). It promises 
four benefits to the practitioner of alamkaras". samsthana, pramana , vikara and 
laksana (ibid., 25.22, 23). On the other hand, Visnudharmottarapuranam mentions 
only four alamkaras , viz. prasannadi , prasannanta , prasannddyanta and prasannamadhya 
and describes the benefit accruing from their practice as ‘suraradhana ’ (ibid., III. 18, 
pp. 92, 93) 

106. Gamaka is derived from the root ‘gamlr’ of class I (‘ bhvddi ), parasmaipadi , 
intransitive and without ‘ it ; in the causative ( nici) it assumes forms such as gamayati 
and means, among other things ‘to cause (the svara) to go to or reach toward 
(another svara), cause (the svara) to become expressive, to excel, ‘to cause (the 
musically autonomous meaning of the svara) to become clear, intelligible, effec¬ 
tive, to convey the meaning (of the svara). It evolves into the form ‘gamaka’ (nic + 
nvul , Panini, Astadhyayi, 3.1.33) so as to mean, in the context of music, to cause (the 
svara) to be clearly, intelligibly understood. In other words gamaka is the immediate 
agent which actualises the expressive potential of the svara ; it makes the svara 
specifically meaningful depending on its environment and context. The semantic 
potential of a svara is latent in its svasthana , but becomes expressive when the svara 
moves in regulated directions and speeds. Thus it acquires a volume or envelop in 
the tone continuum as also continuity or contiguity. In other words, gamaka is not 
any movement of the note, but a definite or special dynamic state in which it 
acquires a specific aesthetic function. This is what Kallinatha means when he says 
(op. cit. on SR 3.87ab, p. 168): 


108-114ab. The manner and extent of displacement of a svara for expressive 
purposes depends on the nature and limitations of the medium (instrument), on 
the musical and aesthetic exigencies, physical parameters such as the volume, 
range, accent, etc. and psychoaesthetic parameters such as aesthetic conventions, 
individual variation and individual preference, cultural parameters such as tradi¬ 
tional norms etc. With these variables, gamakas may be only broadly classified. 

From the historical standpoint, the growth of gamaka may be studied quantita¬ 
tively (in terms of number), conceptually (the mode of defining), classification and 
its modern form and function. Pandarika Vitthala appears in the watershed of the 
evolution of Indian music; his own contribution to gamaka and sthaya is only in 
perpetuation of (textual) tradition; nevertheless, because in his age musical and 




musicological reformation was on the anvil, a brief comparative study would prove 

Bharata does not mention gamakabut may have implied it in kaku. Matanga does 
not classify or describe gamakas but mentions it clearly on four occasions (op. cit. 
479, 489, p. 151; Bhdsdlaksana, pp. 110, 129); Nanyadeva (op. cit., 
pp. 139, 140), Somesvara ( Manasollasa , 4.16.65-75, pp. 7, 8), Parsvadeva ( Sail - 
gitasamayasara, 1.47-55, pp. 4, 5) and Haripaladeva ( Sangitasudhakara, 5.4.1-9) 
describe only seven gamakas, viz. sphurita, lina, kampita, tiripa, andolita, dhata, and 
tribhinna : Nanyadeva seems to describe the application of each to different notes; 
Somesvara is the first authority to relate the gamaka to (i) the sound generated at 
the navel etc. (ii) the magnitude of movement in terms of the range of srutis 
involved and (iii) the speed of movement measured in terms of the talahgas, viz. 
druta and laghu. Sphurita moves to the next sruti at thrice the speed of druta and 
returns. Sphurita at double druta speed is kampita ; Una is the same smoothly 
performed at druta speed; in andolita , the svara reaches the third sruti (from 
svasthana) at speed of laghu and returns again and again; tiripa also moves to the 
third sruti and revolves in high speed; in dhata the svara strikes the immediately 
next svara at speed of the druta and returns: ascent and descent in all three registers 
very quickly is tribhinna ; svara produced with sealed lips is mudrita. Later accounts 
of gamaka are content to relate it with only the speed element and not sruti range. 

Gamakas next proliferated to fifteen at the hands of Sarngadeva who adds vali, 
kurula, ullasita, plavita humphita , namita and misrita (SR 3.87-97ab). Most of later 
authors borrow from him. Pandarika Vitthala also has done the same. However, 
gamaka seems to have been described in another sense from about the 13th century 
While the above seven (and later, fifteen) are svara-gamakas, (i.e. gamaka .involving 
svara displacement), twenty-two sruti-gamakas (involving inter- or intra -sruti 
displacements?) have been mentioned by Palkurike Somanatha ( Panditarddhya 
caritramu, Parvata prakaranamu, p. 452) and copied by Nijaguna ( Viveka-cintamani 
4.92, p. 404): dirghalalita, dirghollasa , dirghikadirgha , ullasita , samollasita , etc. If these 
were not mere fanciful analogies, they must have been very subtle and exacting in 
their application. It is interesting that Nijaguna has designated the seven classical 
svara-gamakas as ‘desi’. 

From about the 18th century the gamakas settled down to ten, and tended to desi 
usage. Paramesvara ( Vinalaksana , 4.1-15) describes ten: hommu , pratihata f 
simhavalokana, jaru, viti, nokku, pattu, orika, gamaka, sphurita . These are elucidated 
as techniques in vind playing, and may be compared with those described by 
Subbarama DIksita as recently as in 1905 A.D.: kampita (kadalimpu), sphurita, 
pratyaghata, nokku, dhata (rava^nd khandimpu), vali, ullasita (ekkujam and digujam), 
kumla, humphita (orika and odagimpu), tribhinna, mudritaznd misra (Prathamdbhydsa- 
pustakamu, Introduction, pp. 17-19). Sahgitaratndkara, a work in Kannada by an 
anonymous author gives these ten gamakas (p.2): drohana, avarohana, d(h)alu, 




sphurita , kampita, ahata, pratyahata, tripuccha, andola and murchana. Tiruvenkata 
Kavi describes ten gamakas, viz. kampita, murchana , kala , sva(! sphu)rita, pratyahata , 
thaya,jaru , on&a, nokku, dalu , as well as ten vital elements of t/ing playing, viz. sruti, 
dhara, lo met , pattu, vidupu , tade, sama, kattari , laya , which are modes of plucking the 
string with the right fingers. According to him, a plucked on the string with 
the right finger and trembled with a left finger is kampita ; taking the notes in ascent 
and descent are aptly called arohana and avarohana respectively; they are together 
called murchana ; rendering them in vilamba, madhya and druta tempi is fozfa. Sphurita 
consists in pressing the string with (left) thumb (! forefinger?) and midfinger; (i.e. 
pressing the string with the left forefinger at the fret of the previous note and 
striking with the left midfinger the plucked string at the fret of the desired note to 
generate it in an ascending movement); if executed in descent, this is called 
pratyahata ; rendering a note without plucking the string is thaya; jaru is the mode 
of obtaining a note without plucking the string but by sliding the left finger. Orika 
(phonetically deteriorated to ‘ vareku ’ in professional parlance) is deflection of the 
string to generate a note at a fret; in dhalu notes are obtained in both ascending and 
descending movement by sliding the left finger ( Sahgitasdra-sangrahamu , pp. 23- 

The modern practice of gamaka in Karnataka music, especially in tro^-playing is 
by and large reflected in Subbarama Dlksita’s treatment of gamaka mentioned 
above. Muddusvami Dlksita, the great saint composer, singer and vina player (and 
Subbarama Dlkshita’s grand-uncle) has indicated his preference for the ten 
gamakas by saying vinagana-dasa gamaka-kriye in the carana of his krti minaksi me 
mudam dehi in gamakakriya raga. 

Special mention must be made of Somanatha ( Ragavibodha , 5.10-167, pp. 123- 
210) for his brilliant contribution to the study of gamaka ; he gives an elaborate 
account of twenty-two techniques of generating notes on the vina, viz. pratihati, 
dhati , anuhati, ahati, pidd, dolana, vikarsa, gamaka , kampa , gharsana , mudrd, sparsa, 
naimnya, pluti , dmta, parata, uccata , nijata (two varieties), sama , mrdu, kathina. He 
has inaugurated the designation of the gamakasWiXh (visual) graphic symbols, and 
has used them in writing precisely the alapana of raga segments. Unfortunately, this 
has been neglected. It is only about a hundred years ago that Chinnaswamy 
Mudaliyar and Subbarama Dlksita gave to Karnataka music a well developed system 
of notation including gamaka signs. 

Ahobala describes some of these and some uniquely, totalling twenty (op. cit. 
1.303-313, p. 34): cyavita , kampita , pratyahata , dvirahata , sphurita , anahata , santa, 
tiripa, gharsana , avagharsana , vikarsana, svasthana, agrdvasthdna, kartan , punah 
svasthana , sphuta, naimnya , dhalu , gumphita, mudrd. 

Pihgalanighantu , Tamil lexicon, is cited by N.S. Ramachandran (i&zgmof Karna¬ 
taka Music , 5, p. 157) as giving the following seventeen names which he claims to 
relate to techniques of vina playing and to different tone qualities of the vina (but 



about which nothing more than the names is known): kalittal , cummai , kambalai, 
aluhgal, cilaittal, tuvaittal, cilambal, irahgal, imizhdal, vimmal, irattal, ehgal, kanaittal , 
talpngaly karahgal, araral and isaittal. 

Gamakas may be broadly classified as relative to vocal music and to instrumental 
music. Govinda DIksita elucidates on four occasions ( Sangitasudha, 3.153,158,159, 
160, pp. 263, 264) the exclusive application of some gamakas to the singing voice. 
Thus the vernacular name ‘vaga 'used for gamaka since about the 13th century (e.g. 
SR. 3.97d) is quite appropriate. Most of the ten gamakas mentioned in the foregoing 
account are applicable to instrumental, especially, vina- music. Modern Hindustani 
music characterises styles and schools of si£ar-playing, as does Karnataka music 
those of t;m«-playing, on the criterion of gamaka. As long ago as 1888 A.D. Allauddin 
has described <dasavidh gamak’ (actually only the classical seven!) in his Sitarsiksak 
(guru) (pp. 13-15): dalu (sunth ), sphurita (jamajama, muraki, gitkadi), kampita 
(larajd), ahat (gamak), pratyahata (ghasit), tripuccha (masak) and andolita (mind). The 
sent gharana has developed twenty-two gamakas in its bap viz. hump(h)it, khadat, 
ganapat , ahat, anahat, andolit, prahat , bruvahat , durahat, atharat , tirip , kharesan , 

okharesan „ nisuthan „ okharsuthan, kartari, syunt, nimni , dhal , 5^/mn and madam. 

Finally, gamakas may be broadly classified into the following: 

i. those with names possessing general connotation which have acquired a 

technical parlance, e.g. andolita , tribhinna , kampita. 

ii. exclusive to the voice: humphita , kurula , mudrita. 

iii. exclusive to chordophones: nokku , hommu,'jam, orika, dhalu. 

iv. those that depend on stwra sequence, e.g. ahata, tribhinna, ullasita. 

v. combinations of two or more gamakas, e.g. misrita varieties. 

vi. those that depend on difference in speeds, e.g. kampita, Una, plavita, 
andolita, etc. (in fact, most of the gamakas described by Sarngadeva and 
Pandarika Vitthala belong to this class). 

Gflmdflnames are quite meaningful: ft'n/ra-twisted, screw, turn round; sphurita — 
flash suddenly, tremble, throb; kampita —quiver, oscillate very fast; Zma, dissolve or 
merge into, absorb, become imperceptible, stick to, be immersed, to become 
integral with; andolita —swing, sway, vacillate; vali —fold; tribhinna —differing in 
three ways; kumla —curly; ahata —struck; ullasita —exuberant, lustrous, projected 
from sheath; plavita —soaked, immersed, prolated, humphita —generating the sound 
'hum 1 from the navel; mudrita —sealed; misra —mixed. 

114cd. (i) Sthaya: ‘Stha* is an ubhayapadi-dhatu of class I ( ( bhvadi ), intransitive, 
anit, which means ‘to stand firmly on, to take up a position on’ etc. (. Dhatupatha , 
22.30). But 'sthaya 'does not appear to be derived from this dhatu; it is equated by 
lexicographers with 'sthaman which means station, seat, place, etc.; sthaya is given 
the meaning ‘receptacle’ according to lexicons by Monier Williams (op. cit. 
p. 1264). 




On the other hand ‘sthaya ' seems to be Sanskritisation of the vernacular word, 
thaya , a technical term used in musical parlance. Kallinatha (op. cit. on SR 3.97d 
p. 171) states that vaga is a vernacular expression but is silent on sthaya ; so also is 
Simhabhupala. It is probable that ‘thaya transformed into ‘sthaya i or, the word 
thaya is used again and again in Kannada poetry between the 12th and 20th century 
and used also in Telugu in exactly the same sense in which it is used in 
Sahgitasamayasdra and SR, but ‘sthaya' is never employed. The following are some 
sources in Kannada and Telugu which mention thaya ( thayi , thaye): 


Aggala, Candraprabhapurana , 7.97 
Kamalabhava, Santisvarapuranam, 7.93 pr. 

Janna, Anantanatha puranam, 6.71; Yasodharacarite , 2.29, 31 
Nagaraja, Punyasrava , 7.52 pr. 

Devakavi, KusumavaR kavya , 1.78 
Kumaravyasa, Bharata, Udyogaparva, 3.96 
Mangarasa, Jayanrpakavya, 14.43 
Padmakavi, Vardhamanacaritre y 12.32 
Raghavanka, Hariscandrakavya, 12.30 ( ragale) 

Kanakadasa, Mohanatarahgini , 22.31 
Ratnakaravarni, Bharatesavaibhava , 5.56 
Sadaksari, Rajasekharavilasa , 10.32 
Bommarasa, Saundarapuranam, 17.12 

Prasannavenkatadasa, Song: ‘ tandepurandaradasara smarisuve' 

Padmananka, Padmarajapurana , 3.62, 63 

Astabhasakavi Candrasekhara, Pampasthana-varnanam , 74, p. 26 
Bhlmakavi, Basavapuranam, 18.10-16 
Singiraja, Sihgirajapuranam , 36.12 

Ambikatanayadatta (20th century), Aralumaralu, p. 416.11 

Palkuriki Somanatha, Basavapuranamu , Sakalesvaru Madirajayya katha , pp. 208, 

Puspagiri Timmana, Samirakumara vijayamu , 3.242, 6.200 
Bammera Potaraju, Bhagavatamu , 10.1091 
Kankanti Paparaju, Uttara-ramayanamu , 6.135 
Cedalavada Mallayya, Vipranarayanacaritramu, 1.6. 

Among the Kannada poets mentioned above, several including Palkuriki 
Somanatha, Bhlmakavi, Padmananka, Astabhasakavi Candrasekhara, Janna and 
Singiraja mention some thayas by name. 




Some authorities on music refer to sthaya as thdya. Among them may be 
mentioned Parsvadeva (op. cit. 2.33 pr„ 34,60,62,66,68,71,80,83, etc.); Papdarika 
Vitthala ( Sadrdgacandrodaya , 3.29; Rdgamdla, 116; NN 3.1.138cd); thdya was 
elevated to the status of a dandi (supporting pillar) by Tanappa, gum of 
Venkatamakhin’s gum who devotes the seventh chapter of Caturdandiprakasika to 
thdya.', with Venkatamakhin the thdya acquired a specific and rigid, uniform form. 

The primary sources for the study of thaya are Parsvadeva (op. cit. ch. 2), and SR 
(3.97-189ab); secondary sources are Kumbhakarna (op. cit. 3.1.1-132, pp. 555-567), 
Govinda Diksita ( Sahgitasudhd , 3.163-286, pp. 264-273) andTulaja ( Sahgitasdramjta, 
14, pp. 179-183) all of whom borrow entirely from SR, but Tulaja spuriously claims 
Bharata as his authority. 

ii. Definition: Sthaya is defined as the organ or constituent of rdga ( rdgasya 
avayavah). Kallinatha elaborates this with the comment (op. cit. on SR 3.97cd, p. 
171) that it is a melodic situation (a limb of rdga) involving arhsa and some other 
notes but resting on nyasa (final rest), apanyasa (medial rest), vinyasa (mtramedial 
rest other than vivadl) or sanyasa (initial pause). Pandarika Vitthala defines thaya 
as an isolated piece of alapa itself (loc. cit.). Parsvadeva offers the best and 
comprehensive definition (op. cit. 3.33-37, pp. 8.9): sthaya is modality of svara 
kinematics (svarair-vrttih, svararvrttih) ; the specificity in form of a given sthaya results 
from gati (kinetic nature), particular gamakas employed, nature of the ragaof which 
it is a limb, the other rdga whose semblance it seeks to infuse (as in the case of 
bhdsdhga-rdgas or chdydlaga-rdgas). It is determined by four operational factors 
(karana) viz. sthana or the svaramandala peculiar to the rdga which forms the 
substratum for the four varnas which constitute its melodic body; tana (suddha or 
kuta tana) which forms a rdga-sancara\ gamakaswith which the stwasmust be treated 
to bring out the ragabhava; mana the extent or length of the sthaya. Gamaka, 
especially misrita-gamaka plays a significant role in conferring character on a sthaya, 
e.g. misra-sthayas (SR 3.176-188). Sthdyas should not be stereotyped or monotonous 
but variegated and beautiful as the neck of a peacock. 

iii. Classification: SR has described ninetysix sthdyas under the following catego¬ 
ries: i. vyakta-asamkirna (clear and distinct, well known) ii. avyakta samkirna 
(aprasiddha) iii. misra (mixed). These may be classified on following criteria: 
(a) sequential characteristics e.g. sabda, vakra, ullasita (b) kinetic characteristics 
e.g. dhdla, ghatana, baddha, sthdpand, (c) melodic dynamics e.g. lavanl, bhrta, 
komala, suksmdnta, ghanatva (d) oscillatory characteristics e.g. vahanl, kampita, sthira 
(e) rdga characteristics e.g. kakus, jivasvara, ragesta, apasvarabhasa, (f) pitch charac¬ 
teristics (registers) e.g. tiksna, avaskhalita, ksipta, prasannamrdu, (g) tempo charac¬ 
teristics e.g. dmta, sama, pluta, (h) taut or loose structuring e.g. gadha, lalitagddha, 
sithila, sithilagddha (i) aesthetic characteristics e.g. bhajana, chavi, kamnd, snigdha, 
sukha, (j) instrumental characteristics, e.g. vddyasabda, yantrakdku, (k) tone quality 
characteristics e.g. ksetrakaku, (1) provincial characteristics e.g. desakaku, (m) ana- 



logy e.g. vedadhvani , (n) miscellaneous e.g. chandasa, sukarabhasa, vicitra, asddha- 
rana etc. 

115ccU116ab. Pandarika Vitthala treats sthayas only briefly and cursorily. He 
discusses only these seven, of which bhajana, sthapana and gati belong to the 
category of sthayas differentiated by quality; sabda , dhala and vaharii belong to the 
vyakta (= prasiddha)—asamkirna (distinct) class. Sabda belongs to both. 

116d. Bhajana. SR adds ■ prayatnad ’ (3.121) to the definition: since adhana is a 
deliberate or conscious act, prayatnad should be interpreted to mean ‘with special 
effort’. Parsvadeva (op. cit. 2.88) adds that the expression of ragabhava arises here 
out of a good voice. 

117ab. Sthapana: NN alone has described pada y as Wamya ’ (charming). SR 
(3.129) or its commentators ignore padam. This may be interpreted as (i) the 
ragabhava should be established with a suitable sthayaat each word or verse-foot of 
the text, or each section of the rupakalapti or ragalapti or (ii) stopped, according to 
Simhabhupala, at every step, before proceeding with the next (‘ pratipadam : 

117d. Gati: The simile of the gait of an elephant in rut is from SR (3.129, 130) 
to which Govinda DIksita ( Sahgltasudhd, 3.190, p. 266) adds gabhira (serious, 
majestic). Parsvadeva (op. cit. 2.39) describes gati as a skilful placement of notes to 
yield sweet delight to the ear; in this case gati does not appear to be a very apt name. 
The swinging, swaying slow movement of notes as described by NN (and SR) seems 
to do better justice to the nafne. 

118b. Sabda: Muktasabda here suggests its prosodial analogue, cakravala as 
pointed out by Kallinatha (op. cit. on SR 3.113, p. 174). Thus the sabda consists of 
a series of phrases each of which begins on the note or notes on which the 
immediately preceding phrase ends. Simhabhupala reads it as ‘yuktasabda ’(suitable 
or appropriate sounds). Besides this traditional meaning, Pandarika Vitthala 
interprets sabda as voice and comprehends the four kinds of voice viz. khadgala 
(which is called khahula elsewhere in both literary and music textual traditions and 
may possibly be a graphical corruption), bombaka, narata and misraka. This subject 
is comprehensively treated separately elsewhere, (e.g. SR 3.39-81; Nanyadeva, 
op. cit. 1.4.91-115) but is rather implausibly linked up with sthaya here. After all, 
there are sthayas which are associated with quality of the voice. Sadragacandrodaya 
(3.15) omits khahula etc. in sabdasthaya. 

123b. Dhala means a shield; but the intended word is dala or dalu which means 
lustre, radiance, elegance, gracefulness, etc. Parsvadeva (op. cit. 3.46cd-47ab) 
likens it to the sounds of round pearls rolling on a glass surface. 

123d. Vahini, more correctly vaharii, adjectival to the term vaharii. Much of its 
laksana is athetised in NN. In SR (3.115-119ab) vahani is of two kinds depending on 
its use in song or alapa. Each of this is again of two subvarieties, viz. sthira (static) 
and gita vegadhya (speedy) as e.g. gita sthira vaharii, gita vegadhya vaharii, alapa 



sthiravahani , alapa-vegadhya-vahani. Each of these four is again of three subvarieties 
depending on where in the body it is generated (thus relative to the pitch level): 
hrdya (chest or mandra ), kanthya (throat or madhya) and sirsa (palatal or tarn ), 
totalling twelve vahani forms. Amongst these, the hrdya variety is divided into two 
classes viz. utphullaand khulla. In utphulla the notes are divergent and open onward; 
in khulla they are centrally convergent and close inward. The gamaka vali accommo¬ 
dates these vahani forms; it may be remembered that gamaka is an important 
operational instrument of the sthayas. 

124a. Kaku is voice inflexion charged with emotional stress; it is the curvature in 
tone at the end of sentence to indicate completion of the meaning ( nirakahksa ) or 
incompleteness ( sakahksa ). It pervades all the three registers of the head, throat 
and head (Bharatamuni, NS 17.106-111 pr, pp. 388-396). It suggests speech (vocal) 
meaning and musical ( vina ) meaning in all three registers (ibid., loc. cit.). Bhoja 
defines kaku (Sarasvatikanthabharana, extr. Bharatakosa , p. 126) as the suggestion of 
meaning other than the one explicit in the spoken words by modulating the voice 

Wt fosftwrtsstf wict I 

chijRfci II 

Abhinavagupta speaks of sanra-kaku and vina-kaku of Bharata (loc. cit. 106ab) as 
artha-kaku and svara-kdku\ artha-kaku brings out the literal meaning in the sentence 
in terms of affirmation or negation while svara-kaku indicates the mental state 
(Abhinavabharati on Bharata, NS, 17.106a, p. 388). 

Thus it is clear that the concept of kaku is extrapolated from its discursive 
environment to sthaya in a musical setting. It is called chaya-kaku because it aims at 
bringing out the shade or shadow of meaning accruing elsewhere. Therefore kaku 
serves both an aesthetic and affective function in musical expression. Both func¬ 
tions may be summarised in the expression Wasa-kaku ’ which Abhinavagupta 
employs (loc.cit. p. 392). 

The word kaku may be derived in different ways; the root ‘ku ’belonging to class 
II (‘ adddi\ parasmaipadi) , VI (‘ tudadi , atmanepadi) and IX (‘ kryadi ’) ubhayapadi) 
means ‘to sound, cry out aloud, mean, hum’ etc. ( Dhdtupatha22.bA\ 28.108 etc.: ku- 
sabde ; ku-artasvare)\ in a dimunitive or instantaneous sense, ka is prefixed to it by 
adesa (substitution, but sometimes addition or subtraction of a letter or a syllable; 
Patanjali, Mahabhasya under Panini, Astadhyayi 1.1.56); or according to Abhi¬ 
navagupta it is derivable from ‘kak' (class. I, bhvadi , atmanepadi , ‘kak-laulye) which 



means ‘to be unsteady, to wish, to be proud’ ( Dhatupatha, 4.16); kaku also means 
tongue; kaku is that which is associated with the functions of the tongue in speech 
(Abhinavabharati, on NS, 17.106d, p. 389): 

37rT <rlV*l«l Ul«bl^l W 

^TT ^T^T: I +1^4 fagj cT^^TNK 


125d. Svara kaku is the familiar phenomenon of one note assuming the shade of 
the next by encroaching upon the srutis of the latter so that the sthaya strengthens 
the ragabhava. 

126b. Raga kaku is that sthaya which brings out the essence of the personality of 
the given raga (cf. jlvasvarasahcara in Karnataka music. SR 3.122; Parsvadeva, 
op. cit. 2.99). 

126c. Anyaraga kaku is a sthaya which inserts the shade of another raga as in 
bhdsahga ragas&nd misra rdgas (e.g. ahari in Karnataka music) (SR 3.123). Anyaraga- 
kaku was also called thaya popularly, according to Parsvadeva (op. cit. 2.101), 
and 4 uparagabhasa (cf. raga or vesara, a particular variety of rdgas among grama- 
ragas ). 

127a. Desa kaku is that which brings out the provincial style or idiom of the same 
raga, (e.g. the characteristic ways of rendering the raga ndti in Karnataka, Andhra 
and Tamilnadu; SR 3.123). This is analogous to dialectical variations of the same 

128b. Ksetra kaku. Ksetra is field; the (human) body is the field of activity of the 
soul; vide Bhagavadglta, 13.17: 

kcisil cf ITTf: II 

Every musician is possessed of traits, attitudes, psychological and physiological 
characteristics which at once set limitations and yet distinguish him or her from all 
others. This is why there is a personal stamp in his/her music. This is especially true 
of raga and therefore sthaya. Constitution of the voice apparatus or of instrumental 
touch which is peculiar to each performer, body-postures and similar body param¬ 
eters influence the style. Thus ksetra kaku is immediately related to personal style of 
performers in music (SR 3.124). 

128d. Yantra-kaku. There are ragabhavas which are accessible only to certain 
instruments such as nagasvara, vina, flute, sitar etc. and not to the voice. Besides, 
some rdgas sound more effective in one instrumental class than another: e.g. 
sanmukhapriya, simhendramadhyama in nagasvara, madhyamavati on flute. Again, 
there are certain musical forms which are evolved for, or more effective in one 



instrument than another: e.g. tanamon vina, jod and jhala on sitaror sarod. Further, 
tone quality of an instrument (timbre) is an important ingredient of the sensuous 
pleasure in music; also, the organisation and display of colours and colour mixtures 
is as important in orchestration as in painting. (SR. 3.125ab; Parsvadeva, op. cit. 

129-144ab. Alaptibhedah. NN has drawn this material from SR (3.189-202, pp. 
188-196) but such description is found earlier in Parsvadeva (op. cit. 2.1-32, pp. 
5-7) who claims the authority of Bhoja and Somesvara etc. (loc. cit.). Since the 
available works of Bhoja and Somesvara do not contain the varieties of alapti, 
svasthana-catuhstaya, etc. it seems that these must have emerged in the lOth-llth 
century. There is some evidence of alapti from Tamil sources which will be presently 

Pandarika Vitthala takes up here the traditional position and does not notice the 
models of alapa which must have been evolving at this time in Karnataka (Cf. 
'TtP^mppa.' scaturdandi, one of which is alapa ). In order to place Vitthala s contribu¬ 
tion on the subject in Sadragacandrodaya, Ragamala and NN in proper perspective, 
it may be studied under the following heads: i. Definitions ii. Alapti: General 
Description iii. Ragalapti iv. Rupakalati v. Models. A detailed discussion is beyond 
the scope of this commentary, 
i. Definitions 

The verbal root 'lap’ belonging to the class I (‘ bhvadi ), intransitive, ‘set’ and 
paramaipadi and meaning ‘toexpress, articula'te or speak’ (‘ vyaktayam vaci’: 
Dhatupatha, 10.8) generates three nominal forms, viz. alapa, alapti and dlapana by 
taking the prefix ‘a’and the pratyayas ghan, ktinand lyut in Maw’respectively, which 
confer, according to the grammarian Haradatta Misra (Padamanjan, comm, on 
Jayaditya and Vamana, Kasikavrtti, 4.1-3ff. on Panini, Astadhyayi), the masculine, 
feminine and neuter (hermaphrodite) genders respectively. According to this 
grammatical theory, ‘ghan ’confers manifestation ( avirbhava, upacaya)-, ‘ktin’ con¬ 
fers concealment ( tirobhava , apacaya) and ‘lyut ’confers maintenance or subsistence 
(.sthiti ). Therefore alapa means manifestation, alapti means concealment; dlapana 
combines these by paryayavrtti (alternation) in analogy with kakaksi-nyaya, i.e. by 
aspecting the one at one time and the other at another. In other words, the raga is 
expressed both by overt ( alapa ) and covert ( alapti ) means. Kallinatha offers four 
effective analogies to explain how these two opposite processes may be plausibly 
combined into an integrated expression: (a) when a person X comes towards an 
assembly his personality is clearly manifest; but when he sits in the assembly his form 
is cencealed by being mixed up in likenesses of dress, language etc. (b) when a pearl 
is alone, its perception is clear, uncontaminated: but when strung with varicoloured 
gems, it assumes the other colours and its manifestation is only partial, (c) When 
concealed in an assembly, the person ‘X’ may become somewhat manifest by 




moving hither and thither in it, and a pearl is manifested to a limited extent among 
other gems as in the case of rupakalapti (q.v.) when the raga is only partly manifested 
through sthaya, pratigraha and bhanjani (q.v.). (d) Alapti during the execution of 
four svasthanas (q.v.) reveals the raga here and there and at the same time conceals 
it just as a lady-love adorned by cosmetics and ornaments (Kallinatha uses varna- 
alamkara here in double etendre) now conceals and now reveals her features, hair, 
breasts etc. before her beau; the concealed raga is revealed by pratigraha 
and bhanjani even as a male displays his moustache etc. (Kallinatha, op. cit. on SR 
3.197-202, pp. 194, 196). Manifestation ( prakatikarana ) of a raga thus proceeds in 
terms of highlighting the arhsa, its sarhvadin etc. ( avirbhava ) and underexposing 
them through the profusion of anuvadins and vivadin. It should be pointed out that 
concealment or mystery is as effective in expression as explicit statement. (Gram¬ 
matical note: i ghah ’elongates the vowel ‘a’ on the initial consonant of root; cf. 
Panini,op. cit. 6.4.27; ‘ktin ’adds ‘ti’ to the root at the end; ibid. 3.3.91; ‘lyut’ in ‘bhave’ 
adds ‘ana ’terminally to the root; ibid., 3.3.115.) 

The definition of alapti is functional whereas that of alapa is structural. In alapti 
the content is stressed: it is a flow consisting of the four varnas (sthayi etc.) and 
alarhkaras ( bindu, sannikarsa, hradamana etc.) in which the svaras are embellished 
with appropriate gamakas and which are built up into sthayas", thus it is very beautiful 
or unusual ( vicitra ). On the other hand, dldpa stresses on the physical parameters 
such as the notes of commencement, final, medial and submedial pauses, range in 
the tdra and mandra registers', etc. in terms of which the personality of the raga is 
built up: these are the psychoacoustic bases for aesthesis. These two are mutually 
complementary: male and female, content and form, function and structure. 
Combining them into a single entity is ragalapana. 

However, rupaka also means, according to SR (2.25cd) ragalapa itself which is in 
the form of a separate segment, i.e. a segment or limb of ragalapa removed out of 
its environment and rendered as an independent melodic entity. 

(= TFTlcTN FTlc^SF^ fddiftdM I 

Therefore, the equation ragalapa segment = sthaya = thaya has served Vitthala as 
a bridge concept to transit from ragalapti to rupakalapti. This has been possible 
because ‘rupaka’is amphibious in raga and prabandha. Hence the passage 

TTd <3F1: 


is an echo from SR and a suggestive introduction to the topic of rupakalapti. In 
describing it at a distance from sthaya, the author has indicated both its independ¬ 
ent status in music and its desi origin. It may be remembered that thaya wasjust about 
beginning at this time to develop into an important, independent musical form in 
Karnataka, was codified and proliferated by Tanappacarya and admitted by his 




illustrious disciple’s disciple Verikatamakhin into the orbit of sastra. 

In ragalapti melodic movement is carried out in vowels, nonsensic syllables or 
syllables of names. The flow is not restricted or measured by tala rhythm. Its appeal 
lies in its own autonomy and is not augmentative or secondary to discursive 
meaning. In rupakalapti however, alapti is performed within a song while the latter 
is in progress and is set to the same raga and tala. This kind of alapti may be done 
in two ways: 

(i) each segment or division of the song is just preceded by a sthaya rendered in 
the same raga-tala such that the segment is commenced contiguously with the 
conclusion of the sthaya. Since each segment is thus taken up against the close of 
a sthaya it is called pratigrahanika. Kallinatha’s commentary gives both explanation 
and derivation of the word: 

TSJFT- IWKntkqqci:, fosTPT- WT %% ■^cnf^RcT: 

yfd^d- I 

(ii) Such sthayas are composed to accord with the ‘pada’ and ‘mana ’ of the 
prabandha ( rupaka) on hand. Pada here does not refer to the word text ( mdtu) of the 
song but to song segments (‘foot’) as explained by Kallinatha: 

1 A ^ dNcwPl I (SR 3.200) 

ii. Alapti: General Description 

Somesvara describes the general features of alapti in interesting detail ( Manasollasa, 
4.16.110-113): alapti is characterised by good tessitura ( susthanam ), simplicity 
(saralam ), melodiousness ( sravyam ), freedom from contamination (with other 
ragas: suddham), splendoured with kaku (kakuvirajitam) , well proportioned 
(supramanam) , well ordered (kramayuktam) , sung to please both the learned and 
the laeity (gilam praudha-janapriyam); it is executed with the carrier vocables 
tittanam, dandanam, tenna, tritti, hu, ha or name-syllables, (e.g. hari, rama, etc.) and 
the vowels a I u e; it has ornamented notes in mandra, nadhya and tarn registers with 
the four vamas viz. sthayi, arohi, avarohi and sahcari, and the various gamakas: ahata, 
tiripa, etc. Such alapti is excellent. 

Adiyarkunallar, while commenting on Ilango Adigaj’s words 
yalangulaluh dm mitamm 
talgurannumai yatalodivarrin 
icainda patalicaiudan paduttu 

varikku matarku murippomliyakki .... acaiya marapi nicaiyonramm 
( Cilappadikaram. Arahgerrukadai, 11. 26-36, pp. 99-107) 



gives many interesting details of alapti based on the authority of the earlier 
commentary, viz. Arumpada-vurai. This is summarised by N.S. Ramacandran (Rdgas 
of Kamatik Music , pp. 74, 75. According to Adiyarkunallar (c. 15th century A.D.), 
alapti was commenced on the consonant ‘m 9 and then developed on the carrier 
vocables Ha 9 and ‘na in long and short vowels; tenna and tena were use in rendering 
alaptiwhich was classified as kattalatti , niravalatti and pannalatti depending on its use 
with ‘accu 9 (with tala) , with paranai (using syllables) and dance; pannalatti was used 
in rendering pans. The alapti based on *m 9 was called suddha , that on ‘ na \ salaga and 
that on Ha 9 , restricted to Tamil words. Pan(alatti) is performed in eight positions of 
the vocal apparatus, viz. chest, throat, tongue, teeth, uvula, lips, etc. (compare with 
Naradasiksa, 1.5.6-12, and Nanyadeva, op. cit. 3.24-31 on the physiological origin of 
the seven notes); alatti is rendered by applying the gamakas viz. eduttal , paduttal, 
nalidal, kampitam , kutilam , oli, uruttu and takku; it consists of sixteen parts pannirmai , 
muraimai, mudivu, nirai, kurai, kilamai, vali , meli, caman , voraiarai , nirmai, etc. 
Adiyarkunallar derives some of this information from Arumpadavurai. 

The Sahgitamakarandaoi Narada also confirms the use of the syllables Ha and ‘ na 9 
as carriers (1.2.1 and 1.4.50, 51): 

STMNt fgfasfr *c|Ui4l'»A <T*JT I 

TFIHHl ^loifadw ^ I 

imi'dPHWHHlfc, I 

iii. Rdgalapti 

SR distinguishes ragalapa and ragdlapti thus: 

ysm*KdKiuii i 

3lf^o41rt34^ <l J llcllH II 

(SR 2.2.23, 24ab; cf. NN 3.1.130, 131ab) 

<mimPh^ ^ ^ I 

^*1$: ^TT ^f«f: VMlPdRl II (ibid. 3.190cd-191ab) 

Thus ragalapti reveals the kinetic characteristics of the raga during its elaboration 
and is executed in four phases each of which is called svasthana, the area of melodic 
movement. Kallinatha describes svasthana as ragalapana-visrantipradesa (op. cit. on 
SR 3.191a), i.e. area in which the processes of manifestation and concealment of 
raga lie progressively. The following account is based eclectically on Parsvadeva 
(op. cit. 2.2.-33, pp. 5-8) who describes it for flautists, Sarngadeva (op. cit. 3.190- 



193), Simhabhupala (op. cit. on ibid, loc.cit. pp. 192-195) and Kallinatha (op. cit. 
on ibid., pp. 192-195). 

Ragalapti is performed only in terms of svaras but without words; it is executed 
however, with carrier vocables. It progresses in four areas ( svasthanas ) in which 
certain notes named sthayi, dvyardha, ardhasthitaand dvigunaserve as nuclei around 
which the melody pervades. Sthayi is the note on which the rdga is begun. This is also 
the nyasa for alapa. Parsvadeva enjoins that the flautist should first establish the 
nyasa and then sthayi relative to it (which is appropriate to the rdga). Dvyardha is the 
fourth note from the sthayi, and as noted by Kallinatha, the fourth from sthayi, 
inclusive of an omissible note, if any. It is called dvyardha because it is half (ardha) 
of the dviguna (eighth from the.sthayi) note. The notes lying between the dvyardha 
and dviguna, i.e. the fifth, sixth and seventh from the sthayi (inclusive of an omissible 
note, if any), are called ardhasthita or ardhasvara. The dvyardha (fourth from sthayi) 
is also called devathdya according to Parsvadeva. Melodic movement around these 
is called cdlana. Kallinatha adds the important note that in cdlana the svaras should 
be shaped by gamakas, e.g. sphurita, kampita, etc. which are natural to the rdga and 
suitable to the svarn. 

The first svasthana is called mukhacaU, a term familiar to flautists (cf. Simhabhupala 
op. cit. on SR 3.190-196, p. 194) and dancers as an entree or entrada ( mukha = 
entrance, front, forepart, van). Kannada poets such as Kamalabhava andjanna 
have frequently used this word (sometimes in a tadbhava form viz. mahacalaya). 
Pandarika Vitthala (NN 4.2.427-464), Laksminarayana ( Sahgitasuryodaya, 2.416- 
436, pp. 175-178), Catura Damodara ( Sahgitadarpanam, 7.40-51, pp. 188, 189), 
Veda ( Sahgitamakaranda, MS. copy in Sri Varalakshmi Academy, Mysore) etc. 
mention mukhacad as an entrante for dance recitals. The first svasthana is also called 
ragavaktra by Parsvadeva, aptly. 

The first svasthana consists of cdlana of svaras from sthayin to dvyardha and those 
below sthayin also according to Kallinatha and resting. Sarngadeva does not specify 
the note on which each of the svasthanas should conclude. Simhabhupala inter¬ 
prets Sarngadeva on this point as meaning a note limiting the respective svasthana. 
This is strange, for Parsvadeva whom he revers as an authority equates sthayi with 
nyasa. Similarly, Kallinatha construes Sarngadeva to mean that all svasthanas should 
rest on the sthayi note itself. For example, Simhabhupala says: 

(p- 195) 

but Kallinatha asserts 

-dldr^l ^ F3F8JFR, (p- 193) 

While Sarngadeva is content to say ‘tasmad-adhastane svare cdlanam’, Parsvadeva 
prescribes that the melodic movement should proceed to, and include, the third 
note below the sthayin. 



Next, the second svasthana consists of svaracalana at the dvyardha. Kallinatha 
adds that this should include, and progress from, the notes below also. The third 
svasthana consists of melodic movement centred around the fifth, sixth and seventh 
notes from the sthayin and should rest, according toSimhabhupalaonan ardhasvara 
itself, and according to Kallinatha, on the sthayin. It is clear that in the latter a 
suitable descending phrase should be composed as a cadence. The third svasthana 
does not include the dviguna note. The fourth svasthana has svaracalana in the 
dviguna, and according to Kallinatha, in the notes beyond also. Parsvadeva makes 
an important contribution (which practice seems to have lost favour with succeed¬ 
ing generations): the dviguna here means the eight notes in all three registers: the 
svaracalana must comprehend the notes spread over in them; a rudhi should be 
executed at this stage in the sthayas vali and vahani. The melodic movement 
involved in establishing the nyasa-svara (in each svasthana) is called utta. 

Moksadeva ( Sangitarasakalika , extr. Bharatakosa, p. 800) describes an abridged 
form of svasthana catustaya and ascribes the first svasthana ( mukhacafi) to the sage 
Narada. According to him, mukhacala is performed only in two notes (from the 
sthayi)\ the second svasthana lies in the four notes in ardha (?); the third occurs in 
four or two notes; the fourth is performed with four notes and the dviguna: 


Parsvadeva concludes the discussion of ragalapti with sthapana (recapitulation) 
which Sarngadeva and Pandarika Vitthala defer to the end of rupakalapti. Parsvadeva 
adds a brief but interesting epilogue to ragalapti'. ragalapti has two main 
characterisitics, viz. purity of ksetra, i.e. raga, and absence of tala. Purity of rdga is 
called ksetra-suddhi, for rdga is designated in this context (elsewhere, ksetra is 
synonymous with the body, which is the abode of the soul) as ksetra in as much as 
it is the generating cause for the song (op. cit. 2.28, 29ab, p. 7): 


(Rdga is also foctro-field-because it is the field of tone movement, svaracalana). 
iv. Rupakalapti 

Pandarika Vitthala has treated yastu and rupaka as synonyms (NN 3.1.132cd, 
139cd): this is in agreement with Sarngadeva (op. cit. 4.6cd): 



WTM 'Sf'M'+H, I 

d^«Hld y<£dcdl<^Wf | cTPT TRTpT-R<|i|l SRTCRFTT: I 

Kallinatha has thus resolved a doubt which could arise on the meaning of ‘tat’ 
because of its immediacy or contiguity with pratigrahanika to the divisions of which 
pada could refer. If this latter construction is made, i.e. ‘tat pada’ and ‘tan-mana’ 
referring to those of pratigrahanika it would mean that the sthayas in sthaya-bhahjani 
are to be composed so as to accord with the divisions and their extents with those 
of the pratigrahanika. This would argue that a model of the latter would have to be 
first established. In that case, the rupakabhahjani has no justification in being 
treated as a separate variety and should have been regarded as a subvariety of 
pratigrahanika. However, it is not clear if Kallinatha’s commentary here is born of 
actual knowledge and experience of the alapti or of exegetical and polemic skill. 
Sirhhabhupala does not comment on ‘pada’ or ‘mana’. 

In effect, pratigrahanika is the kind of rupakalapti in which a suitable sthaya is 
rendered first in the same raga and tala as of the prabandha and then immediately 
is taken up (‘ pratigrhyeta ) any limb or part of the prabandha which is of the choice 
of the performer and is suitable to the sthaya. In sthayabhahjani, the sthayais inserted 
as an integral limb of the song (in the same raga and tala). Then the selfsame sthaya 
is rendered to accord with the extent of the song division (or word?) and its mana 
(= pramanena = tat - kalavisrantiyuktaya kriyaya, according to Kallinatha) in numer¬ 
ous alternative ways in novel, beautiful ways (vicitraritiyuktah) which is a measure of 
the creative excellence of the performer ( gatr-vadaka-pratibhavisesena udbhavyate). 
These creative variations are in respect of one sthaya pertaining to a given pada. If 
the whole prabandha is presented in multiple facets in all the divisions in the 
respective durations, it is called rupakabhahjani. Kallinatha elaborates the phrase 
‘anyatha canyatha gayet’ (SR 3.201c) thus (p. 196): 

‘ ; FStNl^lRrRfdHI'd‘\'kldsfl J lir^d J IHdiir<^4^|c|'!lircH ^ 

I ddUHl *RfcT I 

Ragasthapana is an epilogue to ragalapti and affords an opportunity, after 
elaborate delineation, to recapitulate and epitomise the raga. This is done very 
briefly in short sthayas presented in variegated postures or aspects such that the 
pervasive jivasvara (= amsa) is displayed in its multiple facets by repetition so that 
the essential personality of the raga is apprehended by the listener with effortless 
ease. This is an important and efficient device which is well worth reviving in 
modern practice of raga singing in Karnataka music. 



v. Models 

Pandarika Vitthala, following Sarngadeva has offered four models of alapa: 
ragalapti (executed in four svasthanas and concluding in sthapana ), sthaya-bhanjani , 
rupaka-bhahjani and pratigrahanika. 

Parsvadeva describes several forms of alapti which are very interesting (op. cit. 
1.28-41, pp. 3, 4). Some of these have survived even today directly or indirectly. He 
prefaces the description with the observation that it is desirable to preface the 
rendering of a gita or prabandhaWwh an alapa (in the respective raga ). He gives the 
following sixteen varieties of alapa: visama and prahjala each of which has two sub- 
varieties with word syllables ( saksara) and without them ( anaksara ), thus totalling 
four. Each of these has again two forms viz. sa-tala and vi-tala according as whether 
it is or is not set to tala. Each of these eight varieties may be suddha or salaga. Thus 
there are sixteen alapti varieties; Parsvadeva states that they all flourished in practice 
of his days and that they are described according to usage. 

In suddha-visamalapti, melodic movement is quite expressive in all four varnas 
and is articulated over the whole range of the three registers through alamkaras, 
gamakas and (carrier) syllables; their graha and arhsaare not explicit. Its topogra¬ 
phical anatomy is uneven. 

The suddha-prahjalalapti is characterised by purity in style (in rendering), i.e. 
suddha-riti; it has delightful designs ( prayoga ) in all three registers with suitable rest 
notes (for its various parts). 

No rules of varna, sthdyi (register) or order of presentation are observed in salaga- 
visamalapti. Its movement is ornamented by beautiful alamkaras and gamakas. Its 
conclusion is marked by effective {raga) sthapana. 

Sdlaga-prdhjalalaptipresents (an admixture of) different styles, but brings out the 
essence of the raga. Its tone is Vina (linanada); it is exhilarating and has a graceful 


Tam, ham , sa , a , da , na etc. (carrier) vocables are used, besides the 
syllables born of svaras , (e.g. sa, ri, ga etc.) in rendering sdksardlapti. 

Anksaralapti has no syllable content. Satdldlapti is performed in the three {sama, 
anagata, atita) grahas , three ( druta, madhya, vilambita) layas, anujayi ( sthaya , op. cit. 
2.41, p. 9), nyasa , apanyasa and vikrtamsalaya (?). It is set in vidari (i.e. segmented) 
and in yatis (such as sama , visama, gopuccha , etc.). Atdldlapti is anibaddha and is 
executed only in the four varnas. 

Sarngadeva illustrates ragalaksana in the Rdgavivekadhyaya of SR. with aksiptika, 
alapa, karana and vartani. He describes alapa of raga as consisting of the ten vital 
elements graha , amsa etc.; rupaka is described as similar to alapa but is divided into 
separate segments (if rupaka is interpreted as prabandha; interpreted as thaya, only 
one such segment is considered). Aksiptika is a segment of song set to caccatputa , etc. 
tala, daksina, vartika etc. margas and to words and to svaras. Sarngadeva promises to 
explain karana and vartani in the prabandhddhydyd but fails (in the available text) to 



keep his promise. The svara- karana (SR 4.132-135) or vartani-prabandha (ibid., 
4.152-154) shows no indication of ragalapa. Also, the karana and variant illustra¬ 
tions in rdgalaksana have no relation whatsoever with the prabandhas. 

Nevertheless, an alapa system based on karana, variant, etc. was widely prevalent 
in the 13th century and survived till the 17th century; for, Govinda Diksita 
(Sahgitasudhd, 2.458-468, pp. 156-158) and Venkatamakhin ( Caturdandiprakdsikd, 
6.1-32) describe it. According to both, the dldpa of a rdga proceeds in six phases: t. 
aksiptika (vernacular usage: ayitta) is aptly named because it projects (reveals) the 
rdga-, ii. rdga-vardhani (vern. karana, cf. Sarngadeva’s mention of this element of 
ragalapa, SR 2.26) is development (lit. increase) of the rdga; this is done in three or 
two rdga-vardhanis separated from each other by a short divisive element called 
iii. viddri which follows each rdgavardhanl). Usually two vidaris are employed. The 
first, lying between the first and second karana is called yadupu in the vernacular 
while the second, performed between the second and third karana, (i.e. rdgavardhant) 
is called makarini. iv. Rdgavardhant (and its viddri) is followed by sthayi. This indicates 
the beginning of the rendering of tana-groups; the first note on which the tana 
series commences (usually madhyasa) is the sthayi. v. Vartaniis the collection of tana 
groups based on different notes, also called makarini in the vernacular. This stage 
corresponds to the presentation of birkas in ragalapa in today’s Karnataka music, vi. 
Yadupu(muktdyi) is the dldpa element which brings it to a close. Govinda DIksita 
performs the remarkable feat of describing these six phases in the dldpa of each of 
fifty ragas, incorporating at the same time the more important of structural 
elements such as graha, amsa, the vddU oursome, etc. It is interesting that the alapa 
of the rdga nati on the vipanti by Raghunathanayaka by Govinda Diksita’s eldest 
son Yajnanaryana Diksita in his Sahitya-ratnakara (6.15-17) corresponds to the alapa 

description of this rdga in the Sahgitasudhd. 

Venkatamakhin, the second son of Govinda Diksita devotes the entire sixth 
chapter (of 32 verses) of his Caturdandiprakdsikd to alapa. He asserts that this is 
based on the alapas of fifty ragas which his guru s guru Tanappa had created. Thus 
the dldpa commences with aksiptika (ayitta ) , proceeds through the first ragavardham 
(=karana = yadupu), its viddri (muktayi )—second ragavardhani (second yadupu) 
its viddri, third ragavardhani —its viddri (one or both of which may be present or 
absent)— sthayi -variant (makarini ,- fourth ragavardhani- fourth viddri, on which the 
rdga concludes. Venkatamakhin is more detailed in description of the sthayi. Sthayi 
is the base note of a tana in dldpana. Including the tdra-sadja, a sampurna, sadava or 
audva rdga has eight, seven or six notes respectively. Two tanas in regular ascent are 
performed on each note of the rdga (thus totalling sixteen, fourteen, or twelve 
tanas respectively) such that the respective note is the upper limit, i.e. the tana 
proceeds from the corresponding note in the lower register, but does not extend 
beyond the given note in the given register. The same rule applies in descent also. 
The first tana merely touches this limiting note but does not stay there; but the 



second stays on it momentarily and concludes on it. This must be repeated for each 
note of the raga, beginning with the madhyasthayi-sadja. Each sthayi is named after 
the respective base note. Vartani (makarini ) consists of melodic movement in the 
mandra register, commencing and concluding on mandra-sadja. Venkatamakhin 
probably implies that vartani is a duplication of sthayi-vidhi in the mandra register 
but does not explicitly say so, whereas Govinda DIksita does. 

The foregoing models of ragalapa were widely prevalent in Karnataka, Andhra 
and Tamilnadu in the 17th century, for this was systematised as a dandiby Tanappa 
in Karnataka, promoted and stabilised in theory in Tanjore by Govinda DIksita and 
Venkatamakhin and exclusively practised by musicians as shown by Shahaji, Tulaja 
and their court musicians ( Sahgitasdrdmrta , Ch. 10, pp. 72-111 and numerous 
Ragalaksana Mss. in the Sarasvati Mahal Library, Tanjore). 

144b. Nema is also the name of a percursive instrumental composition (NN 
2.89-92; nemacali, 2.93-96). 

145cd-146ab. Definition of raga. This is due to Matanga (op. cit. 281, p. 81) who 
also offers another, (ibid., 280, p. 81): 

cfT fU I 


This is the reading adopted by Kallinatha (op. cit. on SR 2.1, p. 2). The first, used 
in NN is generally more popular. It is in the active voice ( ranjakah ) while the 
foregoing is in the passive voice. Kallinatha favours both thus (loc. cit.): 

TsFT ^T, <MU|o^dMI cfT, ^HfarllfH WRftfcT ^ 

Raga is derived from the root ‘ran;’belonging to class I ( bhvadi ) and IV ( divadi ), 
ubhayapadl, ‘set’ and means ( Dhatupatha, 23.30, 26.58) ‘to be dyed, coloured, 
affected, moved, excited, glad, charmed, delighted, attracted, enamoured, to 
rejoice, exult and shine bright’. It has a Greek cognate ‘rezo’, ‘rezeus’. 

Raga evolves from ‘ran; ’ by the following grammatical process, according to 
Varadaraja Bhattacarya ( Laghusiddhantakaumudi , p. 387): 

■sjfa ^ %iiqcjHU|q) : (Mifi'lPl:, 3T5T«TFft, 6.4.27) 7#=! Tffa: FfT^FT: I 3FFTt: ? 

F^FlfFlMT Tf: I 

Sadashiva Shastri Joshi gives an excellent explanation of this in his commentary 
‘Sudha’on the same (ibid., loc. cit.) 

‘ STTcTt: 4 ^nih * (HlfalPl:, 3.3.16) 

‘^fa^T<H|c|=MuwV (ctH 6.4.27) ‘3m^TT?TFIT:’ (cl^, 7.2.116) 



(crk, 7.3.52) f^TfrE^f ^ * TFT: ’ l>fd -MH, I 

Thus 'raga' means the act of colouring; colour, hue, any feeling or passion, 
interest or joy, delight, beauty (of voice or song). 


145a. Dhvanivisesah. Implicit in the foregoing definition is an overlapping 
overtone between poetics and music construed around the term ‘dhvani’, a study of 
which is rewarding. The raga is appealing ( ranjaka ) to jana (common man) also, not 
merely the elite. It is a special kind of sound (dhvanivisesa), i.e. sound other than 
the one used for transactional communication, a sound which is not normally 
found organised in the referential world; it is abstracted from phenomenal sound, 
adapted, idealised or refined into a musical symbol. Thus the singing voice is 
different from speaking voice or voice used for communication or for non-aesthetic 
expression; sounds of musical instruments are different from sounds of nature, 
which they often imitate. 

Dhvani means suggestiveness in poetry. It is sui generis. Its function in language 
is purely poetic. It illumines latent or implied meaning lying behind or beyond 
primafacie (or literal) meaning. It is the total experience of kavya, not an ingredient 
or component. It establishes rasa-samvida (aesthetic rapport) between poet and 
sahrdaya (aestehtically susceptible and sympathetic) listener. 

Similarly, dhvani is expressiveness—rather'than expression- in raga. It suggests 
meanings which are autonomous or peculiar to music only and which transcend 
meanings that accrue from mere sequential or ordered sound patterns. That is, 
because of dhvani, raga begins where melodic structure and melodic kinesis end. 
The specific aesthetic experience which characterises a raga is generated by dhvani 
and is sui generis. Dhvani is the exclusive poetic function of non-literal sound 
sequence or pattern such as raga. It is the total experience of raga, not its ingredient 
or component. The whole is greater than the sum of the parts. 

The second definition of raga quoted above from Matanga brings out a reaction 
between musician and listener: raga is that which colours the mind of the sahrdaya 
in two ways: special ( visesa) melodic (svara) movement (varna) and different 
dhvani. In this passage 'va ’should be construed in its samuccayartha (conjunctional 
or cumulative sense) rather than optional ( vikalpa ) sense. The first of these ways 
implies that a particular aesthetic experience is uniquely defined for a given raga 
by melodic movements which are special to it and not by any or every sequence of 
musical notes. Such speciality— specificity of melodic kinesis is physically analysable 
into, and defined by the ten vital elements, graha, amsa, nyasa, etc. The second way 
of generating ragatva (quality of being raga) is by dhvanibheda —a term which is 
synonymous with dhvanivisesa which is central to the first definition. As suggested 
above, ‘va’ should be construed with an additive force rather than alternative force; 



for, dhvanibheda and visesa-svaravarna &re mutually complementary rather than 
mutually exclusive. The former provides the general criterion for ragatva awhile the 
latter confers the individuating or differentiating criterion. Dhvanibheda may also 
be interpreted as special inflexion ( kaku) of the medium of expression. This again 
parallels the poetic method. 

The expression ‘ svara-varna-visesa ’merits further attention: it contains an appar¬ 
ent redundancy because varna, the act of singing musical phrases includes svara. 
But this expression does not suffer from tautology; for, svara here indicates primary 
aesthetic appeal which it affords in its own autonomy: ‘ svato ranjayati \ This quality 
of experience includes those attributes of svara which contribute to its ranjakatva, 
e.g. snigdhata , anuranana, srutyanantarabhavita , durasravyata and gamaka , which 
constitute its psychoacoustic aspect. I should like to coin here a new word for the 
psychoacoustic attribute of the svara , viz. ‘soneme’ in analogy with its linguistic 
cousin, ‘phoneme’. Next, varna signifies melodic kinesis, i.e. the continuous locus 
of moving sound. It is this single, continuous sound which assumes the character, 
role and function or the expressional /structural vital elements such as graha , arhsa, 
nyasa, etc. which elucidate both the generality and specificity of a raga. This is why 
Matanga includes svara per se and its movement, viz. varna in the definition. Both 
have the power of beautification— alarhkara. Beauty is the sine qua non of all art. 
When svara is ornamented in a manner which is appropriate to the raga and 
manifests a particular movement pattern, it becomes alarhkara. Varna is general and 
alarhkara is particular. 

The term dhvani is employed by grammarians and poeticians to connote, among 
other things, articulate sound, suggestible meaning or suggestible element in 
meaning. Abhinavagupta illuminates the several semantic dimensions of dhvani in 
his Dhvanyaloka-locana (on Anandavardhana, Dhvanyaloka , 1.13, pp. 62-64). 

3^TT:«: yfsMWi 

cfTJTf hk*I«<c| M | WfcTfRc-M3<*l: % talPw^HUl: I ^«TI? 77 T^T 



“^eMlAWifli ^#4 ^K^lRd ‘Rfa: I 
^ cfT ^ ^TRT Wfti II'’’ 

I dNr^ ^ cIt^S"^ %dfaeifaair<^iri*Rlc*n HRH«&i<j a =iK u l °9IHI<I- 

^znf*TE: oi||m<l Mpl-brE: I 41 ^Rl?— 

iA-hlcir^n iN n” 

| 3^qjf*pfq yp^szj; ^|<^c^iq|\«TtsiA|^iairM4dSi u ll'(?'^' )3 Tt5ldliTbl °4IHIil mIh- 
^tfj; |TT^ d^q fq Scrfd: lcT#TTT^lW<fflf7^i I tfa 0^4*10^1^^11 sft 

This passage is translated by K. Krishnamurthy thus ( Dhvanyaloka-locana , pp. 

‘According to the theory that the last of the sounds coming in a series to the ear 
are heard, it has been said that the sounds heard are products of (previous) sounds. 
Indeed, they do possess a quality of resonance as that of a ringing bell; and they have 
been called here by the term dhvani. As observed by the revered Bhartrhari: 

“What is produced by the contact and separation of the oigans of speech- 
production with the relevant places (within the mouth) is sphota or (oral) sound . 
Other sounds produced (echo-like) from these are termed dhvani by others (who 
hold that such sounds too are produced, as against those who hold that such 
succeeding sounds are suggested by the preceding ones ( Vdkyapadiya , 2.102)” By 
the same token, even suggested sense which is resonant and comparable to the 
resonant vibration of a ringing bell comes to be designated by the term dhvani. 
Furthermore, even audible syllables, termed ndda , which are fully grasped only 
after the last of the syllables is heard, and which suggest in their turn the sphota 
(sound-gestalt) as a whole are called dhvani (by some grammarians). This again, is 
supported by the text of the same revered author (i.e. Bhartrhari): 

By means of impressions ineffable, as well as continuity of apprehensions, the 
sound gestalt is revealed by dhvani. It is this sound gestalt in which we grasp a word 
(as a totality) in its true form (Ibid., 1.83). 

Thus it is clear that the term dhvani connotes both suggestive expression as well 

as suggestive sense. 

Furthermore even though the duration of uttered syllables is restricted as noted 
by the authorities in the field: 

“However slight be the effort in the utterance of a word, the listener’s mind will 
either not catch any of the syllables thereof, or will catch all the syllables at once. 

(Rumania, Slokavdrttika, section on Sphota, 10) 

Even in the case of the restricted nature of syllables heard, it is seen that on the 



speaker’s part there is some further >sffort, over and above the effort required for 
their mere utterance, which results in differences of intensity in the sounds, viz., 
‘fast’, ‘slow’ and so forth. As Bhartrhari himself says: 

“After the word-sound is revealed, differences in its intensity are brought about 
by vaikrta dhvanis or transformed evolutes of the initial or primary dhvani (i.e. 
prakrta-dhvani). But the total unit of sphota apprehended is never partitioned by 
them.” ( Vakyapadiya , 1.77) 

Taking their (i.e. grammarian’s) lead, it is stated by us that the linguistic function 
over and above those of denotation, intended purport and secondary implication 
deserves the designation of dhvani. Therefore, references to dhvani sometimes as 
distinct from a poem and at other times as identical with a poem are both not 
without justification. 

Thus dhvani is articulate sound; it is analogous with the ringing of a bell because 
while the latter generates sound waves which reach the ear drum sequentially and 
cause perception, dhvani also generates a succession of waves of conventional, 
contextual and secondary meaning which proceed in an orderly manner and the 
last wave reaches consciousness to generate suggestible meaning. Secondly, it is 
sphota the universal sound. Pada-sphota is an essential part of it and is manifested in 
consciousness by the last sound in a sound sequence. Each phoneme of a word 
donates its semantic impress (sarhskara) progressively to the next one so that 
meaning flashes in consciousness in a burst when the final sound is heard. 
Poeticians who subscribe to the theory of sphota use the term dhvani for both the 
suggestive word and suggestive meaning. Dhvani is also used by grammarians to 
denote the slowness or fastness of enunciation of the phonemes of a word. 

A single word, though fixed in its sound content, is individuated when uttered 
by different persons at different speeds, which is a determinant factor in the 
comprehension of its meaning. Because some words, besides arousing the conven¬ 
tional, contextual and secondary meaning have also the additional ability of 
function of manifesting suggested meanings through variable speed in enuncia¬ 
tion, the latter is also called ‘dhvani’. 

Dhvanimaybe classified into the embellishable (vastu) , embellishment ( alamkara ), 
transient emotion ( bhava ) and aesthetic configuration (rasa). 

The foregoing considerations may be extrapolated, mutatis mutandis from the 
spoken articulate sound to the musical articulate sound. The expression of 
meaning of nonliteral articulate sound through dhvani may be regarded as raga. 
The use of such sounds in varying durations such as druta (fast) and vilambita (slow) 
is of fundamental importance in raga, because, other things being equal, it is this 
structural variability which makes possible a great multiplicity of possible expres¬ 
sions or expressivenesses, each of them conferring specificity or individuality on 
meaning. The concept of sphota may be readily extended to raga because, though 



temporal sequentiality of the semantic symbols (phonemes in words, words in 
phrases, phrases in sentences .... in language; svara in varnalamkara, varnalamkara 
in sthaya, sthaya in aksiptikd etc. limbs .... in raga) is inevitable in all discursive 
semantic modes, the meaning of the whole is perceived in a burst ( sphota ) only at 
the end of the final symbol, resulting from the progressive accumulation of 
semantic impresses of individual units or elements of expression. In other words, 
dhvani conveys the whole sense of the raga in a burst and not in stages or phases; 
these latter are only a methodological necessity; they are only technical parameters. 

I have discussed elsewhere the mutual relationships between, sruti, dhvani and 
sphota , recapitulation of which here is beyond the scope of the present discussion. 
(Sathyanarayana R., Sruti, Dhvani and Sphota, in the Indian Theosophist , Thakur 
(Dr.) Jaideva Singh Felicitation Number, 82.10-11, Oct. Nov. 1985, pp. 30-47.) 

146cd-148ab. While discussing the second definition of raga according to 
Matanga it was said that svara-varna-visesa provided the individuating or distinguish¬ 
ing criterion for rdgatva; svardndm krarnabheddt means vakra; vakra rdgas may be 
further individuated through restricted melodic phrases e.g. ndrdyanagaula, dnanda- 
bhairavi, ahari, etc. in Karnataka music, ndndgamakabheddt NN itself provides 
examples of this by specifying the gamakas , e.g. saindhavi (171), bahgala (178), 
syama (187) ,.sdmanta (188), sahkarabharana (232) etc.; examples in Ragamahjan^vQ 
todi (2.11), gunakan (2.18), bhairavi (2.22, 67) sahkarabharana (2.33), turuskatodi 
(2.61); gatibhedhat : some rdgas are at their best only when rendered at a particular 
pace: ahari is not effective in fast pace, navarasakannada is not effective in slow pace 
etc.; grahdmsanydsabheddt : when NN was written, all rdgas were rationalised into 
sadja-grdma and hence possessed sa as graha, amsa and nydisa. However, this was a 
transition period and other notes than sa continued to sene as these rdiga pranas; 
numerous examples of this are available in Svaramelakaldnidhi , NN, Sadrd- 
gacandrodaya, Rdgamahjafi, Rdgavibodha, Sahgitardija, etc.; ndnddesa-janodbhavdh 
refers to the varieties of raga found in different places and created by different 
musicians; it also refers to the variety introduced in kamdta, kamdtagauda, 
kamdtabahgala; todi, turuskatodi etc., rudhi-desa-svardbhidhdh: e.g. gunakan, lalita, 
vihdgada, sahkarabharana, etc. rudhi fi.e. non -yaugika names); todi, gaula, kdmboji, 
mdlava, saindhavi, turuskatodi, yammana-kalydna, gurjan, dbhin, etc. (desa); pahcama, 
devagdndhdra, madhyamdidi (svara) (cf. Sadrdgacandrodaya, 1.79). 

148cd-150ab. Ragabhedas. Suddha-rdga is uncontaminated with shades of other 
mgr/sand has excessive appeal; salaga partakes of other rdgas for its appeal; sahkirna 
compounds its own appeal and that of other rdgas ; these three kinds originate from 
Siva himself ( Sadrdgacandrodaya 2.78). The first available classification of rdgas into 
mula ( suddha ), chdiydmditrdisraya (salaga), sahkirna and desaja is due to Yastika who 
explains them to Kasyapa, according to Matanga (op. cit. 365, p. 104). 




151-166. For detailed study of raga classification including gender taxonomy, see 
Sathyanayrayna, R., Vtndlaksana-vimarse, pp. 85-91, Commentary on Venkatamakhin, 
Caturdandiprakasika, Chs. 4, 5; Iconijication in Indian Music in Vivekananda Patrika, 
Madras, Aug. 1984, pp. 107-124; ‘Hindustani-Sahgitadalli-Ragamurtikarana ’in Inchara, 
Basavaraja Rajaguru Felicitation Volume, Hospet, 1983, pp. 95-131. 

167. Numerograms are a time honoured device in Sanskrit. Several works such 
as the Samkhyaratnakosa are devoted to its description from time to time; candra = 
1, netra, paksa, yama(la) etc. = 2, agni, vahni, anala, etc. = 3, veda = 4. 


168-233. Pandarika Vitthala gives an intervallic description of rdgas m Sadragacan- 
drodaya and Ragamanjan and combines it with reificatory description in Ragamala 
and NN. He also indicates the omissible note, curvature ( vakrata ), time of singing, 
gamaka, affiliation with mela and other rdgas, the auduva-sadava-sampurna variety, 
etc. He does not use rdgdhga-upahga-bhdsdhga classification. 

In the following, I have endeavoured to develop a contemporary and pan-Indian 
delineation of each raga. I have traced the evolution of many of these rdgas in a 
historical perspective elsewhere: Sathyanarayana, R., Vinalaksana-vimarse, pp. 94- 
256; Kamdtaka-sahgita-vdhini, pp. 77-120, 199-219, 233-253, 316; my Commentary 
on Venkatamakhin, Caturdandiprakasika, Chs. 4, 5. But here I have adopted a 
different criterion: the rdgas of NN are compared with ragalaksana and ragamurti- 
laksana found in twelve original sources, including two of Pandarika Vitthala 
himself, some composed during his own time, some one or two generations earlier 
and some one or two generations later, so as to give some continuity and some 
comprehensiveness to the study. 

The sources used for comparative study are abbreviated as follows: 

SUS Sangitopanisat-sdroddhdra of Sudhakalasa 
SJ Sangitaraja of Kumbhakarna 
SMK Svaramelakalanidhi of Ramamatya 
SC Sadrdgacandrodaya of Pandarika Vitthala 
RJ Ragamanjan ofPandarika Vitthala 
RK Rasakaumudi of Srlkantha 
RV Ragavibodha of Somanatha 
SD Sahgitadarpana of Catura Damodara 

SS Sangitasudhd of Govinda DIksita (in the name of Raghunatha Nayaka) 

SP Sahgitapdrijdta of Ahobala 
PS Pancamasdrasarhhitd of Narada 
GP Gitaprakasa of Krsnadasa-Badajena-Mahapatra 

SUS and SJ are included here for the reificatory description they offer, though 
they precede the NN by more than a century. Works later than c. 1650 A.D. such 



as Caturdandiprakdsika of Veiikatamakhin, Hrdayaprakam and Hrdayakautuka of 
Hrdayanardyana , Ragatarahgini of Locana Jha, Ragaratnakara of Gandharvaraja, 
Catvarimsacchata-raganirupanamofNaraddetc. are not considered here because the 
distance in time from NN is somewhat large. 

The following abbreviations are used to indicate the intervallic content of the 
rdgas. K=Karnataka music. H=Hindustani music. T= time of singing. X - 3 = svara 
X is graha , arhsa and nydsa. 

Karnataka Music 

Hindustani Music 

ra suddha-risabha 

re komal-risa(-kha)bh 

ri* catuhsruti-risabha 

re -suddh-risa(-kha)bh 

ri pancasruti-risabha 

ga komal gdndhar 

ru satsruti-risabha 

ga suddh-gdndhdr 

ga suddha-gdndhdra 

ma suddh-madhyam 

gi sddhdrdna gdndhdra 

ma tivr-madhyam 

gu* antam-gandhdra (original) 

dha komal dhaivat 

gu antara-gdndhdra (modern) 

dha suddh dhaivat 

ma suddha-madhyama 

ni komal nisa(-khd)d 

mi pratimadhyama 
dha suddha-dhaivata 
dhi* catuhsmti-dhaivata 

ni suddh nisa(-khd)d 

dhi pancasruti-dhaivata 
dhu satsruti-dhaivata 
na suddha-nisdda 
ni kaisiki-nisada 
nu*kakali-nisada (original) 
nu kakali-nisada 

168. 1. Suddhabhairava 

K—sa ra gi ma pa dha ni. H—sa re ga ma pa dha ni. 



SMK 4.18, p. 22 mentions under Snraga-mela but does not describe; adhama raga 
(5.11, p. 30) 

SC 2.2.50cd bhairava-sampurna , dha-3, T—morning 

RJ 2.lied omits ri sa-3, T—dawn 


RV 4.11, p.108 bhairava-sampurna , dha -graha arhsa , sa -nydsa, T—morning 
5.178, p. 213: 



SD 2.197, p. 32 bhairava —dha-3*bmits ri-pa, dha-marchana, dha is vikrta. 

2.198, p. 32 

< 4T^T ^ STTfcTFT: II 

SS 2.140cd-141cd-141ab, p.115 (from SR) bhairava —dha-3, intervals of nanda- 
yantijati\ sa-mandra, ga-tdra 

SP 1.379, p. 42 bhairava —dha graha, ma nydsa, omits ri-pa, ^rraga-ni, komala dha, 
T- morning 

GP 5.2, 16, pp. 34,36 sampurna , dha-3, mandra ga has kampita gamaka. T- 

169. 2. Dhannasi 

K— sa ri * gi ma pa dhi* ni. H—sa re* ga ma pa dha* ni 

SJ, p. 409 sa graha-nyasa , omits ri; ga-pa alpa , sargramaraga, born of 
kaisikamadhyama jati; T- all seasons, morning, heroic sentiment 

SMK4.18, p. 22 snrdga-mela\ 5.39, p. 33— uttama auduva , sa-3, mostly omits ri-dha, 
T- morning 

SC 2.2.26. sa-3, omits ri-dha, T- dawn, srirdga mela. 

RJ 2.66cd, sa-3, omits ri-dha, T- morning, malavakaisika-mela 
RK 2.111, 118, 119, pp. 26, 27: sriraga-mela , sa-3, omits ri-dha, T- dawn, heroic 

2.119, p. 27: 

dldldld^lHd^RUqi fiR fdlsl'dl I 

kld^dlfdl ^ifadd ^TTfcT II 

RV 4.31cd, p. 114 sa-3, omits ri-dha, T- morning 
5.177, p. 213: 

f^TWT RrUsl-cfl ^ ^ I 
*Hkd$dl to! ftsRSTfaM II 

SD 2.256, p. 44 sa-3, omits ri, sddava , first murchana (of sa-grdma ), heroic 
sentiment, desi rdga ; rules of sruti , svara , grama and jati do not apply (2.289, p. 51) 
2.257, p.44: 

^kdWWd 34hMI ^Rl feHsWl 1«R%nr ^TT I 
«*rT II 



SS 2.936cd-937, p. 207 sriraga-mela, sa-3, omits ri-dha; 'audava according to 
vainika tradition. 

SP 1.359, p. 38 sampurna, omits ri-dha in ascent, has suddha notes (i.e. of snrdga 
meld), ga -graha, ma-nyasa (ga-3?) 

PS 3.27.p. 13: 

H id I did Hi IJ i49 WIT *^* 1 ) ^IH^’ i TP r TT I 

411 II 

GP 5.41, p. 38 sa -graha, arhsa; ma-nyasa, born of suddhakaisikmadhyama grama rdga; 
omits ri, heroic and erotic sentiment, T- always 

170. 3. Bhairavl 

KH Svaras same as in dhanndsl, i.e. sriraga-mela 
SUS 3.90, 91, p. 65 bhdsa of bhairava; Hldi^dH *Jd->qisHI 

SJ, p. 419 updhgaof bhairava, dha-3, ga -tarn, ga-mandra, svaras of veldvali 

SMK 4.18, p. 22; 5.25, 26 p. 31 snragamela, sampurna, sa-3, T- atter half of day 
SC 2.2.26cd. sa-3, puma, mudrita-gamaka in ri-pa; T- always 
RJ 2.22 bhairavll: malavagaudamela; sa-3; mudrita gamakam ri-pa, puma, T-always 
2.67 bhairavl II: mdlavakaisika-mela; sa-3; mudrita-gamaka in ri-pa; puma, T- always 
RK 2.111, p. 26, snragamela; 

2.117, p. 27: 

^c(ufqu|f bHq|y$'Kll fclS'lld'ld fgdtMqcfHI I 

fn^r ftw wrfewnMtrt ^did^ fwr ii 

RV 4.32, p. 114 snragamela, sa-3, ri-pa have mudrita gamaka, puma, T- always 
SD 2.201, p. 33 sampurna, ma-3, sauvlri murchana, ma-grdma — raga,svaras similar 
to those of bhairava. 

2.202, p. 33: 

wfHwfwrt% lui^di'O 5 ^ fawrwcPrlr^RTt H^id, i 

W^d4Hdl£ll lldWtsSWaft ^t 9 <4 Gil II 

SS.2 952-956, p. 209 bhairavl is a mela; sa ri gi ma pa dha ni/sa re ga ma pa dha ni; 
dhi is also occasionally used in musical practice; sa -nyasa; dha -graha, amsa; vadl- sa, 
sarhvadl- pa; vivddtm; anuvadlrri-ga-dha 

SP 1.375, pp. 41,42 sa-3, komala dha, T- always. 

PS 3.115, 116, pp. 11,12, rdginl, sung in forenoon: 




3.32, p.14: 

T T tr 5^ I 

dl<riy4lHMid®i^JrticT: II 


171. 4. Saindhavi 

K—sa gu ma pa nu; omits ri-dha; H—sa ga ma pa ni 

SJ, 128, p. 417 Sa-grama, sa -graha, nyasa; kampita in dha, and a little in 
sa; ma -mandra, ga.-bahula, erotic sentiment, affiliated to dravidi 

ixbd^i ^ i, p. 425 bhasa of pancama according to Yastika.,, p. 431 Name given by Yastika to BhupaR (,69) which is described 
by Bhupala-palaka, as an ahga of travana, sa-3, omits ri. 


SC 2.2.27ab sriraga-mela, sa-3, omits ri-pa, excellent gamakas, T- always 
RJ 2.67cd mdlavasn-mela, sa-3, omits ri-pa, has (excellent) gamakas, T- always 


RV 4.33, p.l 14 sriraga-mela; also called sindhuda in vernacular, sa-3, omits ga-m, 
has gamaka, T- always 
5.215, p. 223: 

footfall II 

SD 2.183, p.30 wife of bhairava raga according to Hanuman 

2.207, p. 35 sampurna, sa-3 utatramandra murchana, sadava, omits ri, heroic 
sentiment, T- always 

2.208, p. 35: 

cfft OliWlldcpjrf ^ *UeRlPlU|W^ II 

The third quarter of this verse is given by Basavappa-Nayaka II of Keladi 
Sivatattvaratnakara, 6.8.65 thus 

SS 2.181,182ab, p. 120 bhasa of takka, sa-3, omits ri-pa, dense with gamakas, ga-ma 
tarn; mandra sa, all sentiments (from SR) 

2.377, p. 148 updhga of varatr, kampita 'm dha, sa;ga -bahula, sphurita in mandra ma, 

erotic sentiment (from SR) 





PS 3.30, p.14 

uR^Hld^PcK^dlSTt I 


kavilasayantam —delighting the poet? kapilasayant(r)am —playing kapilasa vino? 
GP 5.29, p. 37 pancamabhasa, pa-3, T- late afternoon, sentiments of love and 

5.70, p.41 asavari = mallari + saindhavi + todi ; mukhavari = saindhavi + todi 

172. 5. Maravl 

K— sa ra gu ma pa dha nu; H—sa re ga ma pa dha ni 
SUS — 


SMK — 

SC 2.2.22 malavagauda-mela , sa-3, omits ri-dha, T- always 
RJ 2.l7cd malavagauda-mela , sa-3, omits ri-dha, T- always 
RK — 

RV 4.15, p.109 malavagauda-mela , popularly called mam ; sa -nyasa, ga - grahamsa , 
omits ri-dha, T- always 
5.218, p. 224: 

dHId+Irldl I 

(samite —for battle) 

SD 2.289, p. 51 desi-raga ; no rule in smti, grama, jati, etc.; desl-raga; rules of smti 
svara , grama, jati do not apply (2.289, p. 51) 

SS — 

SP 1.476, 477, p. 64 suddhasvaras ( snraga-melal ) ga -graha, omits dha in ascent, 
born of gandharocyavaii-jati, andolita nisada. 



173. 6. Asavari 

K— sa ra gu ma* (14th smti), pa dha ni; H—sa re ga ma* pa dha ni 


SMK — 

SC 2.2.18cd malavagauda-mela, ma-3, puma, T- always 
RJ 2. 16cd malavagauda-mela, ma-3 puma, T- always 





RV 4.21, p. Ill malavagauda-mela , ma-2, sa -nyasa; puma , T- always 
5.216, p. 223: 

dddi<d1<d<dHlrd4ddMddl I 

31WldO ^e(,^U|l Vlrf^Rt II 

(bharhdU salini —wears peacock feathers around waist) 

SD 2.188, p. 30 wife of sriraga 
2.194, p. 31 wife of mallari 

2.258, p.45 omits ga-ri, pa (?dha) -3, auduva, sentiment of mercy; or born of 
kakubha, dhaivati jati, dha -arksa, graha, omits pa, sadava 

2.259, p. 45: 

Ulllsiu^dftnsft rvlHd^d^ Hld^pTb+tdlTlOSKd#! I 
SfFfTRT -cKHtUltHTi ^TTSSlHIelflld ^dl^dHld+lPd: II 


SP 1.444, p.58 gaurtmela , omits ga-ni in ascent; ma -graha, dha -arhsa, pa -nyasa, 
T- after second prahara 
PS 3.31, p.14 asvavari: 

^ "TO ^ I 

sftat vjd>i^iRdomfa43ifa^*n n 

GP 5.5, p. 34 sadava 

5.44cd-45ab savan: dha -nyasa, ga -tarn, ma-mandra , ma-3, omits pa, sentiment of 

174. 7. Bhairava 

K—sa ra gu ma pa dha ni; H—sa re ga ma pa dha ni 
SUS 3.88, 89, p. 64: 


^Wi: ffrraraT: II 

4l4BiVidlsl<dl^dMHHir«Rf^: I 
dluimwbdi®^ ii 

SJ, 36, p. 406 dha-3, bhinnasadja- born, raganga, T- autumn, rasa: viprala- 
mbha(+}) karuna:, T- first watch of day, omits pa, sa-ga tarn, ma-mandra, 38,’p. 406: 

TJcfirFTTF>pT(:) I 

<£>fddl9l: ^4vidtd<dl^^iMHirci=tii(:) II 



d>|NWbdMlfd faWTt I 

SC 2.2.50, hijeja-melaisa ra gu ma pa dha ni), dha-3, puma, T-morning 
RJ 2.52cd hijeja-mela, sa-3, omits ri, T- morning 
RK 2.103, p. 25 malavagauda-mela, sa-3, omits ri-pa, T- dawn 
2.104, p. 25: 

TpTESTT: 41 ^UdUs4l II 

RV4.11, p. 108 svamela ( vasantabhairavi ?), dha -graha, arhsa, sa -nyasa, T- morning 
5.178, p. 213: 


( asamadrk-trilocana) 

SD 2.158, p. 26 male raga; born of Aghoraface of Siva (2.161, p. 21)\pumsa raga 
(12.164, p. 27), T-morning (2.172, p. 28), gnsma season 2.181, p. 29), purusa-raga 
according to Hanuman (2.183, p. 30) 

2.197, 198, p. 32 see under suddhabhalrava,- (NN 3.1.168) 

SS 2.140cd-141ab, p. 115 see under suddhabhalrava (NN 3.1.168) 

SP 1.379, p. 42 dha-3, omits ri-pa, komala dha, tivra ga-ni, T- morning 

GP 5.56cd-57ab, p. 40 born of bhinnasadja, omits ri-pa, dha -graha, arhsa, ma -nyasa, 
it is sung on auspicious occasions. 

175 . 8. Suddhalalita 

Maravi mela : (SC 2.2.22cd, RJ 2.17cd)= malavagauda-mela or gaudi-mela, 
K—sa ra gu ma pa dha nu; H—sa re ga ma pa dha ni 
SUS 3.113, p. 67 ( lalita ) bhasahga raga 


SMK4.14, p. 22 malavagauda-mela, uttama raga (5.2, p. 29); 5.36, p. 32 sa-3, omits 
ri, sadava, T- first watch of day, auspicious. 

RV 4.22, p.l 11 malavagauda-mela, sa-3, sampurna or omits pa, T- dawn 
5.172, p. 211: 

fqfd^idgfapHfcnai 7 fflt II 




SD 2.166, p. 27 wife of vasanta-raga; T- morning according to Somesvara (2.172, 
p. 28) to be sung in spring (2.180, p. 29); wife of hindola (2.186, p. 30) according 
to Hanuman; wife of pancama according to Ragarnava ( 2.192, p. 31): sampurnaor 
auduva by omitting ri-pa, sa-3, suddhamadhya murchana 
2.233, p. 40: 

4ft fr?||^f| cRTof) | 
fadW^II dfddNRyi II (f^dHWrf) 


SS 2.7l2-713ab, p. 182 gurjari ( =malavagauda)-mela , sa-3, omits pa, sadava ( lalita) 
SP 1.415, p. 52 gauri ( =malavagauda)-mela , omits pa, sa -graha arhsa, ma -nyasa ? 
T- always 

PS 3.14, p.l 1. ragini. T- forenoon, wife of vasanta (3.23, p.12) 
3.50, p.18: 

facjlwaid^qfe^ciM'll ^dPddl cTfeRTT ^feRTT II 

GP 5.8, p. 35 auduva , 

5.59cd-60ab born of takka, has facile svaras (ni movement), sa-3, omits ri-pa, sa- 

9. Pancama 

Maravl mela (SC 2.2.22cd, RJ 2.17cd) = malavagauda-mela or gaudl-mela 
K—sa ra gu ma pa dha nu; H—sa re ga ma pa dha ni 
SUS 3.94cd-95, p. 65 

SJ., 111, p. 415 limb (evolute) of suddhapancama\ pa-3; it is ragahga 
according to some and not, according to others. 

Msidddl WTls}4,qc)|;H: I 
4>INI^II®j|HMlR45dlW^d|^ll^ I 

faUM: MifuiRT: || 

SC 2.2.19ab malavagauda-mela, pa-3, omits ri, T- morning 
RJ 2.19cd malavagauda-mela, pa-3, omits ri, T- morning 




RK 2.101, 102, p. 25 pa-3, or sa-3, omits ri, or, according to some, purna, , erotic 

«r^|ebr g| fwft ftcTRT WTI^T: II 

RV 4.21, p. 111 malavagauda-mela, pa-3, omits ri, T- dawn 
SD 2.161, p. 27 born ofTatpurusaface of Siva, pu rusa-raga (2.164, p. 27), has five 
wives (2.168, p. 27),T-morning (2.172, p. 28), in autumn (2.181, p. 29), purusa-raga 
according to Ragarnava (2.190, p. 31), has five wives (2.192, p. 31); sadava, omits pa 
(!), sa-3, first murchana (of sa-grama), according to some, it is sampurna, erotic 
sentiment (2.282, p. 50) 

2.283, p. 50: 

<rb l <qft iTfePcIVIId^: \ 

TTHId^Td twit ^ ^ ftPJ: ^'iPbdH^Pft II 

SS — 

SP 1.370, pp. 40, 41 gauri ( =malavagauda)-mela\ omits ri-pa; has tivra ga, sa -graha, 
ma -arhsa, nyasa; T- always 

PS 3.15, p. 11 pancami T- forenoon; wife of vasanta (3.23, p. 12) 

3.49, p.18 pancami: 

TTftOTFi wrfm I 

Tsraf ITT wit II 


177. 10. Paraja 







RV 4.23, p. 111 malavagauda-mela, ga-graha amsa, sa -nyasa, kampita in dha, ga; 
T- always 

5.219, p. 224: 

xp*T ?Rt I 

f*W ^IgddMd^pictt ?nfcR: II 









178 . 11 .Bahgala 

K— sa ra gu ma pa dha nu; H—sa re ga ma pa dha ni 
SUS 3.103, p. 66 megha-bhasa; 

SJ, 107, p. 414 Bahgala I: ahga of sadava-raga , ma-3, kampita in sa-pa; 
T- all seasons; in joy and erode sendment: Hld^mi I 

Bahgala II: ma -graha nyasa , born of malavakasika , omits ri, mrdu pa (i.e. mandra- 
pa), tarn- pa, presiding deity is kama. 

SC 2.2.18ab malavagauda-mela , sa-3, purna, T- always 
RJ 2.21cd malavagauda-mela , sa-3, puma , T- always 

RK 2.105, p. 25 born in malavagauda-mela , ga-3, omits ri; but according to 
Kallinatha, ma-3, puma 

2.106, p. 26: 

*ld<*dN ftrWT WT: I 

2.129, p. 29 suddhabahgala: kamata-rrwla; ma-3, sampuma, T- morning 

2.130, p. 29: 

W fadWl ^IdHIHI II 

RV4.22ab, p. Ill malavagauda-mela , sa-3, sampuma , T- always 
SD 2.158, p. 26 pumsa-raga; bahgall ; wife of bhairava (2.167, p. 27). T- morning 
(2.171, p. 28), ragini of bhairava (2.184, p. 30) according toHanuman, according to 
Ragamava (2.191.31); paheama-bharya, auduva , sa-3, omits ri-dha, first murchana (of 
sa-grama ); according to Kallinatha, ma-3, sampuma. 

SS 2.322, p. 140 born of sadava-raga , ma-3, but in practice, pa -graha 
SP 1.382, p. 43 sa-murchana ; omits ri-dha, ni-tivra, T- morning ( bahgaU) 


GP 5.5, p. 34 sadava 

179 . 12. Hindola 
K—sa gi ma dha ni; H—sa ga ma dha ni 



/ \ 

SJ, pp. 412, 413 born of margahindola , sa-3; kampita'm ma-pa, mandra- 
ni, ni-ri-sa affiliation, erotic sentiment 

SMK 4.25, p. 22 hindola-mela (sa ri gi ma pa dha ni); uttama (5.3), auduva , omits 
ri-dha, sa-3, auspicious, T- always (5.37, p. 33) 

SC 2.2.72 hindola-mela ( sa ra gi ma pa dha ni), (2.2.73) sa-3, omits ri-pa, T- 

RJ 2.54cd-55, p. 238 hindola-mela (sa ri gi ma pa dha ni); omits ri-pa, sa-3, T- 


RV 4.14ab, p.109 vasanta-mela , omits ri-pa, ma -arhsa, sa -graha nyasa , T- dawn 

5.174, p. 212: 

tfcldl^fclddlcrlidldl 7 fk: II 

SD 2.166, p. 27 ragini of vasanta; purusa-raga with five raginis according to 
Hanuman (2.183, 186, p. 30), ragini of gauda (malavagauda) according to Kagar- 
nava (2.195, p. 31), omits ri-dha, sa-3, suddhamadhya murchana, has kakali nisada 
(nu*) (2.221, p. 38) 

2.222, p. 38: 


SS 2.1023, 1024 ab, p. 217 bhairavi-mela (sarigi ma pa dha ni/sa re ga ma pa dha 
ni) sa-3, omits ri-pa, auduva 

SP 1.432, p. 55 omits ri-pa, has komala dhaivata) T-after second watch of day; by 

restoring ri-pa in it, margahindola is formed. 

PS 3.9, 44, pp. 11,19 purusa-raga: 

dldilqcrii'tlH Md'f I 

W§: II 

GP 5.7.56 ab, pp. 35, 40 auduva, T- spring season (lacuna for laksaha ) 

180. 13. Bhupali 

Malhara-mela\ rnalhara is derived from kedara-mela (SC.2.2.37cd-38ab; RJ 2.29 cd, 
2.25) i.e. K—sa ri gu ma pa dhi nu; H—sa re ga ma pa dha ni 

SJ,70, pp. 430,431 affiliated to travana, omits ri, sa-3, described (cre¬ 
ated?) by Bhupalapalaka{}): in abjectness and shame (modesty); also called 




SMK 4.26, p. 23; 5.35, p. 35 srirdga-mela\ sa-3, omits ma-ni, auduva, T- morning 
( bhupala) 

SC 2.2.46, p. 49 kedara-mela (vide supra ), ga-3,omits ma-ni, T- morning 
RJ 2.27, 31cd. kedara-mela, sa-3, omits ma-ni, T- morning 
RK 2.141,142, pp. 30, 31 vasanta mela (sa ri gi ma pa dha ni/sa re ga ma pa dha 
ni) omits ma-ni, but according to some, ri-pa; santa rasa. T- dawn. 

'iUl I 

ife -qfef II 

RV 4. 36ab, p. 115 malldri-mela (sa ri gu ma pa dhi nu/sa re ga ma pa dha ni) sa- 
nyasa, ga -graha arhsa, omits ma-ni, T- dawn 
5.171, p. 211: 

+1*^ 3Tf^TcTR^FrT gis-Hsldl FRI^ldl II 

(smarad bhita = kamatura, lustful) 

SD 2.168, p. 27 ragini of pancama according to Ragaragini-matam, T- morning 
(2.171, p. 28), T- autumn (2.181, p. 29), ragini of megha according to Hanuman 
(2.189, p. 30), ragini of desakhya according to Rdgarnava (2.196, p. 31); sa-3, first 
murchana (of sa-grama), sampurna but auduva by omitting ri-pa according to some; 
santa rasa (2.266, p. 46) 


*Icf: W'd) fq<i? u i ^TT ■UHi'llPd^Tbl II 

SS 2.1040cd-1041, p. 219 bhupala] mela of bhairavi (sa ri gi ma pa dha ni /sa re ga 
ma pa dha ni ), sa-3, omits ma-ni, auduva 

SP 1.376, p. 42 omits ma-ni, ri-dha komala, ga -graha amsa, ri -nyasa, T- morning 
PS 3.19, 63, pp. 12, 21 ragini, T- evening: 

^ddlfaW cl I 

«<m*il’ll $4 jhiPi ^Tlf^T TTT Tjsftfa: II 

181 . 14. Vardti 

S3 ra ga ma pa dha nu; H—sa re ga ( atikomal) ma pa dha ni 
SUS 3.9, p. 66 vairadi is bhasa of pancama ; ftbHdulf ^ I 

SJ 2.2.2. 104, p. 414 bhasa of bhinnapahacama, tara-dha,, mandra-ma, same svaras 
as of latl, sa-graha nyasa, dha-amsa, sampurna, erotic sentiment. 




SMK 4.43, 44, p. 25 suddha varati is mela as shown above; uttama raga (5.2); sa-3, 
sampurna , T- always (5.21cd-22ab) 

SC 2.2.59, p. 51 suddhavardti-mela (vide supra), sa-3, T- always 

RJ 2.23cd, 25cd, suddha-varatl-mela (vide supra), sa-3, sampurna, T- always 


RV 4.27, p.l 12 suddhavarati, svamela , sampurna, sa- amsa-nydsa , ri -graha, T- noon 
5.187, p. 216: 

cR^ft op* I 

HldlHIl wt II 

SD 2.166, p. 27 rdgini of vasanta according to Rdgardgini -matam\ T- (vairatT) after 
second prahara (2.175, p. 29), rdgini of bhairava according to Hanuman (2.184, 
p. 30), of pancama according to Ragdrnava (2.192, p. 31); sa-3, first murchana (of ma- 
grama ?), sampurna (2.205, p. 34) 

2.206, p. 34: 

fcH i i 

SS 2.793-795, p. 191 svamela (supra), madhyama is satsmti (15th sruti), sa-3, sa- 
vadi, pa -samvddi, ma -vivadi, ga-dha-ni anuvddij. 

SP 1.391, p. 45 komala ri, komala dha, tivra ni, dhaivata murchana, sd-tivartraWwh 
dndoliia-gamaka, T- after second prahara. 

PS 3.16, 24, pp. 12,13 vdrddi is rdgini of hindola, T- noon. 

3.56, p. 20: 

GP 5.3, 24, pp. 34, 37 sampurna, born of bhinnapancama-rdga, sa-3, T- after first 

182. 15. Todi 

K—sa ra gi ma pa dha ni; H—sa re ga ma pa dha ni 

SUS 3.108, p. 67. Toll, bhdsd of megha, red complexioned, seated on a mound. 

SJ, 101, p. 414 evolute of suddhasddava grdma-rdga ; sa -tarn, pa has 
kampita gamaka; ma-3, mandra- ga, notes are the same as in suddhasddava, on joyful 
occasions, lovers’ meeting, erotic sentiment., 55, p. 429 -do-; sdnta (suci) rasa, T- rainy season: 




SMK5.13, p. 30 adhama-raga, not described 

SC 2.2.54, 55 svamela (supra), ma-3, kampita in pa, dha; sampurna , T-morning 
RJ 2.11 svamela , ma-3, kampita in pa, dha; sampurna , T- dawn 
RK3.133,134, p. 29 mela of kamata , ma-3, ahata and kampita in ma-ni, appealing 
to the singer’s own heart; T- daybreak 

RV 4.10, p.108 svamela , ga -graha arhsa , sa-nyasa, sampurna , quivering (notes) 
T- second prahara 
5.180, p. 214: 

<+fciafqH3i) faM dlfdd^R u ll^ u IIH<l I 

( Harinirvasakasajja-nayika) 

SD 2.166, p. 27 Todi is ragini of vasanta according to Rdgaragini-matam , T- after 
second prahara (2.175, p. 29), ragini of kausika according to Hanuman (2.185, 
p. 30), ma-3, sauviri murchand , sampurna , ragini ofkaisika; sa-3 according to some 
(2.211, p. 35, 36) 

2.212, p. 36: 

^NK^^d^PK: cWVHli+i^pciPdH^I I 
(q'ik'4'fll chi^| ^TT^TI <mRi II 


SP 1.387, p. 44 sa -murchana; ri-dha are komala , dY\a-nyasa, ga -amsa, pa -nyasa in 
ascent with pa; T- after first prahara 

PS 3.15, 23, 48, pp. 11, 12, 17 ragini of vasanta; T-forenoon 

^rMHHlPM ^Ad^bl yrbMdl+Pc'MdSK^: I 
^cTT^t MlPui^l *TT II 

GP 5.3, 26, pp. 34, 37 sampurna , ma-3, born of suddha sadava raga\ in heroic and 
erotic sentiments, T- noon 

183 . 16. Prathamamahjafi 

( malavagauda-mela ) K—sa ra ga ma pa dha nu; H- sa re ga ma pa dha ni 
SUS 3.86ab, p. 64 bhdsd of vasanta. 7 fhT^t <ldl*sjT 

SJ 2.2.3,92,93,95, p. 433 ahga of bhogavardham, born of kakubha , pa-3, ga-mandra, 
ri-dha tarn, ga-ma bahula, sampurna , T- autumn, erotic sentiment; ma-3 found 
occasionally in usage. 



^tcTRSJT jjWlf xf ^rdHU^d^lRHl I 

SMK4.14, p. 22 phalamanjari born in malavagauda-mela , adhama-rdga (5.10) not 

SC 2.2.20 malavagauda-mela , pa-3, T- always (in worship) 

RJ 2.20 patamanjan , gaudi-mela , pa-3, purna , T- always 


SD 2.168, p.27 ragini of pancama according to Ragaragini-matam ( padhamanjan ), 
T- after first prahara (2.173, p. 28), ragini of hindola according to ITanuman (2.186, 
p. 30), of mallari according to Ragarnava (2.194, p. 31); patamanjarihas pa-3, hrsyaka 
murchana ; sampurna , delights the aesthete (2.230, p. 39) 

2.231, p. 39: 

fa4)PHl effort vjcmih i 



SP 1.414, p. 52 pathamahjan: pa-3, born of svaras of malava (raga); omits ga in 

PS 3.51, p.18 pathamanjan, ragini of vasanta (3.23, p. 12): 

*Hsfl<*dl^: MfUwdltfiJI I 

^ -HclcbciH H^foVlldl II 

GP 5.4,32, pp. 34,38, sampurna , pa-3, dha-ri tarn, ga-ma bahula , T- morning, in 
erotic sentiment and on festive occasion. 

184. 17. Turuskatodi 

Chayanata-mela ( chayanata is janya of karnatagauda sa ru ga ma pa dhi nu, 
Sadragacandrodaya , 2.2.36; 2.2.31cd) 

SUS — 

SJ similar to todi but ri-ni bahula , ga -alpa 

SMK 4.36, p. 24 janya of kannadagauda ; adhama raga (5.14, p. 30) but not 

SC 2.2.34 karnatagauda mela , ma-3, ahata gamaka in ma-ni, kampita in pa, 
T- sunrise 

RJ 2.62 kamata-mela , ma-3, sampurna , kampita in pa, ahata in ma-ni, T- sunrise 

RV 4.8, p.107 mela of mukhari or todi; sampurna , ga-3, all notes quiver, T- second 
prahara ; popularly called huseni (p.120); or ma-3, T- night (4.44, p. 117) called 
"irdkli in the vernacular (4.44 comm. p. 117) 



5.181, p. 214: 

^Mddldfd-dldl I 

pci^i^MHiid II 






185. 18. Vasanta 

Hindola-mela (RJ 2.54) K—sa ri gi ma pa dha ni; H—sa re ga ma pa dha ni 
SUS 3.75, 84-85, pp. 63, 64; main raga : 


4idld^l4-^<=ll^^d^sbl~1^^: II 

TT^t4 ^ I 

Wi +)Pbdl Tfcti Rf ^ II 

SJ, p. 411 affiliated to hindola , puma, sa-3, mandra- ni, sa-pa kampita , ri- 
ni-sa sahgati, T- second half of day, spring season, santa-rasa: 

TTSTF? AddfdH I 
dld^<<dl^-dsl)M4idVI|-ia II 

falJFT ^PTT RlrPRg^ ^RT^f I 
^RT RlfW^d W^ldfcd: II 

SMK4.23, p. 23 suddhavasantais born in saranganata-mela , uttama raga (5.3, p. 29) 
sa-3, omits pa in ascent only, T- fourth watch (5.32, 33ab. p. 32) 

SC 2.2.73cd hindola-mela , sa-3, puma , T- dawn 
RJ 2.56cd hindola-mela , sa-3, puma , T- morning, in erotic sentiment 
RK 2.137, 139, p. 30 svamela (sa ri gi ma pa dha ni), sa-3, puma or omits ri-pa. 
T- morning, spring season, heroic and terrible sentiments; born of hindola; 
companion of Manmatha. 

2.140, p. 30: 

Rf 14sl fu ^ Pm ^$1 -cd A| -cl 14? ; 

d^l^v^lHdjPIdldl ciU'dlHflsfdHdlglsft: II 

RV 4.12cd, p. 108 svamela , puma , sa-3, T- dawn 



5.173, p. 212: 

344?u|c^4HHl WcTt 'fit'll UlM'ld: II 

SD 2.161, p. 26 purusa-raga born from Vamadeva face of Siva according to 
Rdgaraginl-matam; purusa-raga (2.164, p. 27), its five bhasas (2.166, p. 27), T- 
morning (2.172, p. 28) according to Somesvara; T- in spring season (2.181, p. 29); 
ragini (vasanti) of sri according to Hanuman (2.188, p. 30), of bahgati according to 
Ragarnava (2.191, p. 31); vasanta; sampurna, sa-3, murchana of snraga (2.250, p. 43) 
2.251, p. 43: 

rsfusiru^^«i4M^i+uiioid«i ^<iymi i 

^IcH^IHd3»Mtal cwPd+l 

SS 2.615-618, pp. 172, 173 suddhavasanta: salahganati-mela (= gurjari = malava 
gauda-mela ), should be sung under this mela ; ri* dhi* should not be employed in 
snraga , should not be rendered sadava by omitting pa in ascent, but it is sampurna; 

SP 1.371, p. 41 sa-murchana, ma-nyasa, ga-ni tivra; T- morning 
PS 3.23*, 47, pp.12, 17 purusa-raga: 

MldlHG «bl«H*n^Fl d^-diMl) ^Pdfa-MSI II 

GP 5.2,13, 14, pp. 34-36 sampurna-rdga; born of sadjamadhyama , sa-3, T- spring 
season; prescribed to be sung from snpancami to the sayanotsava of Hari. 

186. 19. Suddhabangala 

kamata-mela (RJ 2.57) K—sa ri gu ma pa dhu nu 



SMK4.35, p. 24 janya of kannadagaula; adhama-rdga (5.12, p. 30), not described 
SC 4.35 mela of kamdtagauda ; sa-3; has gu* nu* 

RJ 2.61 mela of kamata-gauda, ni-3, sampurna, T- dawn 
RK — 

RV 4.43, p.117 kamata-mela, sampurna, ma-3, T- dawn 
SD — 

SS — 


PS — 

GP — 



187. 20. Syama 
K—sa ra gu* ma pa dha nu* 



SMK 4.55-56, p. 26 sa ra ga ma pa dha nu*; sampuma, sa-3, born of samaveda, 
T- always 

SC 2.2.59cd suddha vardtl-mela\ sa-3, sampuma, nu* 

R| 2.24cd syamavarati: varati-mela, sa-3, sampuma, nu* 


RV 4.9, p.107 s vamela, sa-3, sampuma, T- always 
SD — 

SS — 


PS — 

GP — 

188. 21. Samanta 
kamata-mela (vide supra) 



SMK 4.60, p. 27 sa ru gu* ma pa dhu* nu*; sa-3, sampuma, T- final watch of day 

SC 2.2.36, 37 kamata-gauda-mela, sampuma, gu*, nu*, T- sunrise 

RJ 2.59cd kamata-mela, sa-3, gu*, nu*, T- evening 

RK 2.131, p. 29 kamata-mela, sampuma, sa-3, gu*, nu*, T- dawn 

2.132, p. 29: 

eF^d=b<dM: ^4Klg<=Md: fieri: fcRiitf: I 

^RfedHId: II 

RV 4.41, p. 116, s vamela; sa-3, T- evening 

SS 2.1190-1193ab, p. 235 svamela: sa ru gu* ma pa dha nu*; sa-3, sa -vadi, pa- 
samvadi, ga-ni vivadi, (ri-dha anuvadi), sampuma 

SP 1.453, p. 60 tivratara ri, tivra ga, sa-3, T- after third prahara 



189. 22. Kamoda 

SC 2.2.53: K—sa ra gi mi pa dha ni; (RJ 2.49 also) 

SUS 3.104ab, p. 66 bhdsd of megha: dldlHO 'lU^I =u4l<l 

SJ, p. 408 kamoda I: gramaraga, sa -grama, born of sadjamadhya vesara-raga, 
dha-amsa, sa-nyasa, mandra-ga, tdra-ga 



\, p. 408 kamodall : gramaraga , sa -grama, born of sadjijati, sa-3, ga- mandra., p. 408 4>IH><flfP( ^T) sbWirfipftt dldlHl 

SC 2.2.53 svamela (sa ra gi mi pa dha ni); sa-3, T-end of day 
RJ 2.49cd svamela (supra ), sa-3, sampurna , T- fourth watch (of day) 

RK 2.156, 157, p. 33 kamodi : closely affiliated to malhara , svamela , puma , dha-3, 
T- dawn, erotic stimulant 
2.158, p. 33: 

lldlHil 4>l<+i(dHlRHl A i ^VNIVII I 

fadl'M'dl +l4)fe«bl II 

RV 5.197, p. 218 ( laksana is not given) ( prositabhartrka nayika) 

Mldi^+l MT: I 

fHdidl^d fd^HI c^IHlcfl II 

SD 2.170, p. 28 kamodi : ragini of natanarayana according to Rdgaragini-matam. T- 
after second prahara according to Somesvara (2.175, p. 29) ragini of dipaka 
according to Hanuman (2.187, p. 30), of desakhya according to Rdgarnava (2.196, 
p. 31), pauravi murchana, puma , dha-3, closely affined to mallari. 

2.244, p. 42: 


fadHd'dl dil4ir<d>l II 



PS 3.14, p. 11 ragini, T- forenoon; 

3.66, p. 21: 

^^IM'M'dl I'Mlfd^l^l wl^lPui I 
PdPd'-ddl 4r^4)dHHI <+IHld<lPl^r<dl II 

GP 5.3, 21, pp. 34,36 sampurna; sa-grama , born of sadjijati , sa -graha amsa , dha- 
nyasa; mandra-g: a. 

190. 23. Desikara 

K—sa ra gu mi pa dha nu; H—sa re ga ma pa dha ni 

SJ, p. 410 gama raga born in sa-grama , of revagupta , according to 



SMK suddharamakriya (svamela ) 4.27. p 23, (supra); sa-3 sampurna , T- afternoon 
(5.23cd, 24ab) 

SC 2.2.64 desi: suddha ramakri-mela; ri-3, omits pa, T- always 
RJ 2.39, 41cd svamela {supra) ; desi : ri-3, omits pa, T- morning; desikara (2.40cd): 
sa-3, sampurna , T- forenoon 


RV 4.27, p. 112 desakara-suddharamakn; puma sa-3, ma-ni kampita , svamela , 
T- madhyahna (noon) 

5.186, p. 215: 

FRt Wmm 'IdlefcW: I 
3^*1: <JM|UNir«l5vn«bK: ^TTST: II 

SD 2.166, p. 27 desi: ragini of vasanta according to Ragaragini-matam; desikara : 
T- morning according to Somesvara (2.172, p. 28); ragini of megha according to 
Hanuman (2.189, p. 30); desakan: sa-3, sampurna , first murchana (of sa-grama), 
mixed with varati 
2.265, p. 46: * 

mIhwhI j,: ^?it uupi^KHH^icbifl n 

SS 2.1251-3, p. 242 suddharamakn (sa ra gu mi pa dhanu); ma has six smtis (15th 
sruti), sa-3, sa -vadi , pa-s arhvadi, ga-ni vivadi , ri-dha anuvadi 

SP 1.373, p. 41 lacuna; dha-murchana, dha-awsa, ga-ni tivra , T- morning 
PS 3.15, p. 11 T-forenoon, ragini of hindola (3.24, p. 13) 

3.57, p. 19: 

MWI *TT ^fWlfl ’pit: II 

GP 5.4.40, pp. 34, 38 desi: sadava , born of revagupta , omits pa, ri-3, T—morning, 
in kamna and santa rasas 

191. 24. Ramakri 

K—sa ra gu ma pa dha nu; H—sa re ga ma pa dha ni 
SUS 3.86, 87, p. 64 ramagn: bhasa of vasanta: J lWl^l ^leii^TT 
SJ, 115, p. 435 ramakrti: ahga of kolahala which is born of takka, ma- 
graha, amsa; sa -nyasa; omits pa-ni {tarn- pa mandra- pa, T- second half of day, 
vipralambha srhgara , 



SMK — 

SC 2.2.16ab malavagauda-mela , sa-3, omits ma-ni, T-always 

RJ 2.17ab malavagauda-mela sa-3, puma , T- always; has form of female ascetic 


RV 4.20, p.110 malavagauda-mela , sampurna , sa-3 or ga-3; T- always 
5.213, p. 223: 

SD 2.174, p. 28 ramakan , T- after first prahara ; ragini of hindola according to 
Hanuman (2.186, p. 30), of pailcama according to Ragarnava (2.192, p. 31 ),purna, 
first murchana (of sa-grama), sa-3; sung to kamna rasa ; according to some, omits ri- 
dha; according to others, omits pa-sa, sampurna , sadava or auduva accordingly 
(2.225, 226, p. 38) 

2.227, p. 39: 

cbHHlil+'JcJi HIHl^dl <IH=h(i HcHH, II 

SP 1.402, p. 48 komala ri, tivra ga, tivratara ma, komala dha , tivra ni; omits ga-ni in 
ascent; pa -amsa, dha-murchana, T- morning 

PS 3.14, p.ll ragini , T- forenoon, ragini of malava (3.20, p. 12) 

3.29, p. 13: 

ydH^IH)+<^|*c|U|f I 

^ «I3: ^KIHHI *IH«bU) TfftST II 

GP 5.4.31, pp. 34, 37 sampurna , sa-3, 4 s adjarsabhaghandrambha T- 4 prahardbhyan- 
tare . 

192. 25. Bahuli 

Ramakn-mela (vide supra) 



SMK 4.13, p. 22 malavagauda-mela; uttamaraga (5.4, p. 29); ma-3, omits pa, T-first 
part of day, sadava (5.31, p. 32) 

SC 2.2.15 malavagauda-mela , ma-3, T- afternoon, omits ga-ni, but sometimes, not. 

RJ 2.16 malavagauda-mela , ma-3, T- afternoon, omits ga-ni 

RK 2.95, 96, p. 24 malavagauda-mela , ma-3, omits, or not, ri-dha, T- evening 




h^hhmnR^^ii f^^rfcr 11 

RV 4.20, p. 110 malavagauda-mela, sa-3, omits ma-ni, T- afternoon 
5.188, p. 216: 

WIT dl^fddl I 

q§dl(r)<t i^eii ^ J iRi: II 

SD 2.167, p. 27 ragini of bhairava , according to Ragaragini-matam. 

SS 2.638, 684, p.179 gurjari-mela, omits ni and becomes sadava. 


PS — 

GP — 

193 . 26. Desi 

Affiliated to ahang; K-sa ra gi mi pa dha ni; H-sa re ga ma pa dha ni 

SJ, 68, p. 410 grama-raga , sorgrama , born of revagupta , ri-3, ga -mandra 
SMK5.10, p. 30 adhama-raga 

SC 2.2.64 s uddharamakri-mela\ ri-3, omits pa, T- always 
RJ 2.41cd desikara-mela , ri-3, omits pa, T- always 

RK — 

RV 4. 29cd, p. 113 desikara-mela , ri-3, ga alpa, T- always 

SD 2.166, p. 27 ragini of vasanta according to Ragaragini-matam : of dipaka 
according to Hanuman (2,187, p. 30), of pancama according to Ragarnava (2.192, 
p. 31), T- after second prahara according to Somesvara 

2.241, p. 41 ri-3, omits pa, vikrta ri, kalopanata-murchana 

2.242, p. 42: 

RTt?T ^cb^<dfdl ^ ^Tt U^fadl II 

SS — 

SP 1.431, p. 55 ri-amsa, ri-dha komala, ga-ni omitted in ascent, sa -murchana 
T- always 

GP 5.5.40, pp. 34,38 sadava , born of revagupta , ri-3, ma-ni sahgati, omits pa, 
T- morning, in karuna and sdnta-rasas 

194 . 27. Jaitdsn 
Desi-mela (vide supra) 

SUS — 






SC — 


RK — 

RV 4.28cd, p. 113 desikara-mela, sa -graha nyasa, ga -arhsa; ri-dha alpa T- morning 
5. 176, p. 213: 


SD 2.289, p. 51 desi-raga ; rules of sruti, svara, grama, jati do not apply. 


SP 1.467, p. 63 jayasri: ri-dha komala, ga-ni tivra, ma -tivratam, omits ri-dha in 
ascent: ni -graha 


195. 28. Gurjari 

Ramakri-mela {vide supra) 

SUS 3.9led, p. 65 bhdsd of bhairava: J lUd' J li nlaq^l HM-HiF-mI 

SJ,83, pp. 411,412 sa-grama raga; born of pancama-sddava; ri-3, ri -bahula, 
ma -nyasa; ri -tara, santa rasa, sampurna 

SMK4.14, p. 22: malavagauda-mela; uttama-raga (5.2, p. 29); ghurjan ; ri-3; omits 
pa and sometimes includes pa in descent; T- first watch of day. 

SC 2.2.13ab malavagauda-mela , ni-3, or sa-nyasa (sa has mudrita-gamakai) 
T- morning 

RJ 2.15cd gaudi-mela, ri-3, omits pa. T- morning 

RK2.91,92,pp.23,24 malavagauda-mela , ri-3, sampurna , T- morning; occasionally 
it is admixed with bahull and then omits sa. 

RV 4.23, p. 111 malavagauda-mela , ri-3, omits pa, T- dawn 

SD 2. 167, p. 27 ragini of bhairava according to Ragaragini-matam, of megha 
according to Hanuman (2.189, p. 30), of paheama according to Ragdrnava (2. 192, 
p. 31), T- morning according to Somesvara (2.171, p. 28); ri-3, sampurna , seventh 
murchana (2.268, p. 47) 

2.269, p. 47: 

3Tc14cRI>J|i ^rfa*lFT d-dl^lsll II 



SS 2.496-503, pp. 161, 162 sampurna (sa ra gu ma pa dha nu), ri-3, omits pa in 
descent according to some. 

SP 1.417, p. 53 born of malava(gauda), omits ma-ni in descent; ga -murchana; ga- 
ma and dha-sa are affinities. This is daksinatya gurjari, T-after first prahara. 

PS 3.23, p. 12; 3.52, p. 18 ragini of vasanta : 

^jddldl^lT^ O^d^fadlfd I 
dil'dlP'd'^ ^TT ^O^chdlP^dl^ II 

GP 5.3, 25, pp. 34, 37 gujjari: sampurna , ri-3, born of pancamasadava , sometimes 
ma is nyasa , T- beginning of day; erotic sentiment 

196. 29. (Kutila/Apara) Lalita 

Desi-mela {vide supra) 


SJ, pp. 423, 424 bhasahga lalita I: dha-3, sa -tarn, ma -mandra, pa -alpa, p. 423 lalita II: takka ahga , sa-3, omits ri-pa, vira rasa, 13, p. 424 lalitalll: bhinnasadja bhasa , dha-3 puma, kampita in ni-ga-ma, 
T- in friendship, hemanta season, first prahara of day 


SC 2.2.64, p. 52 desikara-mela , sa-3, puma, T- morning 
RJ 2.42, p. 235 desikara-mela , dha-3, puma, T- morning 


RV 4.28, p. 113, desikara-mela, sampurna , sa -graha nyasa, dha-awia; or it may omit 
pa; T- dawn, this is also called vibhasa-lalita 
5.172, p. 211: 

dl’UPw fd^lldl^ dfddl I 
f^^ld^PdPHPddl ^fdcT^dM<l II 

SD 2.166, p. 27 ragini of vasanta according to Ragaragini-matam, of hindola 
according to Hanuman (2.186, p. 30), of pancama according to Ragarnava (2.192, 
p. 31); T- morning according to Somesvara (2.172, p. 28); suddhamadhya murchana, 
omits ri-pa, auduva (lalita I), sampurna, dha-3 (lalita II) (2.232, p. 40) 

2.233, p. 40: 

sjpWH^dHi^rbi 4ft wi i 

SS 2.712, 713ab, p. 182 gurjari-mela, sa-3, omits pa, sadava 
SP 1.415, p. 52 gaun-mela, omits pa, sa-2, ma -nyasa, T- always 
PS 3.14, 23, 50, pp.ll, 12,18 ragini of vasanta, T-forenoon 




rcMrddMrf^dHHI 7Jc#RTT RlfadT II 

GP 5.8, 59, 60, pp. 34, 40 auduva , born of takka raga , has facile svaras , sa-3, omits 
ri-pa, sa -mandra 

197. 30. Vibhdsa 
Desikara-mela (RJ 2.43); ma is at 14th sruti 

sus — 



SC — 

RJ 2.43 Desikara-mela; sa-3, sampurna or sadava by omitting pa; T- always 


RV 4.28, p. 113 lalii a II is called vibhdsa lalita ; vide supra on lalita (196) 

SD 2.168, p. 27 ragmiof/ttmcamaaccording to Ragaragini-matam lalitavatvibhasastu 
(2.2.86, p. 50) 

SP 1.384, pp. 43, 44 ma -tivratara, ga-ni tivra ; ri-dha komala, dha -graha, ma -amsa, 
ni -nyasa; when ga or pa is amsa, omits ma-ni in ascent; ga -murchana, T- morning 

GP — 

198. 31. Sarahga 

K—sa ri gu ( urdhva ga, on 13th sruti) mi pa dhu ni 



SC 2.2.69 svamela, sa-3, sampurna , T- afternoon 
RJ 2.45, svamela , sa-3, sampurna , T- afternoon 
RK 2.167-169, p. 34 svamela , sa-3, puma , T- noon 

4P4 fiPTlfa: US'+RtJel RR^RHl) fo*!TfcT 

RV 4.46, p. 117 svamela, sampurna, sa-3, T- afternoon 
5.189, p. 216: 

MlclI^ftsrRdd^rddM^Td^ddl^: I 

TTTC^t 0^l^lS4d'+^KlR??Tf^R : II 

(ari = cakra, discus) 






SP 1.403, p. 49 dha -tivratara, ni -tivra\ sarmurchana , ma -arhsa, sa-nyasa, T- after 
second prahara 


199 . 32. Tiravana (Travani, Travand, Travand) 

Desi-mela (vide supra) 

SUS 3. 97ab, p. 66 triguna : bhdsd of pancama\ 
f^TT HfeWHI ^ ^ibuixficKi | 

SJ 2.2.3, 71, p. 31 travani : ahga of travand , bom of bhinnasadja , dha-3, omits ri- 
pa, T- daybreak 

SC 2.2.63 desikara-mela , sa-3, puma, T- end of day 
RJ 2.41 desikara-mela , sa-3, puma, T- evening 

RV 4.29ab, p. 113 travani. sa -nyasa, ri -graha arhsa, sampuma, T- evening 
5.196, p. 218: 

+H+rH«n ^IfRT || 

SD 2.165, p. 27 trivani is ragini of sri according to Rdgardgini-matam, of gauda 
according to Ragdmava (2.195, p. 31), T-after third prahara according to Somesvara 
(2.176, p. 29) dha-3, omits pa-ri, auduva (2.278, p. 49) 

2.279, p. 49: 

WRT: fw^TT Rfapfapf I 

cRTft siui^Tbi ftm ftcfun -qcn n 

SS 2.171, 172, p. 119 travand : sa-3, ga-ma tarn, sa-ri mandra, ni-sa-dha sahgati, in 
vira rasa, evening in prayer of Siva (according to SR). 

travanodbhava (2.173, p. 119) ma -arhsa, sa -nyasa, ga-apanyasa, omits pa, sadava; in 
competitions, T- always 

SP 1.461, p. 61 trivani : gauri-mela, omits ma, sa -graha, ri -arhsa, T- after third 


200. 33. Yammana-kalyana 
K—sa ri gu* mi pa dhi nu* 






SC 2.2.71 svamela (sa ri gi mi pa dhi nu); sa-3, puma, T- evening ( kalyana) 

RJ 2.49 svamela (sa ri gu mi pa (dhi) nu), sa-3, puma, T- evening ( kalyana) 

RK 2.162-164, p. 34 svamela, sa-3 or ri-3, sampuma, T- evening 

^ fdddi ddte yfasi: 41 I 

^TTWTl'gPT : n3lf?5: II 

RV 4.33cd, p. 114 svamela, sa-2, ga -amsa, T- eventide 
5.200, p. 219: 

4i^4dlHtl5T*$4dl^<rft 4lrcrK9iHKnidl^ I 

SD 2.170, p. 28 ragini of natanarayana ( kalyani ); 


SP 1.401, p. 48 ma -tlvratara, ga-ni tivra; ga -graha, omits ma-ni in ascent. T- after 
third prahara 

PS 5.8, 67, pp.12, 21 kalyani; ragini T- evening: 

c+,crHi u ff cFePlfd 64ci6iqt?d II 

GP 5.68, p. 41 kalyani is a combination of nata, kamata, varati: 

ct)<rMl u ft Hldeb u lU c IKI<i)4l J l4fWM I 

34. Sriraga 

201 . 

K—sa ri* gi ma pa dhi* ni 
SUS 3.76-78, p. 63 main rdga 

akPTtssTTfhspnfsB^ia^i: i 


SJ, p. 407 sa-grama, born of sadjijati, sa-3 ma-tara, pa-alpa, auduva, vira- 
rasa, T- spring season, in propitiation of Lord of LaksmI; sampuma according to 




SMK 4.16, 17, p. 22 sa ri gi ma pa dhi ni, uttatna raga (5.3, p. 29); sa-3, omits ga- 
dha, auduva ; sometimes includes ga-dha ( sampurna ), T- evening, bestows every 

SC 2.2.23, 25 sa ri* gi ma pa dhi* ni, sa-3, omits dha; T- sunset 

RJ 2. 68cd-69 sa ri* gu (!) ma pa dhi* ni; sa-3, omits dha-ga; T- evening; gives 
wealth and auspiciousness 

RK 2.109, 112, p. 26 sa ri* gi ma pa dhi* ni; sa-3, omits dha-ga ( auduva) or is 
sampurna; T- end of day; first murchana. 

2.113, p. 27: 

*lfi<HHHI ftcRT II 

RV 3.48, p. 97 sa ri* gi ma pa dhi* ni 

4.30ab, p. 113 svamela, ri-arhsagraha, sa -nyasa, omits dha-ga (auduva) or includes 
dha-ga (sampurna), T- eventide. 

5.201, p. 219: 

sfaFTtsfaenM II 

SD 2.158, p. 26 purusa-raga-, born from Sadyojata face of Siva according to 
Rdgardgini-matam (2.161, p. 27); one of six purusa rdgas (2.164, p. 27); a purusa-raga 
according to Hanuman (2.183, 188, p. 30); T- after third prahara, according to 
Somesvara (2.176, p. 29); sa-3, puma, first murchana, has every guna( ?); according 
to some, ri-3. 

2.249, p. 43: 

31BK5JIK: I 

^kFRTSf: II 

SS 2.815-817, p. 193 sa ri gi ma pa dhi ni, sa-3, omits ga (sadava) or not (puma) 

SP 1.447, p. 58 ri-3, or sa-graha; tivra-gandhdm, omits ga-dha; T- after third prahara 

PS 3.22, p. 12, 40, p.16 purusa-raga: 


fadW^llRd SlkFT ijfgjoqR^ II 



GP 5.1.10, pp. 34, 35 sampurna, sa-3, svalpa- pa, sa-grdma affiliation; born of sadji 
jdti; T- evening, in vlra and srhgdra rasas. 

202. 35. Gaudi 

Rdmakn-mela (vide supra) 

SUS 3.80, p. 63 s nrdga-bhasd: *t\d\ 

SJ,p.428 bhasahga of mdlavakaisika according to Matanga; updhga , sa- 
3, sa -mandra and tarn, ni -bahula; becomes updhga of vasanta because of affiliation to 
hindola; according to some, pa in gamaka is nydsa; performed in virasrhgdra, in 
speech with the loved ones, etc. 

SMK 4.18, p. 22 gaudi , in snrdga-mela; gaudi , adhama-raga (5.10, p. 30); not 

SC 2.2.17cd malavagauda-mela , sa-3, omits dha-ga, T- end of day 

RJ 2.14cd malavagauda-mela , sa-3, omits dha-ga, T- evening 

RK 2.99, 100, p. 25 malavagauda-mela , sa-3, omits dha-ga, serious mood, T- 

RV 5.193, p. 217: 

SD 2.165, p. 27 rdgini of sri according to Rdgardgini-matam; of kausika according 
to Hanuman (2.185, p. 30); of gauda according to Rdgdrnava (2.195, p. 31 );T-after 
third prahara according to Somesvara (2.177, p. 29); sa-3, omits ri-pa, first murchand; 
beautiful in every limb is gaun (2.215, p. 36). 

2.216, p. 36: 

Mwcft wf ddUHiyigrJ i 

WIT f^FcT +1s?<rH II 

SS 2.241, p. 129 according to Matanga: sa-3, ni -bahula, mandrasa-aIpa. 

SP 1.369, p. 40 gaun: komala- ri, komal-dha ., ga-ni tivra; omits ga-dha in ascent, 
T-after third prahara 

PS 5.18, 22, 43, pp. 12, 16 gaun: rdgini of sri, T- evening: 

TJHTrSTFI *U-dl4 +T+ci*bld><rflfa: I 

cfFTT WTT (?) tM 4ft ifU^HlMfdKI II 




GP 5.4.35, pp. 34-38 sampurna, born of malavakaisika , sa-3, svarasare graced with 
kampita and andolita gamakas\ sung in vira and srhgara rasas. 

203. 36. Pddi 

Gaudi-mela (vide supra) 



SMK 4.29 s uddharamakriya-mela\ madhyama-raga (5.7, p. 29); sa-3, omits ga, 
sddava , T- fourth watch (5.52, p. 35) 

SC 2.2 14ab malavagauda-mela, sa-3, omits ga, T- evening 
RJ 2.22cd gaudi-mela , sa-3, omits dha-ga or includes them, T- evening, erotic 
RK 2.97,98, p. 24 pad: malavagauda-mela ; sa-3, omits ga; has many gamakas , T- 

-qewRrd ^rbl^d-qn^Kl || 

RV 4.17cd, p. 110 malavagauda-mela ; sa-3, omits ga, T- evening 
SD 2.165, p. 27 pahadi: ragini of sri according to Rdgaragini-matam , T- after 
third prahara according to Somesvara (2.178, p. 29); is similar to gaun, sa-3, omits 
ri-pa; auduva ; has a flavour of Andhra (2.280, p. 49) 

2.166, p. 27: 

SS 2.742-744, p. 186 should be classified under gurjan-mela and not under 
(suddha)rdmakriyd as some moderners do, for it has only catuhsruti- ma, and not 
satsruti- ma; sa-3, sddava because it omits ga. 

SP 1.448, p. 59 gauri-mela\ omits ga, sa -graha, ri-amsa nyasa, T- after third prahara 
PS 3.18, 24, 58, pp. 12, 13, 19 ragini of hindola , T- evening ( pahida ) 





Gurjari-mela (vide supra) 




37. Gunakan 



SC 2.2.12 gaundakrti: malavagauda-mela, sa-3, omits dha, T- dawn 
RJ 2.18 gaudi-mela, sampurna, pa has sphurita gamaka, T- evening 

SD 2.167, p. 27 rdgini of hindola according to Ragaragini-matam, of kausika 
according to Hanuman (2.185, p. 30), of bahgali according to Ragarnava (2.191, 
p. 31) T- after first prahara according to Somesvara (2.174, p. 28); rajani murchana; 
affiliated to malava, auduva, omits ri-dha; ni-3 or sa-3 according to some 
2.218, p. 37: 


SP 1.405, p. 49 gunakriya: ri-dha komala, omits ga-ni or omits only ga; ga -gratia, T- 
after first prahara 

205. 38. Nadardmakriya 

K—sa ra gi ma pa dha nu; H—sa re ga ma pa dha ni 



SMK 4.41, 42, p. 25 sa ra gi ma pa dha nu ( svamela) 

5.7, 44, pp. 29, 33 madhyama-raga, sa-3, sampurna, T- fourth watch 
SC 2.2.74, 75 sa ra gi ma pa dha nu ( svamela ); sa-3, sampurna, T- evening 
RJ 2.53, 54ab Sa ra gi ma pa dha ni ( svamela , but note difference in nisada), sa-3, 
sampurna, T- evening 

RV 4.11, p. 108 svamela (sa ra gi ma pa dha nu), sa-3, T- night 

SS 2.634-637, p. 175 has antara-gandhara in actual musical practice and should be 
therefore classified under gurjari mela and not accorded the status of an independ¬ 
ent mela by ascribing s adharana gandhdra; sa-3, sampurna 

SP 1.455, p. 60 gauri-mela, sa-graha, ma -arhsa, m-nyasa-, omits ga in ascent. T- after 
first prahara 

206. 39. Gundakriya 
Gurjan-mela (videsupra) 

SUS 3.86, p. 64 gundagiri: bhasd of vasanla; did jftdl 



SKM 4.14 p. 22; 5.8, p. 29; 5.24, p. 35 malavagauda-mela , madhyama-raga; sa-3, 
omits dha, but sometimes includes it; T- forenoon 

SC 2.2.12 gaundakrti: malavagauda-mela, sa-3, omits dha; T- dawn 


RK — 

R\ 4.18, p. 110 malavagauda-mela; sa-3, omits dha, T- morning 

SS 2.576, p. 169 gurjari-mela; sa-3, sampuma 

PS — 

GP 5.7, 58cd-59ab, pp. 35, 40 auduva; sa-3, ma-pa sahgati, omits ri-dha, T- 
beginning of day; any desired rasa. 

207 . 40. Takka 
K—sa ra gu* ma pa dha nu* 




SC 2.2.13 malavagauda-mela, sa-3, sampuma, has gu*, nu*, T- last watch (of day) 
RJ 2.18 gaudi-mela, sa-3, has gu* and nu*; T- evening 

RV 4.13, p. 109 vasanta-mela (sa ra gu* ma pa dha nu*), puma, sa-3, T- end of day 
SD 2.189, p. 30 ragini of megha according to Hanuman; sa-3, sampuma, first 
murchana (of sa -grama) (2.270, p. 47) 

2.270, p. 47: 

"^WT HfdHkdHi PcpiM faquuipT^i^ I 
rft ZTOf: II 


SP 1.434, p. 55 abhiri murchana, komala ri-dha, omits dha in ascent ( dhakka ), 
T- after third prahara 

GP — 

208 . 41 . Devagandhara 

K—sa ra gu ma pa dha nu; H—sa re ga majDa dha ni 
SUS 3.82, p. 64 sriragabhasa; Trfi T^TT 


SMK 4.19, p. 22 sriraga-mela ; adhama-rdga (5.11, p. 20) not described 
SC 2.2.22 mdlavagauda-mela\ sa-3, puma , T- always 




RJ 2.68, malavakaisika-mela ; sa-3, sampurna, T- always 
RK 2.120, 121, p. 28, snraga-mela ; sa-3, sampurna , T- always 

I: I 

ylfd^fd ftcTCT II 

RV 4.18, p. 110 malavagauda-mela ; ri -graha, pa -arhsa, sa -nyasa; omits ga-ni, T- 

5.217, p. 224: 

facT: I 

^ddlH<: *2?pRt ^riFlR: || 


SS 2.878, 879ab, p. 200 snraga-mela ; sa-3, sampurna 

SP 1.460, p. 61 If bhairavibecomes purna, it is devagandhan, gn-murchana, ga -graha, 
sa -arhsa; if ri is graha , ga is omitted in ascent. T- after second prahara 



209. 42. Malavagauda 

K—sa ra gu ma pa dha nu; H—sa re ga ma pa dha nu 


SJ, p. 240 gauda upahga; the same as chayagauda (ni = 3, sphurita sadja, 
purna) but sans tiripa gamaka for ga. 

SMK 4.11, 12, p. 22 sa ra gu ma pa dha nu; svamela , uttama (5.2, p. 29), ni-3, 
omits ri-pa ( auduva) but sometimes includes them; T- evening; the very best among 

SC 2.2.8cd-9ab svaras as above, ni-3, omits ri-pa, T- evening ( svamela) 

RJ 2.20 gaudi-mela, ni-3, omits ri-pa, T- evening 

RK 3.84-88, p. 23 svaras as above; ni-3, rajani murchana ; occasionally omits ri-pa, 
T- evening 

PcKMc) qid<^lU<HI: II 

RV 4.15,16, p. 109 svamela ; /rama-omits or includes ga-dha; ni-3 or sa-3. T -pradosa 
(a period of three muhurtas or 48 x 3 minutes, i.e. two hours and twenty four 
minutes prefacing the night). 

5.202, p. 220: 

+HI^Nddm§ldHlrd: TprqT; | 

'i^'WiidRilci) Hidi^-Hld^l '’Trf: II 




ss — 

SP 1.430, p. 55 gauri-mela, omits dha, ri -graha, omits ga in ascent; if ga occurs in 
ascent, pa is graha and ma is nyasa, T- after third prahara 
PS 3.20, 26, p. 12, 13 purusa (malava): 

^Jd^Pd: | 

^dvildi TTMTSTCl ' iHMcHOKH : ll 

GP 5.7,53,54, pp. 35,40 malava: auduva, born of takka, omits ri-pa, ni-3, ga -bahula 
sa-dha kampita, T- end of day or night; in vira and srhgara rasas. 

210. 43. Suddhagauda 

Gundakri-mela {videsupra) 




SC 2.2.21 malavagauda mela, ni-3 omits pa 

R J — 

RY 4.24, p. 112 malavagauda-mela; pa-amsa, sa -graha nyasa, ni -alpa, T - pradosa 
5.203, p. 220: 

^IHdPdcd'hl dPddl WTT II 

(gauda = suddhagauda, comm, on loc. cit). 


SS 2.652-656, p. 176 gaula: svaras as above; ni-3; ni -vadi, ga-samvadi; sadava by- 
omitting dha; ri -arhsa according to actual practice; a sahkirna raga according to 
some, because of lack of clear cut vadi, etc. 


PS — 

GP — 

211. 44. Kamdtabahgala 

Gaudi-mela (vide supra) 


SJ 2.2.3,96, p. 433 ahga of vegarahji which is born of takka as bhasa; ga -graha amsa, 
sa -nyasa, T- rainy season, in srhgara rasa 

SC 2.2.20 malavagauda-mela, sa-3, omits ri, T- dawn 
RJ 2.15 malavagauda-mela, ga-3, omits ri, T- morning 




RV — 

SD — 

SS 2.697, 698, p. 181 gurjari-mela; ga-3, s adava by omitting ni 


GP 5.5.37, pp. 34, 38 sadava, ga-3, omits sa-pa, born of takka varhsa, srhgara rasa 

212. 45. Suddhanata 

K—sa ru gu ma pa dhu nu 

SJ, p. 459 mentioned in sadrsamsa sthaya; but natta (, p. 427): 
born of hindola bhasa pinjari, sa-3, omits dha-ga, T- second half of day, in yuddharvira 
and adbhuta rasas', some ‘ sahasanisthura-s' even omit ma; but this is not found to be 
true in actual practice: shlsil'H'll m 1 cl 3 I I 

SMK 4.37, 38, p. 24 svaras: sa ru gu ma pa dhu nu; uttama (5.2, p. 29), sampurna, 
sa-3, T- latter half of day (5.20, 21, p. 31) 

SC 2.2.29 svaras as above; sa-3, sampurna, T- fourth watch of day 
RJ 2.36, 37 svaras as above; sa-3, serious mood, T- evening 
RK 2.122-124, p. 28 svaras as above; sa-3, replete with gamakas, first murchana, T- 

fcRNd 'jpTTTCTWFf: II 

RV 4.45, p. 117 svamela, sa-3, puma, T- pradosa 
5.198, p. 219: 

£d«b$M|umirui: yd4<M-i^R u ?l I 

^RdkrlWt sfRsfafe: II 

SD 2.158, p. 26 pumsa raga; natl, ragini of natanarayana according to Ragaragini- 
matam (2.2.170, p. 28) of dlpaka according to Hanuman (2.187, p. 30), pumsa-rdga 
according to Rdgarnava (2.190, p. 31); sa-3, sampurna, first murchana; performed 
with many kinds of gamakas (2.243, p. 42) 

2.244, p. 42: 

d^l^^faRtaRici hiRmi 

SS 2.453-457, p. 156 svaras as above, according to vocal tradition: sa-3, sa- vadin, 
pa-samvddin, ga-ni vivadins , ri-dha anuvadins 



SP 1.435, pp. 55, 56 svaras as above, ri -murchana, omits dha-ga in descent; T— 
after third prahara 
PS 3.62, p. 20: 

fat ftfisRi W: I 

^Hddk^ ^KTT^^rHT ^ 4fT!Zt ^iffamfidl II 

GP 5.4.11,33, pp. 34, 35,38 sampurna; similar to sriraga but with pa not alpa ; dha- 
ri tara; ni -mandra; powerful gamakas (5.11, p. 35); svaras have kampita and andolita 
gamakas ; T- night; in hasya, adbhuta , srhgara rasas and on auspicious occasions. 

213 . 46. Malavasri 

Sriraga-mela (vide supra) 


SJ, p. 406 ahgaoi malavakaisika, puma , sa-3, T-fourth prahara; in adbhuta, 
vira rasas , in the hemanta season 

SMK4.19, p. 22 sriraga-mela , uttama (5.4, p. 29), sadava, sa-3, omits ri, auspicious, 
T- always (5.33cd-34ab, p. 32) 

SC 2.2.25cd sriraga-mela, sa-3, ri-dha alpa , T- always 
RJ 2.66 sriraga-mela, sa-3, ri-dha alpa , T- always 

RK 2.114, 115, p. 27 sriraga-mela, sa-3, puma , ri-dha alpa, delightful erotic 
HJfcpHdjlrtdMlfatqi H^Hd'Ulfad'IsS^HI I 
fat ffa™IT fa^TfcT fafa facT RTeRfat: II 

RV 4.30, p. 113 sriraga-mela; maldsrl: puma or weak ri-dha; sa-3 or ni-3; sung at the 
beginning for auspiciousness; T- always 
5.210, p. 222 malasri: 

tlfat ItHiddd'M «t>tri J iMi tniVidi ufd I 

TfTff <+><J|d4>hdl HlduMd4)gfadl II 

SD 2.168, p. 27 ragini of paheama according to Ragaragini-matam, of sriraga 
according to Hanuman (2.188, p. 30); T-morning according to Somesvara (2.172, 
p. 28) uttaramandra murchana, sampurna, sa-3, appealing form; srhgara rasa (2.254, 
p. 44); desi raga: rules of sruti, svara, grama, jati do not apply (2.289, p. 51). 

2.254, p. 44: 

rfacTd ffafa fa^'orq^fl I 

clef Phn^uii fal«bfVldl RTT fael RTeffat: II 

SS 2.906cd-907ab, p. 204 sriraga-mela, sa-3, omits ri, sadava 
SP 1.365, p. 39 suddhasvara-mela (= sriraga-mela) ; ma -graha, dha -arhsa, pa -nyasa, 
T- morning 



PS 3.19, 20, 28, pp. 12, 13 ragini of rnalava, T- evening (malasi) 

(cldWWi I 

GP 5.3, 28, pp. 34, 37 s ampurna, born of malavakaisika, sa-3, propitiates Siva; 
should be performed from the sayanotsava of Hari up to Durgastami. 

214 . 

47. Desdksi 

K—sa ru gu ma pa dhi nu 



SMK— 4.31, 32, p. 23, 24 svaras as above; uttama (5.4, p. 29); sa-3, puma, omits 

ma-ni in ascent; T- forenoon (5.30, p. 32) 

SC 2.2.30, 31 svaras as above (dha?); ga-3, omits ma-ni or is puma; T- morning 

RJ 2.38 svaras as above (dha?); ga-3, omits ri, T- morning 

RK 2.159, 160, p. 33 svaras as above; ga-3, puma; T- morning; in vira rasa 

3RM ufadW<4l^lirg%*i T Tfcn II 

RV 4.45ab, p. 117 svamela, ga-3; omits ma-ni in ascent; T- dawn 


SS 2.1312-1314, p. 249 svaras as above (svamela), ga-3, sampuma 




48. Devakri 

215 . 

Velavali-mela (no. 57, si. no, 224, vide infra); affiliated to usshaq; ma is at 14th sruti. 

SJ 2.2.4,9, p. 438 gramaraga, same as gaudakrti in svaras, graha is dha; nyasa, arhsa 
is sa, mandra-ni, tara- ma, omits ri-pa; in vira and adbhuta rasas. 

SMK4.36, p. 24; 5.13, p. 30 kannadagaula-mela (sa ru gu ma pa dhi ni), adhama 
raga, not described. 

SC 2.2.65-67 svamela (sa ru? gu ma pa dhi nu); sa-3, omits pa; also called suddha- 
vasanta, T- always 

RJ 2.34cd kedara-mela (sa ri gu ma pa dhi nu); sa-3, omits pa; T- fourth prahara. 


RV 4.34, p. 114 kambodi-mela ; puma or omits pa, sa-3, T- afternoon 



5.191, p. 217: 

^IHdP^WHWldl II 


ss — 

SP 1.459, p. 61 devagiri : ga-ni /wra, ma -tivratara, omits dha-ga in descent; sa- 
murchana, T- after second prahara 


GP 5.4, 30, pp. 34, 37 s ampurna; sa-3, in vira rasa ; T- at all times and all seasons; 
also called suddhavasanta. 

The evolution of this raga is of considerable interest and has been studied 
elsewhere (Sathyanarayana R., (i) Vinalaksana-vimarse , pp. 198-205, 217-219, (ii) 
Kamataka-sahgUavahinl , pp. 80, 81, 199, 236, etc., (iii) Pundarikamala, pp. 53, 234, 
235; (iv) Snguruguha: Devakriya or Suddhasaveri ? in Bharatiya Samskrti , vol. 2.12, 
Bangalore, 1955). 

216. 49. Madhumadhavi 

K—sa ri gu ma pa dhi nu 

SJ, 32, p. 405 madhyamadi : born of margrama , sampurna, ma-3, srhgdra 
rasa , T- first watch of day: 

^c|>|| 3??T ^falcfTTSJ Tjsf g ' ^Mq i RsMWUljl : I 

f'HHMlPd TFT cTcT: yi^PdP*T: yP<^ II 

SMK4.19, p. 22 madhyamadi: sriraga-mela, madhyamardga (5.7, p. 29), sadava, ma- 
3, omits ri-dha, T- latter half of day 

SC 2.2.44ab modhyamadi: keddra-mela: ma-3, omits ri-dha, T- morning 
fy 2.32cd madhumadhavi: keddra-mela; ma-3, omits ri-dha, T- morning 

RV 4.40, p. 116 madhyamadi: malldri-mela (sa ri gu ma pa dhi nu), ma-3, omits ri- 
dha, T- morning 

SD 2.165, p. 27 rdgini of sri according to Ragaragini-matam; madhyamadi is ragini 
of bhairava according to Han uman (2.184, p. 30), of bhairava according to Rdgdr- 
nava (2.191, p. 31) T- ( madhumadhavi) morning according to Somesvara (2.171, p. 
28) madhyamadi: ragdhga, ma-3, sampurna , ma-murchana; sometimes omits ri-dha 
(2.199, p. 33) 

2.200, p. 33: 

X RSTT W TTTfffefcTRZTT chHdNdl^t I 

W^Pd: J^OPdH^I 7TT ^pSRTT Tffrf: II 



SS 2.920, p. 205 sriraga-mela, ma-3, omits ri-dha 

SP 1.381, p. 43 martnurchana, omits ga-dha, ri-ma-ni arhsas; T- morning 

GP — 

217. 50. Abhiri 
K—sa ri gi ma pa dha nu 

SUS 3.98ab bhasa of pahcama; ^ 

SJ, p. 429 bhasdiiga of pancama-raga; sometimes ahga of kakubha; dha- 
3, tarn pa-dha, ni-ri-pa sahgati; sampurna, first murchana; sung in battles; 'lid'll ^ 

SMK4.39,40, p. 24 dhari:svamela (svarasas above), uttama (5.4, p. 29), sa-3, puma, 
T- final watch of day 

SC 2.2.57 svamela (svaras as above), sa-3, puma, T- evening 

RJ 2.47 svamela (svaras as above): alien: sa-3, sampurna, srhgara, T- evening 


RV 4.25, p. 112 abhiri: svamela (svaras as above), ga -amsa graha, sa -nyasa, puma, 
T- pradosa 

5.199, p. 219 abhen: 

FdHlddldl 4HR=1 Ifci T TeTT l_ 

SD 2.170, p. 28 abhen: ragini of natandrayana according to Ragaragini-matam, T- 
after third prahara, abhln: (2.288, p. 51): similar to kalyana 

SS 2.1153, 1154, p. 231 abhen: ahanmela (svaras as above); sa-3, sampurna. 

SP 1.400, p. 48 abhiri: (svaras as above), kampitam dha-ga; sa-pa amsa; sometimes 
omits ma in both ascent and descent, T- after third prahara 

GP — 

218. 5 \ .Jijdvanta 
Sriraga-mela (vide supra) 

No reference to jijdvanta is found in any of the above sources: only RJ equates it 
with the Persian parada viz. huseni (2.74) 

219. 52. Salahganati 
Kedara-mela (sa ri gu ma pa dhi nu) 



SMK 4.20-23, p. 23 salahganata: svamela (svaras as above) uttama (5.5, p. 29) 
sampurna, sa-3, T- latter half of day 



SC 2.2.45 kedara-mela; sa-3, puma , T- fourth watch of the dav 


RK — 

RV 4.39, p. 116 salahganata: malldri-mela; puma , sa-3, T- evening 
SD 2.170, p. 28 ragini of natanarayana according to Ragaragini-matam; T-after 
third prahara according to Somesvara (2.177, p. 29); uttaramandra murchana , 
sampuma, sa-3 (2.273, p. 48) 

2.273, p. 48: 


^TTT^T TTT im || 

SS 2.587-598, pp. 170,171 salahganati: gurjari-mela; moderners attribute pahcasmti 
ri-dha notes and hence classify it elsewhere, but it is wrong; sa-3, sa -vadin, pa- 
sarhvadi, ga-ni vivadins; ri-dha anuvadins. 

SP 1.437, p. 56 salahganata: born of sahkarabharana, omits ga, sa-3, T- after third 



220. 53. Kamata 

K—sa ru gu* ma pa dhu nu* 

SUS 3.93, p. 65 bhairava-bhasa: I 

SJ,168, p. 421 kamatagauda: upahgaof gauda, sampuma , ni-3, ni-dha, ga- 
sa sahgati , karuna rasa , beloved of the people of Karnataka; all the more enjoyable 
with gamakalapti; T- final watch of the day; Sarngadeva has arbitrarily prescribed sa- 
3, but this is not borne out in actual practice. 

SMK 4.33-36, p. 24 svamela (sa ru gu ma pa dhi nu); sampuma but sometimes 
omits dha in ascent; ni-3; T- latter half of day; beloved of the people of Utkala 
(Orissa), uttama-sampuma (5.3, 29, pp. 29, 32) 

SC 2.2.31 cd-33 kamatagauda: svamela ( svaras as above); kamata: ni-3, omits ri-dha 
or is sampuma , T- sunset 

RJ 2.57, 59 kamata: svamela {svaras as above, but ri = pahcasrutil). This should be 
emended to ‘trtiya gatikopi rih ’on the basis of the corresponding texts in SC and 
NN). kamata raga: ni-3, omits (or not) ri-dha, T- evening 

RK 2.125-128, pp. 28, 29 kamatagauda: svamela (sa ri gu ma pa dhi ni; cf. RJ 2.57). 
It is however, called kamdta-rdga in reificatorv verse: 




l=h?R' c IK u IT^: ^lUfFl: dvtqidHifui: II 

RV 4.42, p. 116, 117 kamata: svamela (sa ru gu ma pa dhi ni); ni-3, sampurna, or 
sometimes omits ri-dha, T- night 
5.204, p. 220: 

4llRHd^<^HiruHld J l<rf) I 

^•kdU'M 4irMcHp4&: II 

SD 2.168, p. 27 kamatl, rdgini of pancama according to Ragaragini-matam, kanada, 
rdgini of dipaka (2.187, p. 30), kamata, rdgini of ndta (2.193, p. 31), T-kamdti after 
third prahara', sampurna, ni-3, vikrta ni, margi murchana. (2.239, p. 41) 

2.240, p. 41: 

cjfft HldPidld^Hpl tT: wfcm fsrwt ^^11 

SS 2.1204,1205, p. 237 kannadagaula: samanta-mela (saru gu ma pa dhu nu), ni- 
3, puma, but sometimes omits ma. 

SP1.424,425, p. 54 kamatagaula: svaras as above; ga-nyasa, ma -arhsa, sa-murchana, 
sometimes omits dha in ascent, T- after third prahara. 

PS 3.21, p. 12 kanada, rdgini of mallara 
3.36, p. 15: 

3^ 1 ] clrf fWTOTT fa4lM =H fc H'=h u lir«dl^t I 
'dfdcW'Wt TIT =tHd4l d-dl II 

GP 5.1.11, pp. 34, 35 sampurna; similar to natta but has ni-3. 

221. 54. Chayanata 

Kamata-mela (vide supra) 


SJ, p. 419 similar to natta but pa -mandra, ga-ni kampita, ni -tarn, sung in 
vira and adbhuta rasas 

SMK4.35, p. 24 mela of kannadagaula, adhama (5.13, p. 30), not described 
SC 2.2.36ab kamatagauda-mela; sa-3, has gu*, nu*, T- evening 
RJ 2.60cd kamata-mela; sa-3; has gu* nu*, T- evening 

RV — 

SD — , , . 
SS 2.392cd, 393ab, p. 150 upahga of natta; if natta has mrdu pa and kampita 

gramaka in ga-ni, it is chayanatta. 




SP 1.438, p. 56 has svaras of sahkardbharana; omits ni in ascent and ga in descent; 
dha -graha, ni -nyasa, ma -arhsa, T- after third prahara 


222. 55. Hammiranata 

K—sa ri gu ma pa dha nu 



SC 2.2.51 svamela (svaras as above), lacuna for laksana 

RJ 2.63 svamela (svaras as above), sa-3, sampuma, T- third watch of the day 


RV 4.25cd, p. 112 hamira: svamela (svaras as above), ga -graha, pa -arhsa, sa -nyasa] 

T- night 

SD 2.170, p. 28 hamvira , ragini of natanarayana according to Ragaragini- matam 

SP — 

PS — 

223. 56. Nat(t)anarayana 

K—sa ri gu* ma pa dhi nu* 

SUS 3.106, p.67 main raga: 

l*' c i5h J i^i c n u ii c h< : II 

SJ,62, p. 409 ahgaoi kakubha ; tarag a, mandra pa, same svaras as kakubha, 
sa-grama, dha-3 


SMK4.23, p. 23 sarahganata-mela (svaras as above); adhama raga (5.1, p. 30) not 

SC 2.2.43 kedara-mela (svaras as above), sa-3, puma , has gu*, nu*, T- always 
RJ 2.30 kedara mela (svaras as above), sa-3, puma , has gu*, nu*, T- always; rainy 

RK2.149,150, p. 32 bhasa of kedara (svaras as above), sa-3, hasgu*, nu*, T-always 





RV 4.37, p. 115 mallari-mela (svaras as above); sa-2, ga -arhsa, sampurna , T- 

H<d4HRW ^4: Ju^cHdfdd) ^ II 

SD 2.159, p. 26; a ‘ raga\ born of the face of Girija according to Ragaragin-matam 
(2.162, 170, pp. 27, 28), ragini of nata according to Ragarnava (2.193, p. 31), T- 
hemanta season according to Somesvara (2.182, p. 29) 


SP 1.436, p. 56 velavali-mela; ma- arhsa , ri -nyasa; omits ga in descent, ga -murchana, 
T- after third prahara 

GP — 

224. 57. Velavati 

Mela of madhumadhavi 

SUS 3.92, p.65 bhasa of bhairava : <Tfc’ c lUl *\\<\ I 

SJ ahga of bhogavardhani which is bhasa of kakubha : sampurna , ga -mandra 
tarn; dha-3, dha-kampitagamaka; in vipralambha srhgara ;in propitiation of Hari: 

*iWlf ^ <TbcHclfd I 

SMK 4.19, p. 22 mela of snraga; madhyama raga (5.7, p. 29), puma , dha-3, but 
sometimes omits ri-pa in descent; T- dawn (5.50, p. 34) 

SC 2.2.41 cd kedara-mela; dha-3, omits ri-pa, T- morning 
RJ 2.31 kedara-mela; dha-3, omits ri-pa; T- morning 

RK 2.147, 148, p. 31 bhasa of kedara ; puma , or omits ri-pa; dha-3; in vira rasa. 
T- morning 

wt ^dldd) ^IHcFjMsfTfd II 

RV 4.39, p. 116 mallari-mela; dha-3, puma or omits ri-pa; T- dawn 
5.170, p. 211: 

^dl^dl fMtcTT cUdlRup d<d*KI I 

SD 2.186, p. 30 ragini of hindola according to Hanuman; T- morning according 
to Somesvara (2.171, p. 27); puma , pauravi murchana , dha-3; in vira rasa (2.221, 
p. 38) 



2.229, p. 38: 

^ r^d^dl I 

TJg: TRTRft ddlddl HldWM+lPd: II 

SS 2.866cd, 867ab, p. 199 sriraga mela: dha-3, purna 
SP 1.409, p. 50 abhirudgata murchana; tivra ga-ni; when ma-ni are omitted in 
ascent, sa is arhsa; when ga is omitted in descent it is somewhat ga-murchana; T- 

PS 3.17, p.12, T- noon; ragini of mallara (3.21, p. 12) 

3.34, p. 15: 

^•rdd'ld^ddlfd^ ^nTfclfa: I 

^dl=ld1 ’dichHIdHlRd: fafa:|2lNI*rcnFT II 

GP 5.4.34, pp. 34, 38 sampurna , dha-3, mandra- sa, same notes as of natta; in 

An affinity between velavali and kurayi is mentioned for the first time in NN. But 
similarity of kuddyi with desakh(ya) has been noted since veEy early times, e.g. 
Madanapala ( Anandasahjivani , extr. Bharatakosa, p. 140); SD describes it as ‘desakhya 
sarhsrayd’ (2.196, p. 31), to be sung similar to desakhya (2.287, p. 51) T-after second 
prahara according to Somesvara (2.175, p. 29); SP describes it (1.456, 457, p. 60) 
as possessing tivra ga, ga -graha, pa -arhsa; omits ga in descent according to some; 
omits ma-ni in ascent; T- after first prahara . Locana ( Rdgatarahginl , p. 130, Dara- 
bhanga edn., si. 112, 113, Poona edn.) kalayl /kulayi (kuddyi?) as an admixture of 
adana , kanara , velavali and natanarayana , thus confirming NN. 

225 . 58. Kamboji 

K—sa ri gu* ma pa dhi nu* 


SJ 2.3.51,52, p.429 born as bhdsahga of kakubha according to Yastika; purna , dha- 
3. According to others, sa-3, omits dha-ri, ni -bahula, born of hindola , has abundant 
sancdn-varna , employed in srhgara and karuna rasas 

SMK4.61,62, p. 27 sa ri gu* ma padh nu*, madhyamaraga (5.6, p. 29), sampurna , 
sa-3, omits ma-ni in ascent; T- evening 

SC 4.48 kedara-mela; sa-3, gu*, nu*, omits ma-ni (in droha), T- dawn 
RJ 2.32 kedara-mela , sa-3, omits ma-ni, gu*, nu* 


RV 4.34, p. 114 svamela (sa ri gu* ma pa dhi nu*); sa-3; purna or omits ni, T- 

SD 2.159, p. 26, a Waga 

SS 2.1218, 1219, pp. 238, 239 svamela (sa ri gu ma pa dhi ni), sa-3 
SP 1.411, p. 51 ga(dha ?) - murchana , tivra ga, uttarayata murchana: ; omits ma-ni in 
ascent; ma-dha arhsas. 






226. 59. Saveri 
K—sa ri gu ma pa dhi nu 

SUS 3.99, pp. 66 s ameri, bhasa of pancama'. ^cT^tf 7TFTTT ■H-ll J 11 fl-11 I 

SJ 2.2.3, 85, p. 432 anga of raganti which is bhasa of kakubha, ni -graha nyasa, dha- 
arhsa, ga-lara, lacks pa, ri-dha bahula, T- autumn; in hasya and srhgara 

SMK 4.23, p. 23 sarahganata-mela (sa ri gu ma pa dhi nu); adhama-raga (5.14, 
p. 30) dha-3, omits ga-ni, auduva, T- morning (5.64, p. 36) 

SC 2.2.46cd keddra-mela, dha-3, omits sa-pa, T- morning 
RJ 2.33 keddra-mela, dha-3, omits sa-pa, T- morning 

RV 4.40, p. 116 malldri-mela; dha-3, omits sa-pa, T- dawn 

SD 2.169, p. 28 rdgini of megha according to Ragaragini-matam; T- after first 
prahara, (2.173, p. 28) 

SS 2.761, p. 188 gurjarii-mela; pa-3, ni-pa omitted; auduva 
SP 1.445, p. 58 tivra ga, ma -arhsa, dha -graha, omits ni; omits ga-ni in ascent, 
T- always 

GP 5.45, p. 39 savant ma -graha, arhsa; dha-nyasa; mandra-m a, tarn ga, omits pa. 

227. 60. Suhavi 
Saveri mela (vide supra) 




SC — 

RJ 2.34 keddra-mela, dha-3, puma, T- morning 

SD — 

SS — 

SP — 

PS — 


228. 61. Saurastri 
Saveri-mela (vide supra) 


SJ, 110, pp. 434, 435 sa-3, omits ri-pa, mandra- dha, ga-ni-dha bahula; 
‘ rdstravardhini ’ 



SMK4.14, p.22 malavagaula-mela ; adhama-raga (5.9, p. 30), not described 
SC.2.2.47 kedara-mela\ sa-3, puma, T- evening 
RJ 2.60 kamata-mela ; sa-3, puma , T- evening, srhgdra rasa 
RK 2.89.90 p.23 malavagauda bhasa , puma , sa-3, T- evening 

RV 4.41 p. 116 mallan-mela ; sa-3, T- evening 

^cbob^r+cb^lld^J'll I 

SD 2.169, p. 28 sorati, ragini of malhari according to Ragaragini-matam ; T- after first 
prahara (2.174, p. 28); sorati pa-3 but sometimes sa-3, omits ri. 

2.277, pp. 48, 49: 

SS 2.522cd-523, p.163 gurjari , sa-3, sa -vadin, ma-pa samvadins, ni-ga vivadins 
SP 1.474, p. 64 sriraga-mela; ri-graha , ma -nyasa; humphita gamaka on pa and sa; 
T- after first prahara 


229. 62. Malhara 

K— sa ri gu ma pa dhi nu 

SJ, p. 419 upahga of andhali , dha-3, omits sa-pa, ga -mandra, sadja-grama ; 
T- rainy season 

SMK 4.15, p. 24 malhari : malavagaula-mela , uttama-raga (5.41, p. 29); dha-3, 
auduva; omits ga-ni, T- dawn (5.38, p. 33) 

SC.2.2.4; kedara-mela; dha-3; omits sa-pa, T- dawn 
RJ 2.29 kedara-mela ; dha-3, omits sa-pa; T- dawn 

RK 2.153-155, p. 32 svamela (sa ri gu ma pa dhi nu); dha-3, omits sa-pa 
efluiifaciK: ctxrl'h'J'HK: ^^cb'ufj I 

HC^KdlHI ftcRT fulfil II 

SD 2.169, p.128 malhari : ragini of megha according to Ragaragini-matam ; accord- 



ing to Hanuman also (2.189, p. 30); malhara: ragibi of bhairava according to 
Rdgamava; (2.193, p. 31); and mallan of mallan (! mallard) (2.194, p. 31); T- 
(malhan) forenoon (2.171, p. 28); mallan: dha-3, omits sa-pa, auduva , pauravi 
murchana ; T- rainy season; (2.262, p. 45) 

2.263, p. 46 {mallan): 

+ir=hd'+ | J6HKI TfasSeHlrHMfd W*d1 I 
3TRFT *#RT 'TOlft+l ^cH^hPxItII II 

SS 2.728, 729, p.184 malahan: gurjari-mela; omits ni; and is sddava according to 
some experts omits ga in descent. 

SP 1.369, p. 40 mallan ; gaun-mela ; omits ni; omits ga in descent; sa -murchana, 
T- always. 

PS 3.21, p.12, ‘ raga , mallara: 

faijnp <*>MPy4) ^nf^'ch^lld^Tb: I 

«blHlsi<: HeSIUMI: JiJHPjNa II 

GP 5.47cd-48ab, p. 39 mallan: sddava ; pa-3, omits ga; mandra- ma, T- cloudy day; 
in srhgara rasa. 

230 . 63 .Gonda 

Malhara mela {vide supra) 


SJ 2.2.2. 75, p. 411 gauda: ahgaoi takka, ni-3, omits pa, T- rainy season, in karuna 

SC 2.2.45 kedara-mela; dha-3, puma , T- dawn 
RJ 2.29 kedara-mela , dha-3, puma , T- dawn 

RV 4.36, p.l 15 gauda ; mallari-mela: dha-3, ni -alpa, T- noon 
5.184. p. 215: 

MPdddvdlPSd^: I 

?ik5: Pbild^Ml ^(^?)U<=h^r^ldl5M^^: II 



SP 1.458, p. 61 gaunda: tivra- ga, omits ga-ni in ascent, sa- graha , sampuma , T- 

GP 5.5, 36, pp. 34,38 sddava. ni-3, omits pa, ri -alpa, T—end of day, in vlra and 
srhgara rasas 



231. b£'Kedara 

Suhavi-mela but has ‘nu’ instead of 4 ni\ 




SC 2.2.40, svamela (sa ri gu ma pa dhi nu), ni-3, omits ri-dha; T- evening. 

RJ 2.28 svamela (svaras as above), ni-3, omits ri-pa, T- night; in karuna rasa 
RK2.145,146,p.31 svamela (svaras as above), ni-3; (purnaor) omits ri-pa; has nu*, 
T- evening 

sqpT *jd4Rnfld: %^RTFTt II 

RV 4.26, p. 112 hammira-mela (sa ri gu ma pa dha nu), alpa ri-dha; sa -nyasa, ga- 
graha arhsa , T- night 
5.208, p. 221: 

SD 2.165, p. 27 kedari, ragini of sriraga according to Rdgaragini-matam , but of 
dlpaka according to Hanuman (2.187, p. 30); kedara , ragini of nata according to 
Rdgarnava (2.193, p. 31); kedari:marge murchana , has nu, is auduva by omitting ri- 
dha, ni-3 (2.236, p. 40) 

2.237, p. 4: 

P^dd^lPd: RFTtrfM ^d-MldMld: I 


SP 1.410, p. 51 kedari: ga-ni tivra; omits ri-dha; ga-gra/m, T- after third prahara 
PS 3.18, p. 11 T-evening; ragini of malldra (3.21, p.12) 

3.39, p.16: 

^TR^T ■HydMddl I 

rdwfl^Rfl RdPHdi^+l-d ^dlR<*l II 

GP 5.52, p. 40 also called desapala ; ni-3; born of takka, omits ri-pa, sa has dndolita 
garnaka; T- evening; in vira and srhgara rasas. 

232. 65. Sahkarabharana 

Madhumadhavi-mela (vide supra, si 216) 




SJ, p. 413 pa-3, omits ri, ma -tarn, ma-dha bahula,' madhyamagrama raga; 
pleases Lord Siva. 

SMK 4.19, p. 22 sriraga-rnela; adhama raga (5.11, p. 30), sampurna, sa-3, has the 
shade of samanta (5.61, p. 36). 

SC 2.2.42 kedara-mela, sa-3, sampurna, has mudrita gamaka, T- evening 
RJ 2.33 kedara-mela; sa-3, sampurna, has mudrita gamaka, T- evening 
RK 2.151, 152, p. 32 kedara mela; sa-3, has mudrita gamaka ; T- sunrise 
RV 4.37, p.l 15 mallari-mela; puma, sa-3, T- dawn 
5.169, p. 211: 

?Tf7T^T: II 

SD 2.284, p. 50 has the svaras of velavaU. 

SS 2.1056-1058, p. 221 svamela (sa ri gu ma pa dhi nu), sa-3, sampurna 
SP 1.407, p. 50 sa -graha, ga-nyasa, ma -amsa, ga-ni tlvra; has kampita and dhalu 
gamakas; T- morning 



66. Vihagada 

233 . 







RV 4.26, p.l 12 hammlra-mela (sa ri gu ma pa dha nu); m-graha-amsa-, sa -nyasa; 
svaras have kampita gamaka; T- night 
5.209, pp. 221, 222: 

P=l5?^: 4)1<c||^l 71: II 



SP 1.442, p. 59 ma-murchana; omits pa; ga-ni tivra, omits ri in ascent; ga -graha, ri- 
nyasa-arhsa; T- after third prahara 







The foregoing data on the ragas of NN arranged in chronological and regional 
sequence reveal the following trends: 

1. Fluidity in the concept of mela 

2. Fluidity in the criteria of classification 

3. Historical, i.e. spatiotemporal-continuity vs. provincial variation 

4. Transition from grama to mela in terms of 

(a) scalic temperament; equilibrium between ri*-ri, gu*-gu, dhi**-dhi and 
nu*-nu; transience of mi in 14th, 15th and 16th srutis , evolution of the 
pratinidhi tattva (principle of representation) and paryaya tattva (prin¬ 
ciple of alternative denomination) in intervals; principle of extension in 
svara vikrti; e.g. urdhvagandhara 

(b) athetisation in dasaprana and sonance 

(c) realignment of intervals and ragas of madhyama-grama 

(d) transfer of the functions of grama to mela through the device of decen¬ 

(e) systematisation of the concept and function of mela through mathemati¬ 
cal and methodological devices 

(f) reorganisation of raga scales in terms of interval redistribution 

5. Individual and collective growth of ragas as a phenomenon in cultural 
dynamics; intracultural and intercultural forces contributing to such growth 

6. Pseudosynaesthetic bases in relation to concretisation or reification in 

7. Approximate constancy or coherence in the emergence in ragadhydna 
images; tonal and visual imagery in relation to mood evocation; fluidity in 

8. Provincial origins and characteristics of ragas ; their rationalisation/stan¬ 
dardisation into art forms 

9. Dynamic equilibrium between stabilisation-expansion, stasis-growth, tradi¬ 
tion-innovation in the evolution of ragas 

10. Persian pardah —Indian raga equivalentes. 

I have discussed (1-4) in detail in my Commentary on Venkatamakhin, Catur- 
dandiprakdsika (chs. 3, 4, 5); (6-7) in my introduction to Gandharvaraja’s 
Rdgaratnakara (unpublished) and (10) in the introduction to the present work. 



Pandarika Vitthala has depended largely on Sarngadeva and especially on 
Kallinatha as sources for material in this chapterette, but for the eleven ‘ prasiddha 
prabandhas towards the end. So this commentary will devote itself in the main to a 
comparison of NN with SR and its commentaries, viz. Sangitasudhakara of Sirhha- 
bhupala and Sangitakalanidhi of Kallinatha. However, an endeavour is also made to 
present the prabandhasin a limited historical perspective with material from sources 
which are original and authoritative in contribution to the subject. 

la. dhatumatu: All music, mdrga or desi, arises out of a union of dhdtu and matu, 
(terms which the NN does not define: dhdtu is the musical part of song such as raga 
and tala-, matu —a term in Kannada which means ‘word’: cf. SR 3.2); the conditions 
of gita-music are set forth in this verse. 

lb. racitam: Gita is composed, i.e. man-made music. It does not proceed from 
beginningless tradition ( anadisampradaya) and is not apauruseya (not man-made) 
as music of the Veda or gandharva music is; gandharva music is sva-tantra (indepen¬ 
dent of human agency) whereas gita or gana is paratantra (dependent on a human 

lb. laksananvitam: Any composed music is not gita; it must be composed, in order 
to be so described, according to rules (set forth in this chapterette): it must be 
composed in terms of dhdtu, ahga and ( gamaka ) prayoga. 

lc. deslraga: ragas other than gramaraga, jati or their evolutes; ragas classified 
under suddhar, salaga and samkirna ( Sadragacandrodaya 2.77-78; Ragamala, 124- 
128). Elsewhere desiraga comprehends ragahga, bhasahga, updhga and kriyahga. 

lc. Adi includes desi-tala, desabhasa (vernacular languages), desi-chandas, rasa, etc. 

l d. gitam: lit. Anything sung; but it has acquired a restricted meaning here as 
gana, synonymous with prabandha. It has also acquired another restricted meaning 
over the centuries to mean salagasuda-prabandha; such use is known in Kannada 
poetry since at least the twelfth century', e.g. Aggala ( Candraprabhapuranam, 15.52; 
15,72),Janna( Anantanathapuranam, 10.8pr).Palkuriki Somanatha( Panditaradhya- 
caritramu, paruataprakaranamu, pp. 446,447,449), Padmananka ( Padmarajapuranam, 
5.62); Govinda Vaidya (Kanthirava-narasaraja-vijayam, 8.61). Vehkatamakhin 
(Caturdandiprakasika , 8.2-4) accords theoretical recognition of such usage. 

Id. gana: Pandarika Vitthala thus synonymises grta with gana. But SR (4.1) takes 
gita to be of two kinds: gandharva and gana. Gandharva is performed by gandharvas 
(only), has a tradition which has no beginning, confers spiritual merit unfailingly 
(SR 4.2). He owes this definition to Bharatamuni (NS 28.8, 9): 



d^q ■W'idldMdlrH'h^ II 
^HT cT«TT tffd+i fh I 
7 T^WT II 

Abhinavagupta elucidates this passage ably ( Abhinavabharati, comm, on NS loc. 
cit p. 6). He first establishes the syntax thus: 

(^) f|r, 

and then proceeds to explain each term: 

^ WR ^MHlWJ|irHr^dHH:^^ra^#n^, SfTcTteRH^R ozjcf^rrj 
d-^dl 3l^lci ^qdltlHI^ 

ar^r^ = ar^ffashAui ^Tir?i®?Tf^f^nTlp5|%T.^ 

^ ^ Wl^ Wfcf: 37WTff%tTPT^«n^- 
I g«n 3feHT ^r fdfdtq sj M ^ht ™ 

He collates the definitions of gdndharua offered by Datdla and Visakhila, in 
support of his contention that . trividham in the following passage from Bharata 

TTPrf f^UT^W<dM1dlcH+^ 

should be construed to mean collective rather than individual; he states (loc cit on 
28.11, p. 7) 

.... cTsjt^ 

fq*iiRacm-qi4:- ‘ ■wHdaMHdciM iTT^liffd I 3TlcHy^u| | ... 

dPatnqi^l— ‘W 8 !: tqw^-id'MMd - |1cfl cR^'d'MI ' ? 1T^ T TP#Wdl^TTTTPf 

Bharatamuni lists the following in ‘ gdndharvasahgraha (NS 28.20): svaras, two 
gramas, murchanas, tanas, sthanas. vrttis, suska (pure instrumental music), sadharana, 
vamas, alamkdras, dhdtus (instrumental manual techniques), srutis, yatis ( svaragata- 
gdndharua in vino ); padagata-gandharva includes vyanjana, svaras, vamas, sandhis, 
vibhaktis, nama, akhyata, upasarga, nipata, taddhita, krdanta, chandovidhi, figures of 
speech such as upama (simile); padgata-gandharva is again divided into nibaddha (set 
to tala) and anibaddha (without tala); talagata-gandharva consists of dhruva, avapa, 




niskrama, viksepa, pravesa, samya, tala, sannipata, parivarta, vastu, matra, prakarana 
(gitis), vidari, yatis, layas, gitas, avayava, marga, pddabhdga, pani, etc. (for explanation 
of these gandharva terms see Sathyanarayana, R., Nihsahkahrdaya, pp. 28-37). By and 
large, these are ingredients of what came to be known as marga music later; SR and 
its commentaries are explicit on this point; Kallinatha (op. cit. pp. 203, 204) says: 
gandharva is marga, and gana, desv, gandharva is whatever has been described in the 
Svaragata chapter beginning with the jatis and ending with antarabhasa-ragas in the 
Rdgaviveka chapter of the SR Simhabhupala says (op. cit. on loc. cit. p. 208) that 
gandharva is jati, grama-raga, etc. He reads SR as ' srutyadi’ instead of 'jatyadi ’and 
therefore exends gdndharvato include sruti, svara (vikrti), grama, murchana, /ana and 
sadharana also. 

However, Bharatamuni himself does not appear to differentiate between gand- 
harva, gita and gana and seems to use them synonymously (NS 1.51; 6.47; 29.49; 
32.27; 37.2; 37.30) besides using it in the sense of the svaragata, etc. forms of 
gandharva (e.g. ibid., 33.23; 34.3: different reading; 37.65; 37.67). 

The term gandharva has two streams of meaning: i. etymological and/or gram¬ 
matical; ii. acronymic. Hemacandra ( Sabdanusasanam , 7.2.165) derives it from 
‘ gandharva’ in svartha, ‘an’ pratyaya, adivrddhi and alopa (gandharva/gandharva, 
similar to prajha-rprajha). He pronounces it as synonymous with gana, giti 'and geya. 
Bharata’s definition of gandharva and Abhinavagupta’s commentary thereon seem 
to imply this approach ( gam dharayatiti; gandharvanamidam) . The second approach 
is made by Narada ( Naradasiksa, 1.4.12, and Bhatta Sobhakara, Vivarana, comm, on 
ibid., loc. cit. p.23): ga=gana; dha= playing on instruments such as vina; va= playing 
on (percussive) instruments, thus suggesting pada, svara and tala forms or subdivi¬ 
sions of gandharva. It may be noted in this connection that an ancient authority 
Narada has been named as receiving gandhawafrom Brahma and propagating it on 
earth, e.g. Vyasa, ( Mahabharata, 12.210.21 Bombay edn., 12.203. 19 Poona edn.), 
Bharatamuni (NS 1.8et. seq., 34.3,33.23; ibid., loc. cit. ‘Bha’ reading; Chowkhamba 
edn. 32,484). Nandikesvara ( Abhinayadarpanam, 3-10), Dattila ( Dattilam. 2), Matanga 
(Brhaddesi, pp. 17, 20, 21), (Banabhatta, Kadamban, p. 168); South Indian Inscrip¬ 
tions, (p. 126); Abhinavagupta takes Visakhila as authority for discussion of gandha- 
rvasastra (op. cit. on loc. cit. 28.11, p. 7). I have discussed in detail the evolution 
of the concept of gandharva in literary and epigraphic sources elsewhere ( Bharata - 
natya : A Critical Study, pp. 37-82, Bharatiya-sahgitadalli-paribhasa-prayoga, 
pp. 25-55). 

Sarngadeva gives a samanyalaksana for gita, be it gandharva or gana: it is a rahjaka- 
svarasandarbha, i.e. aesthetically expressive melodic situation. Parsvadeva has clearly 
articulated the various ways in which music may be appealing to different sections 
of listeners (extr. Simhabhupala, op. cit. on SR 4.1, p. 209): preceptors - even; 
scholars— explicit (see comm, on NN 3.2.329c: vyakta ), women—sweet; others- 



long, protracted; teachers—high and low note, neither fast nor slow, even in words 
and tala ; the learned-grammatical excellence, explicit in words and svaras; the 
belle-melodious, sweet, erotic, readily intelligibile words; common folk-high pitched, 
abundant prayoga ( gamakalapti? experimental usagesPpragmatic or actual per¬ 
formance oriented usages?), heroes—descriptive of heroic deeds, high and low 
notes, exuberant, drabhati-vrtti (see comm, on NN 3.2.114b); separated lovers— 
erotic sentiment, words exciting amour, word- and svara inflexions evoking karuna- 
rasa; libertine or paramour (vita)- antilogical words, magnified by distorted svara 
postures, jesting, full of hasya rasa; yogir- words of mystic, ultimate, spiritual truth, 
faulting the pleasures of the mundane world; womenfolk-auspicious, benedictory 
words, performed in marriages, etc.; devotees of god-propitiatory of gods, influ¬ 
ences and effects thereof, generating faith, appealing to the heart; contestants— 
bereft of excellence in tala or pata , dry, odd, hard to understand, difficult to 
traverse, full of experimental usage. 

2c. alapti varieties, viz. ragalapti , thaya, pratigrahanika rupakalapti , bhahjani- 
rupakalapti , sthaya-bhanjani and rupakabhanjani ( nema ). 

2d. purodita: see NN 3.1.129-144. 

3d. samjhatrayam: SR (4.6cd) also agrees that prabandha , vastu and rupaka are 
alternative words for nibaddha. However, it deals with rupakas separately under the 
heading ‘ rupakaprabandhah’ (4.361ab pr.) as having distinctive character and five 
varieties viz .parivrtta, padantaw , bhahjanirsamsrita , khallottara&nd anusara under the 
classification of uttama , madhyama and adhama (ibid., 4.361cd-373); however, it 
omits vastu altogether except describing prabandhas called vastu (4.275,276), vastv- 
ela (4.130,131) and vastu-vadana (4.289). It employs ‘ vastu in the general sense of 
nibaddha only once (4.310ab). Narahari Cakravarti ( Sangitasarasangraha , 1.153- 
158, p. 19) defines these three somewhat improbably, on the authority of Harinayaka 
(Sahgitasdra): prabandha is suddhagiti, i.e. songs containing dhatu , ahga and 
gamakalapti ; vastu has three dhatus (probably omitting metapaka) and five ahgas ; 
vastu has only two ahgas and two dhatus ; rupaka has two dhatus and two ahgas. 

4a. Dhatu is used in two senses; melody-rhythm frame of song, as opposed to 
matu\ also, here, as limb or organ thereof. The first is samanya-dharma of all songs; 
the second is ekadesa-dharma of a particular song; cf. raga a term applying to the 
totality of all ragas and as a term applying to a particular raga. It is derived from the 
root dudhan or ‘ dhd\ an ubhayapadi-dhatu of the third (‘ juhotyadi) class which 
means ‘to bear, hold up, nourish’ etc. ( dharanaposanayoh) and assumes the form 
‘dhatu’by the addition of the ‘tun pratyaya (Unadisutra 1.69). It means several 
things: primitive matter or element (= mahabhuta) , essential ingredient or humour 
of the body vata , pitta and kapha —an analogy offered in SR (4.10): these hold the 
body and constitute it, as do the dhatus the body of the prabandha ; it also means the 
seven fluids or secretions of the body chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow and 
semen; chemical element, verbal stem or root, etc. 




4b. avayava and anga (8c) :Both mean organ or limb, component part of a body. 
But here dhatu and ahga mean the elements of the musical—and word structures 
of song respectively. 

4cd-6cd. The names of dhatus are yaugika (derivable meaning), and quite 
appropriate; udgraha is derived from ud+ ‘ grh ; take up, grasp; melapaka is derived 
from ‘ melana', to join ( udgraha and dhruva). Dhruva means constant. It means 
constancy of occurrence or position, indispensability—in the sense of the central 
part or kernel of song; it also means constancy in recurrence, in the sense of refrain 
(e.g. the pallavi segment of songs, as in krti of Karnataka music). Somesvara 
(Manasollasa , 4.16.97ab, p. 50) defines dhruva With both: 

sjcjcF: qfHlfHd: I 

Antara means medial or intermediate; it mediates dhruva and abhoga. It is called 
‘upantara’ in popular usage (Kallinatha, op. cit. on SR 4.314-361, p. 342). 

The word abhoga means, among other things, curved, winding, serpent, ex¬ 
panded hood of the cobra capella (used by Varuna as his umbrella), circumference 
and fullness; abhoga is used here in the sense of fullness or completeness ( abhogah 
paripurnata) since the prabandha attains to completeness with its use. All Sanskrit 
lexicons are agreed on this meaning (e.g. Amarakosa 2. manusyavarga 137; Vaijay- 
anti, 7.1.7, p.180; Medirii , sabdavarga, ga-trika, , si. 29, p. 23) 

Krsnadasa Badajena Mahapatra ( Gitaprakasa, 1:4,5, p.4) observes that the dhatus 
melapaka and antara were not used in the musical practice of his times; thus there 
were only three dhatus — udgraha, occurring at the beginning of the song, dhruva , 
at the middle and abhoga , at the end. Abhoga always carried the names of the 
composer and the hero ( nayaka) of the song. Indeed, during his time these names 
were incorporated in the alapa or abhoga cf. CDP. 9. Narahari Cakarvarti ( Sahgita - 
sarasahgraha, 1.161, p. 20) corroborates these facts on the authority of Harinayaka 
(Sahgitasdra) and Panditamandall (Sahgitasiromani ). 

It may be recalled that the dhatus udgraha , melapaka, dhruva, antara and abhoga of 
geyaprabandhah^d different names in vadyaprabandhas in the professional parlance 
of bhandikas, i.e percussionists, viz. lahari, yedupu, anta, upanta and muktayi respec¬ 
tively. It is interesting to note here that the antarawAS regarded as auxiliary to dhruva 
(or secondary) and was thus regarded as an appendage of the dhruva rather than 
of abhoga. 

7a. salagasuda: Musical compositions were classified into suda, alikrama and 
viprakirna. Suda was further divided into two classes, viz. suddha and chayalaga 
(salaga) (NN 3.2.45-53). Narahari Cakravarti op. cit. 1.156, p.19) quotes Hari¬ 
nayaka Sahgitasdra to equate prabandha with suddhagita and viprakirna with 
sahkirna = ksudra (cf. Gitaprakasa , p. 3) 



7b. eva: Antara is also used in pancatalesvara, a prabandha of alikrama class (NN 
3.2.178-182) etc. but this is an exception. Venkatamakhin defends this ( Caturdandi- 
prakasika , 8.133, 134) using an argument from Purvamimarhsa-sdstra (in which he 
was an eminent authority) viz. ‘vacanasamarthya (competency of injunction/ 
ordnance); he is probably indebted to Kallinatha for this (without acknowledge¬ 
ment) who also invokes the same (Sahgitakaldnidhic omm. on SR 4.258-264, p. 309). 
But Venkatamakhin invokes further the analogy ( nyaya) or nisadasthapati from 
Purvamimdrhsd in illustration (loc. cit). I have discussed both argument and analogy 
elsewhere (Sathyanarayana, C aturdandiprakasika, Kannada translation, pp. 89,90). 
His purport, based on grammatical construction, is that since the use of antara is 
well established in the practice of pancatalesvara , the relevant prescriptive rule 
about its use should be relaxed just enough to accommodate this exceptional use. 
For a discussion of the elasticity of prescription or proscription in Indian music 
theory see Sathyanarayana, R., A Study in Tradition , Modernity and Innovation in 
Indian Music (in Sangeet Natak, 89-90, Dec. 1988, p. 58). 

8b. kvacit-kvacit. Some prabandhas have no melapaka , some no abhoga and some 
have neither; some have both. Therefore some prabandhas have (all) four dhatus 
( udgraha , melapaka , dhruvaand abhoga) ; some have three ( udgraha , melapaka , dhruva 
or udgraha , dhruva , abhoga) and some have only two ( udgraha and dhruva) . A single 
dhatu cannot generate a prabandha (because it is relative). The salagasuda 
prabandhas have no melapaka ; so they are tridhatuka ; but in mantha and others, the 
use of antara is optional (SR 4.333b: ‘ tato vaikalpikontarah ’) it is not at all used in 
dhruva-prabandha. So mantha , pratimantha etc. are caturdhatu if anatra is used and 
tridhatus , if not used (Kallinatha, op. cit. on SR 4.314-361, pp. 340, 341). Since 
melapaka and antara were absent according to Mahapatra, Narahari Cakravarti, etc. 
the foregoing is modified suitably for the prabandhas described by them. 

9-10ab. cf. SR 4.14, 15. 

10c. Tena is the instrumental case of 'tat’ which denotes Brahman ( Bhagavad - 
gitd f 17.23): 

3S> cTrHftrfd I 

Therefore sound is of the nature of auspiciousness; repetition is indicative of 
emphasis and abundance. Tenaka is a modification of tena in the bhandira language 
according to Venkatamakhin (op. cit. 8.14). SR (4.17c) has: 

dcHtefa I 

1 la. Pada is word, i.e. a semantic unit in a sentence. This arises out of a relation 
between kriya (verb) and karaka (case endings of a nominal or pronomial term, 
both of which confer on the word its different relations of meaning, cf. 
Venkatamakhin, op. cit. 8.12). According to some authorities, e.g. Damodara, says 




Narahari Cakravarti (op. cit.l .169 pr.), pada has no separate status of ahga since its 
functions are carried out by bimda and is replaced by gamaka. However, both Catura 
Damodara ( Sahgitadarpanam, 4.363) and of Subhankara ( Sahgitaddmodara, 2, 
p. 17) do give pada as ahga of prabandha. Mahapatra ( Gitaprakasa , 1.6 pr. p. 4) 
mentions only four, viz. vdkya, svara, pdta and tenaka as ahgas, among which vdkya 
includes pada and biruda. 

11c. biruda, often viruda. Parsvadeva explains it as vim + da; vim = vimddha, a 
meaning well known in Maharastra (probably not the modern Maharastra, but a 
region covered by Karnataka and Kuntala); it gives ('da) enmity or opposition to 
others and is therefore so called; it is in the vira (heroic) rasa and generates anxiety, 
worry (and antagonism) in enemies ( Sahgitasamayasdra , 4.17cd-19ab, p. 25). 
Actually, bimda is a panegyric adjective expressing vira rasa. It is distinguished from 
pada in that the pada is composed in a different rasa (Parsvadeva, op. cit. loc. cit.), 
or pada comprises all words other than bimda (SR 4.16d: tato’nyad vacakampadam). 

lid. Tala refers to the totality of marga, desi, yugma, ayugma, khanda, misra, 
sahkirna, parivartana, prakarana, bhahga, upabhahga, vibhahga, mala, sahkara, umpu, 

marma, bandha, Ula, gana, suladi, etc. talas. 

12a. svara.' sa, ri, ga etc. executed by uttering the same symbols at their respective 
pitch values e.g. cittesvara, ettugade-svara, kalpana-svara'm Karnataka music; jatisvara, 
vama-tilldna, sabda, dam, etc. in bharatandtya when they contain such passages; 
sargam in Hindustani music. 

12b. yathayogya. according to laksana of the respective prabandha. 

12cd-13. SR 4.19-21. Parsvadeva (op. cit. 4.21 pr. p. 25) offers alternative names 
for these jatis which are also numerograms: campu (2: gadya, padya)= 2 angas; kavita 
(3: sakti, vyutpatti, abhyasa) = 3 ahgas ; send (4: hasti, asva, ratha, padati) = 4 angas, niti 
(5: bheda, pariksa, visvasa, vacana, mitrakarya) = 5 ahgas, smti (6: siksa, jyotisa, nirukta, 
nighantu, chandas, vyakarana) = 6 ahgas equivalent to taravaU, bhavam, dipani, 
anandini and medini respectively. He has borrowed this from Jagadekamalla 
( Sahgitacuddmani, Ms. copy in Sri Varalakshmi Academy, Mysore). 

Mahapatra questions the existence of taravaU jati prabandha ; for according to 
modern practitioners, he says, vdkya comprehends pada and bimda (pada is sup-tih- 
antam, bimda is gunakirtanam, only vdkya comprehending both is acceptable as 
ahga\ tala is not counted as a separate ahga (in nibaddha-prabandhas). So a dipani 
prabandha of previous authorities is reduced to taravaU as reckoned by modern 
practitioners. When such is the case, how can the salagasuda (which according to 
previous authorities e.g. Sarngadeva has only two ahgas, viz. pada and tala, is now 
reducible only to vdkya as a single ahga since tala is not a separate ahga in a nibaddha 
prabandhabe regarded as prabandha at all? A prabandha cannot be formed with only 
one ahga. For, a salagasuda-prabandha is described thus 




'men ■qRTf^ Tl%cn ^rf^; i 

^FfacT: T^HlMfifld: II 

So, it is barred from the use of pata, tena and svara and is thus reduced to a single 
anga, viz. vakya. Hence it is called prabandha only by vacanasamarthya , even though 
according to previous authorities it is a tryahga-prabandha (pada , biruda, tala) . In the 
opinion of modern practitioners, only a prabandha which is composed with dldpa 
(gamaka ) also is fit to be called prabandha', since all prabandhas necessarily contain 
pada, biruda and tala, no taravali-jati-prabandha is possible. 

13c. BhavanI is called pavani or pavini in Orissan treatises on music such as 
Gitaprakasa, Sahgitasdra and Sahgitasdrasahgraha. 

14a. niryukta: prescribed to or restricted to the exclusive use of specific raga, tala, 
chandas, bhasa, rasa, etc. 

1 5a. anuktachandah: Some prabandhas such as arya, totaka, kalaharhsa, krauhcapada, 
dvipatha are restricted to a namesake metrical structure. These are exempt from the 
rule prescribing specific ganas or syllables at the beginning, middle or conclusion 
of the udgraha , etc. dhatus. But in prabandhas in which the metre is left to the choice 
of the composer or there is no metre, rules are framed insisting on the use of certain 
varnas (syllables) and ganas (syllable clusters) for the accrual of invisible merits and 
fruits and on their avoidance to ward off undesirable effects on the patron . 

cf SR 4.58,59; where only ga {guru) is mentioned (e.g. mastrigo) the other 
two syllables are laghus <xnd vies versa. Thus, using 5 for guru and. I for laghu , the eight 
ganas (borrowed from Sanskrit prosody) may be reprsented as follows: ma 555, ya 
155, ra 515, sa 115, ta 551, ja 151, bha 511, na III. These may be condensed into the 

16b. Kam (neuter) means water, e.g. Amarakosa (3.3.249b, p. 346), Vaijayanti 
(8.7.3, p. 215), Medini ( Avyavavarga , Vyahjana-varga, 52a, p. 183). 

16c. lanta: laghu in the middle; bhasmakrt elsewhere, the fruit is described as 

17b. Saurya is adjectival to ja, means Sun and not Saturn. 

17c. Saumya is adjectival to bha, means Moon and not Mercury. 

17d. sankarah: The fruit is described as longevity elsewhere. 

17. Simhabhupala (op. cit. on SR 4.58-79, p. 227) gives a parallel verse from an 
unknown source: 

^ fsproidHlfd V 

*1: 'b'^lHiq^TTfcT *^4 VI) 

y^H-^d ddPskd II 




18. These rules appear to be unique to NN. 

19-24ab. These details are unique to NN. Its source, if any, is not known. The 
following are the effects on the patron of the song when pairs of ganas from among 
the above eight are employed at the beginning of udgraha, etc.—auspiciousness; bha.ya-ya.bha—power, strength; ja.ta-ta.ja dis¬ 
ease; - sa.ra—destruction; ma.bha-ma.ya-na.bha-na.ya success,—accomplishment; ma-ra ma-sa na-ra na-sa—injury; ra-ma sa- 
ma ra-na sa-na—futility; bha-ja bha-ta ya-ja ya-ta—destruction/loss, ja-bha ta-bha ja- 
ya ta-ya—misfortune; ja-raja-sa ta-ra ta-sa—enmity; ra-ja sa-ja ra-ta sa-ta—decay; bha- 
ra bha-sa ya-ra ya-sa— ‘ha’ kampa (trembling with fear or sorrow with the exclama¬ 
tion ‘haV); ra-bha sa-bha ra-ya sa-ya—family decay. 

24c. kecit: e.g. Jagadekamalla, Sahgitacuddmani (MS. copy, Sri Varalakshmi 
Academy, Mysore) SR 4.6.33, etc. 

24d. matragana: While mayarasatajabhana ganas are syllabic triads, cha-pa-ca-ta- 
da are moraic clusters, taking the following forms; cha (six matras) 555, pa (five 
matras), 551, ca ( four matras) 55, ta (three matras) 51, da (two matras) 5; a in atm is 
here a synonym of laghu, with the total duration required to utter the five syllables 
(short) ka-ca-ta-tapa. It is not known who defined these first. All early authorities are 
agreed, while describing the eld that they are of ancient origin and are accepted as 

25c. Aijuna: Early authorities, e.g. Jagadekamalla (op. cit. loc. ci.t), SR (4.102, 
103) ascribe these ganas to Arjuna-synonyms such as Dhananjaya, Savyasaci while 
describing mdtrailds. However, Matafiga ( Brhaddesi , 460 p. 149) describes mdtrailds 
on the authority of Vallabha (about whom little else is known). Therefore Arjuna 
must be later than Vallabha. There is a treatise entitled Arjunabharatam in MS. Its 
author, Madumbi Narasimhacarya flourished in the first quarter of the twentieth 
century A.D. 

26cd. The tnkas, viz. ma-ya-ra-sa-ta-ja-bha-na are fixed in both number of syllables 
and moraic quantity. The mdtraganasx iz. cha-pa-ca-ta-da are fixed in moraic quantity 
but not in number of syllables. These ganas defined by Arjuna, viz. rati, kama and 
bdna are fixed in number of syllables but not in moraic quantity and offer much 
choice to the poet. These are products of prastara of Vedic prosodial prototypes. 
The names and composition of these prastaras, found in some of the better known 
authorities, are compiled below from Velankar (Jayadaman , pp. 117, 118), the 
sources used are Bh—Bharatamuni, Ndtyasdstram, Pp—Prdkrtapaingalam of 
Pingalanaga;JK— -Jayakirti, Chando ’nusasanam, H—Hemacandra, Chando ’nusasanam, 
\j$ —Vrttajatisamuccaya of Virahanka, Chm— Chandomanjan of Gangadasa, \ r 
Vrttaratnakara of Kedarabhatta. 

Ratiganas are derived from the vedic metrical prototype called atyuktawhich has 
two syllables per verse foot, and yields the following four permutations: 



i. 55; kama (Pp. 2.3), nau (Vjs 5.2), padma (JK 2.4), H (2.7), stri (Vr. 3.2) 

ii. 51 : jatru (JK. 2.6), duhkha (H. 2.9), sara (Pp. 2.9) 

iii. 15; mahi (Pp. 2.8); sukha (H. 2.10, JK. 2.5) 

iv. II: puspa (H. 2.8), madhu (Pp. 2.5), vali (JK. 2.7) 

Kamaganas are derived by permutation of the vedic prototype, madhya, which has 
three syllables per foot and yields the following trikasr. 

i. 555 {morgana): tad (Pp. 2.11), nan (H. 2.11; Vjs. 5.3; Vr. 3.3), syamdhgi 
(JK 2.8) 

ii. 155 ( yargana ): kesa (H. 2.12; Vr. 3.4.1), dhuh (H. 2.12), dhrti (Bh. 32.5 2) 
vana (JK 2.9), sasi (Pp. 2.15) 

iii. 515 ( ra-gana ): tadit (Bh. 32.50), priya (Pp. 2.13); mrgj (H. 2.13, Vr. 3.4); 
sudhi (JK 2.10) 

iv. 115 ( sa-gana): pravara (JK 2.11); madana (H. 2.14), rajani (Bh. 32.54); 
ramana (Pp. 2.17) 

v. 551 ( ta-gana ): pahcala (Pp. 2.19); send (JK 2.12) 

vi. 151 {ja-gana): mrgendra (Pp. 2.21); suvastu (JK 2.13) 

vii. 511 {bha-gana) :mandara (Pp. 2.23); hrdya (JK 2.14) 

viii. Ill ( na-gana ): kamala (Pp. 2.25): drk (JK 2.15) 

Banaganas are derived by permuting the vedic prototype pratistha which has four 
syllables per foot and yields the following sixteen forms: 

i. 1515 {ja-gana , gum): jayd (Bh. 32.61; JK. 2.21); naganita {naganika, 
Pp. 2.31), lasini (Vr. 3.5.1); vilasini (H. 2.17) 

ii. 1511 {ja-gana , laghu): japa (JK 2.29) 

iii. 5515 {ta-gana, gum): tarn (JK 2.20); somapriya (H. 2.22) 

iv. 5511 {ta-gana, laghu): trapu (JK 2.28) 

v. 1115 {na-gana, gum): madhu (JK 2.23): mrgavadhu (H. 2.19; Vjs. 5.4); satl 
(Chm. 2.4.2) 

vi. Mil {na-gana, laghu): dayi (JK 2.31) 

vii. 5115 {bha-gana,gum): lalita{ H. 2.16): sumukhi (H. 2.16;JK. 2.22; Vr. 3.5.2) 

viii. 5111 ( bha-gana, laghu): jatu (JK 2.30) 

ix. 5555 {ma-gana, gum): kanya (H. 2.15; Vr. 3.5); giti (JK 2.16); tirna (Pp. 

x. 5551 {ma-gana, laghu): valti (JK 2.24) 

xi. 1555 {ya-gana, gum): vrida (H. 2.20; Vr. 3.5.3); vrddhi (JK 2.17) 




xii. 5155 {ra-gana, guru): rddhi (JK. 2.18); puspa (Bh. 32.57); samrddhi (H. 

2.18; Vr. 3.5.4) 

xiv. 5151 ( ra-gana, laghu): dhan (Pp. 2.29); vartma (JK. 2.26) 

xv. 1155 {sa-gana, guru): bhraman (Bh. 32.59), sumati(H. 2.21; JK 2.19; Vr. 


xvi. 1151 ( sa-gana , laghu): kadali (JK. 2.27) 

Pandarika Vitthala’s special injunction ‘rT? ’ I (NN. 

4.2.27ab) without explaining the relationship of these ganas with atyukta, etc. has 
rendered the passage somewhat opaque. 

27d. a-ka-ca-ta-ta-pa-ya-sa: Sanskrit linguistics accept fortytwo basic sounds: nine 
vowels (saktis) viz. a i u r hr e ai o au (and their long as well as prolate forms by 
extension; this is called a-varga)', the five sparsa (consonants) viz. gutturals ( ka- 
varga), palatals ( ca-varga), linguals (ta-varga), dentals ( tarvarga ) and labials {pa- 
varga)', antasthas (semivowels) viz. y, r, l, v\ usmans (sibilants) viz. s s s, mahaprana 
(sonant aspirate) viz. h. These are the eight classes mentioned here. Besides these, 
there are secondary sounds, e.g. nasals h, h, {anusvara, visarjanlya) ,jihvamuTiya and 
upadhmdnlya, as well as /, Ik. Their presiding deities and effects are as follows. 
a-varga: Moon, longevity 
ka-varga: Mars, fame, brightness 
ca-varga: Mercury, illfame 
ta-varga: Jupiter, auspiciousness 
ta-varga: Venus, beauty 
pa-varga,: Saturn, illness or disease 
ya-varga: Sun, death 
sa-varga: Rahu, void 

Ahobala (Sahgitapdrijata) gives the fruits of these as^( ! SlU^TT fa til '4T r ^ 

fpTt (1,520ab, p. 70) and proceeds to give (ibid., 1.521-527, p. 70) a scheme 

for tabulating the alphabet and corresponding effects): 

31<*>-ditiM4|¥ll: ^ ^ Wt I 

qM'rzj 9f^JT f^t581^T I 
^mT: ^I4f ^ II W H 
^lf ^T: cj I 

ststMmP^ii ^if <41 m| iP h ti4^i ii w ii 

f&dhMf$ J ll c,p^j-iiPi PlctRi: I 



qdl-MNi fTSJcTT oPlf '#HM|PhVcWH, II II 
^if c|lR®lT'dlPl H'ddM, I 
3H^HpfR*mT cftf: taqUi'flPd TFRTT: ll^q II 


TI#3t TOf% ctM^fd W II II 

Hidl^dlPd ^TFT% dWI^dc^f^lKi)^ II t^Vs || 

The fifty letters of the Sanskrit alphabet are classified, ten each, as vayubUja, 
agnibija, bhumiblja , jalabija and gaganabija in order (Musanuru Veiikatasastri, 
Vidydrthikalpataruvu, p. 60) 

31cd-32. cf. Ahobala (op. cit. 1.528-529, p.70) 

ebP^~93 ■HHlfTbl'tfclVlNiWI^11ori«l^H s I 
TT3TR: ^dl<1 cl iRc^^ II 

33-39ab. Sadasiva is venerated as an ancient authority on music and dancing 
occasionally: Sariigadeva(SR 1.1.15: first in the list of ancient authorities; 4.328 on 
kandarpa dhruva) ; Saradatanaya ( Bhavaprakasnam 1.16: list of authorities), Divakara 
(list of authorities, quoted byjammulamadaka (Madhavasarma comm, ibid., loc. 
cit. p. 7); Abhinavagupta extracts {Abhinavabharati on NS 29.112, p. 122) a passage 
from an ancient authority in which different kinds of vlna are mentioned on the 
authority of Sadasivagama. There is also a work on dancing called Sadasivabharata 
in MS. But NN is the only source to invoke Sadasiva as on authority on varnaphala, 
so far as is known. 

33d. dhuri: dhura means high position, battle, responsibility, etc. 

34a. Khuri means perfume, horse, horseshoe, barber’s razor, etc. 

35d. ratnam: pearl or any other/acial jewel. 

36a. tara: high, silver, pearl, pearl necklace, small copper coin, the syllable ‘om ’, 

36b. Mahapadah may also be decomposed into maha + apadah : great distress or 

36c. Bharati also means knowledge of Brahman, the power of Sarasvati etc. 

36d. Mahabhayam may also be decomposed into maha + abhayam: absolute 
freedom from fear. 

37a. Bhiti and bhayaare derived from the same root ‘bhi ’and mean the same: fear, 
anxiety, danger, disease, etc. Fault of repetition may be avoided in this passage bv 
interpreting these terms differently in terms of these meanings, or better, bv 



translating mahdbhaya as 'absolute freedom from fear’ as indicated above. 

38c. chatrisamya: equal rank with a king: in this case it should read 'chatrisamya . 

41-42. Ahobla (op. cit. 1.529cd-531ab, pp.70-71) has a parallel passage: 

■351% WtINpRR HddIWSJT I 


•3flt $ R«TT I 

srrqjrT g r( ?)^rca wi 11 

43b. nanyatah The foregoing fruits apply only in the case of panegyric to the king, 
patron or donor, but not in prayer or propitiation of gods. 

43cd-53cd. Pandarika Vitthala describes eleven prabandhas such as cnndrn- 
prakasa, not included in the above list, from contemporary musical practice (NN 


NN describes eighty six prabandhas-. of these, seventy five are borrowed from SR 
in exactly the same order and in almost complete agreement. In many places, NN 
has depended more upon Kallinatha’s commentary than on the original SR. Of the 
remaining eleven, which are described from the musical practice of the times, three 
are of ancient origin. Notwithstanding these eleven, Pandarika Vitthala assumes a 
markedly conservative stance, committed to textual, rather than oral tradition. It is 
true that most of the prabandhas described by him did prevail in his times, though 
often with bewildering complexity and variability; he has athetised much of such 
variable or controversial detail in his description, often content with only 
samanyalaksana (e.g. eld, dhehkl). But it is equally true that his great contemporaries 
Vyasaraya, Purandaradasa, Vadirajaand Kanakadasawere ushering in a renaissance 
in Karnataka music with a horde of new compositional prototypes of which he must 
have been aware. After all, this change did not originate during his own lifetime 
(most of which he spent outside Karnataka), but was inaugurated nearly a century 
ago by Sri padaraya at Mulabagalu, barely a hundred miles from Satanuru where he 
was born and spent his youth. Yet he acknowledges these haridasa saints only 
obliquelv ( kecil-laksyavisaradah ’ NN, 3.2.305b and in the dasavatdra prabandha NN 
3.2.321cd-322). He ignores these compositional varieties as well as the contribu¬ 
tions which these haridasas were making to already existing forms such as dandaka, 
gadya and harsavardhana; he also ignores the profound changes which they brought 
about in the sdlagasuda-prabandhas to transform them into suladis. He also does not 
take cognizance of yet another great change which had happened in the realm of 
talas —the suladi-tdlas, of which he makes only a passing mention in the Tdladhari- 
prakarana of the NN. 



An attempt is made in the following p‘ages to study his descriptions of prabandhas 
in a historical perspective. Abbreviations used in this study are 
BD— Brhaddeasi of Matangamuni 

AC— Abhilasitartha-cintamani (Manasollasa) of Somesvara III 
JS— Sangitacuddmani of Jagadekamalla (MS. Sri Varalakshmi Academy, Mysore) 
SS— Sangitasudhdkara of Haripaladeva 
PS— Sahgitasamayasdra of Parsvadeva 

SR— SahgLtaratnakara of Sariigadeva and commentaries by Simhabhupala and 

LS— Sangitasuryodaya of Laksminarayana 
RK— Rasakaumudi of Srikantha 
SD— Sangitadarpanam of Catura Damodara 
SP— Sahgitapdrijdta of Ahobala 

Further abbreviations are U —udgraha, M—melapaka , D— dhruva, A—dbhoga 
Ar antara, sv—svara, pd —pada, tl—tala, tn —tenaka, pt—pdta, bd —biruda, n— 
niryukta, an— aniryukta, n—an—both niryukta and aniryukta. 

The accent however, is on the comparison with SR especially Kallinatha. 

54-76. 1. Eld 

55a. varnasamyam: SR (2.33) has mentioned this as anuprasa explicitly. Kal¬ 
linatha explains (p. 215) ‘ vamasamyamanuprasah iti tasya laksanam. Anuprasa is 
alliteration: proximate recurrence of same or similar sounds e.g. ‘kirn taya cintayd 
kante nitanta . It has two varieties viz. gramya and latiya according to Bhamaha 
( Kavyalamkara, 2.5-8). Udbhatta and later rhetoricians have distinguished another 
variety viz. upanagarikd in which syllables of the same class (varga) recurrently 
combine with the nasal of the same class. Nagavarma (Kavyavalokanam, 133) has 
named it madhura. Gramya anuprasa consists of the recurrence of soft or gentle 
syllables e.g. I 

In latanuprasa a word or a group of syllables repeat at the beginning of the next 
word. e.g. 

The definition ‘varnasamyamanuprasaK is due to Mammata( Kavyaprakasa, 
9.2-5, pp. 136-141): anu —in accordance with rasa etc., pra— excellent, nyasa — 
disposition of syllables. It is of two kinds— cheka and vrtti. Vrttyanuprasa has three 
further subvarieties viz. upanagarikd, parusa, komala or gramya. These are described 
as the three literary styles vaidarbhi, gaudi and pdncdli by Vamana et al. A third kind 
of anuprasa viz. latanuprasa (mentioned above) is again divisible into five subvarieties: 
recurrence of several words (anekapaddvrtti) , recurrence of a single word 
(ekapaddvrtti) , abiding in the same compound (ekasamdsagata) , abiding in a 



different compound (bhinnasamasagata) , nominal similarity of sounds abiding in 
a compound and noncompound ( samasa-asamasagata namasanipya). 

54d. ekena dhatuna: Kallinatha’s interpretation that the same single section 
should be sung twice does not seem to be plausible (p. 215). 

55a. Prayoga is best translated as means, contrivance, expedient device. It is 
equated here with gamakalapti on the authority of SR (4.360, 361): 


^cf *||^5| 7rf35cTl II 

55d. Pallava seems to be unrelated to pallavi, opening segment of many song 
varieties in Karnataka music and to the namesake special compositional form 
therein (see Sathyanarayana, R., Kamataka-sahgita-vahinl, pp. 390-413). 

56d. padatrayam. The first foot, possessed of two sections, has two words and 
three pallava words; the second foot also has five (2+3) words similarly. The third 
foot has a total of six words, but no pallava words. Each of these sixteen words is 
separate and distinct. But the music to which the five words of the first foot are set 
is repeated exactly for the five words of the second foot and six words of the third 
foot. The first and second word of foot I and foot II are sung as separate sections, 
but with the same music (thus the two sections have the same music but different 
words. After the second word (and second section) and before the first pallava 
word, a gamakalapti is inserted; pallavawords (1) and (2) are each rendered in slow 
tempo while the third pallava word is executed 'in fast tempo. This may be 
schematically shown thus: 





section 1 


section 2 



P, slow 


P, slow 


P., fast 



section 1 


section 2 



P, slow 


P 2 slow 


P, fast 








section 1 

section 2 





The words 1-2,6-7,11-12 have the same dhatu. The words 3-8, 4-9,5-10 (i.e. P,, P., 
and P. t have the same, corresponding dhatu. 13,14,15 are rendered as gamakalapti. 

57d. pada: This is a single word, the twelfth, called ucita (ancita ?). 

58b,d. arka-rudra: There are two views on the distribution of words in the 
different dhatus. According to some, eld has no melapaka and is hence a tridhatuka 
prabandha. Here, udgraha (U) consists of the words 1 to 12; dhruva (D) of 13,14,15 



and abhoga (A) of 16. According to others, such as Somesvara (AC) and Somarajadeva 
(SangitaratnavaVi ), the eld has melapaka in the 12th. Hence eld is caturdhatuka 

59a. prabhunama: SR (4.37) etc. have generalised this as the ‘ stutya-nama, 
Kallinatha has interpreted this (p. 217) as personal god ( istadevata), king etc. 
Pandarlka Vitthala seems to restrict the use of the eld to human subjects only. 

61ab. The eld is sung in this sequence: U(M)DAU(M)DAD 

61cd. These talas may be recollected here for ready reference: mantha 151 
(NN 1.178), 115 115 115 115 (SR), llllsI (SD, RK), lol (CDP 9.342); kankala : puma 
00005 I, khanda 0055 , sama 551, visama 155 (NN 1.192), 5511 (CDP 9. 344); dvitiya°o\ 
(NN 1.140 )\pratitala lloo (NN 1.193) loo (SD, CDP 9.345). 

62b. visama: Kallinatha (on SR 4.39, p. 218) says that talagraha-niryukti is made 
only in the case of the eld , but not other suddha-suda-prabandhas. Venkatamakhin, 
who like Pandarlka Vitthala closely follows. Kallinatha endorses this (CDP 9.345- 
348) and says that the graha may be anagata or atita. 

63d. rutah: Collative consensus supports this reading but elsewhere it is uni¬ 
formly ‘ ucita 9 . 

66b. dasapranah: How can there be only ten pranas while the words are sixteen? 
Kallinatha (on SR 4.40-52, pp. 219-223) and following him, Venkatamakhin (CDP 
9.350-391) answer this clearly: two or more words possessed of the same dhatu have 
the same prana even though .they may occur in different padas , they assign the 
following distribution: 

The sixteen words ( pada ) of the eld are (1) kama , formed as the first word of the 
first foot in two sections (2) manmathavaU prayoga in the first foot (3) kanta , first 
pallava word in the first foot, rendered in slow tempo (4) jita, second pallava word 
in the first foot, sung in slow tempo (5) matta (called mitra inNN) third pallava word 
in first foot, in fast tempo. 

(6) vikari, first word in two sections in the second foot (7) mandhata , second word 
in second foot, rendered as prayoga (8) sumati , first pallava word in the second foot, 
sung in slow tempo (9) sobhi, second pallava word in second foot, rendered in slow 
tempo (10) susobhl, third pallava word in second foot, performed in fast tempo. 

(11) gitaka, first word in third foot, composed in two sections (12) Ucita , (mtaor 
umta in NN) consists of vocative words, rendered as prayoga , different in dhatu than 
in (2) and (7);lastword ofUaccording to some orMaccording to Somesvara et al 

(13) cirtra first word of dhmvadhatu , sung in middle or medium ( madhya) tempo 

(14) vasava , second word of dhmva , in madhya-laya (15) mrdu, third word of 
dhmvakhanda, (performed in a different dhatu) (13) and (14); (14) and (15) 
contain the name of the hero or patron. (16) sucitra , abhoga word, containing the 
composer’s signature. 



Then ten pranas are distributed among these sixteen words as follows: 

(i) samana - manmathavat (2), mandhata (7) 

(ii) madhura - kanta (3), sumati (8) 

(iii) sandra -jita (4), sobki (9) 

(iv) kanta - matta (5), susobki (10) 

(v ) dipta - kama (1), vikari (6), gitaka (11) 

(vi) samahita -ucita ( ruta ? ancita ? 12) 

(vii) agramya - vicitra (13) 

(viii) sukumara - vasava (14) 

(ix) prasanna - mrdu (15) 

(x) ojasvi - sucitra (16) 

66c. nirvarna: NN has thus modified ‘ alpdksara ’ of SR (4.48); this is not consistent 
with the definition of samana-prana : T^RT^TT i.e. it has 

few syllables and modicum of melody; it is applied in the first two prayogas which 
consist of alapti without words (SR 4.360, 361). Veiikatamakhin (CDP 9.366) 
reconciles this contradiction by saying that prayoga should be concluded with a 
modicum of words. 

67a. Madhura has a soupcon of melody and of murchana (SR 4.48); alpamurchana 
means transforming the murchana into tana, i.e. into sadava and audava tanas', 
tanikarana consists in uttering the first svara of the murchana, touching lightly one 
or more intervening svaras and proceeding to the next svaras; thus it has alpandda 

67d. Sandra prana involves denseness of syllables, thinness of svara clusters and 
the entry of svaras into the high register. According to Veiikatamakhin (CDP 
9. 372, 374), denseness is accomplished by increasing the matras (syllables); 
thinness of svaras means smallness of dhdtu. Sandra-prana should be composed in 
a pitch higher than in the previous word. 

68b. Kanta is briefly defined in SR (4.49) as ‘kdntah kdntadhvaniK ; kanta means, 
among other things ‘desired, loved, dear, pleasing, agreeable, lovely, beautiful’. 
Pandarika Vitthala has made explicit this suggestion of the erotic by saying that the 
voice becomes coloured (colourful?) and illumined or excited while in the erotic 

68d. dipta: SR (4.50a) is succinct: ‘ dlptastu diptanadah’. Dipta means among other 
things, ‘blazing, flaming, hot, shining, bright, brilliant, splendid, excited, agitated 
and clear’. NN has interpreted it as high tone in tarn register. 

69a. Gamakapraudha: mature and scholarly gamakas— is Pandarika Vitthala’s 
contribution to the definition of samahita. 

69b. Sthayi is interpreted by Kallinatha as sthdyi-varna but is probably the sthdyi- 
svara of raga in its svasthana-catustaya-alapti (NN 3.1.133, 134). 




71a. cakravala: SR (4.50cd) iscontentwith prescribing recurrence only generally 
and does not specify cakravala-bandha. 


Pandarika Vitthala has followed Kallinatha here (p. 222): 

^dld'Ttc^l ^dWlfdHc^dMK'JIH, cTd^RddHlAd 

dldHIHI^jfd: I 

Cakravala is a sabdalamkara , i.e. a figure of speech relating to sound structure; it 
is a variety of yamakalamkara called muktapadagrasta (lit. taking up again the 
liberated word). Bhamaha ( Kavyalamkara , 2.9-20: adi , madhyanta , padabhyasa , 
yamahavali , samastapada-yamaka) , Dandin ( Kavyadarsa , 3.1-77) Vamana 
( Kdvydlamkdra-sutravrtti , 4.1-4) and other authorities describe numerous yamaka 
varieties; but its treatment is elaborate with Bharatamuni (NS 16.59-86) who 
describes ten yamaka varieties viz. padanta, kanci , samudga , vikranta , cakravala , 
sandasta, padadi, amredita , caturvyasita and mala^s natakasraya. He defines cakravala 
thus (ibid., 16.73): 



^sfcMsbcIM' 'TFRTt W II 
and offers a classic illustration (ibid., 16.74): 

^fF<T«TT ^EjfWdlSdl TOI Tstf: I 

4ir«ldir«idiracTTftT^T fa^dl-kl^^: II 

71cd. varn a tan asvaran am: SR (4.51) describes this as varnanadamurchana; Kal¬ 
linatha says (p. 223) that murchanas are modified to give tanas. 

72a. prasanna. instantaneous communication, even as very dry wood or leaves 
catch fire in a flash. Kallinatha includes tana and gamaka by upalaksana (p. 223). 

74cd. anekadha: SR (4.131) mentions 356 varieties of eld , Kallinatha details them 
as follows (p. 251): nadavatie tc. four; modified (vikrta) ninetythree; other vikrtailas 
fifteen; matrailas twenty; varnailds twentyfour; desailas: kamati forty; latailas forty; 
gaudi elds forty; dndhn elds forty; dravidi elds forty: total 356. Simhabhupala arrives 
at the same number from a different route (pp. 251,252): suddhailasfour; vikrtailas 
108;, matrailas twenty; varnailds twentyfour; matrailas twelve; kamatailas six; other 
desailas four; total 178; add as many chandasvati varieties: total (178 X 2 = 356). 

I have discussed the literary, prosodial and musical aspects of the eld in the 
monograph: Eld : A Literary and Musical Study (in print). 




BD (431-495, pp. 146-152): Eld has five feet of which the first two lack alliteration, 
the third or fourth and fifth feet have alliteration; every foot has four gitas; 
alliteration employed after singing half of the respective foot, the eld contains 
description of sacrifice, auspiciousness, beauty, valour, courage etc. (of the hero). 
It is set to matta, dvitiya, kahkdla or prati-tdla. It incorporates the names of the 
composer and patron, or according to some, of only the latter; it should be 
composed with attractive song-qualities ( vide NN 3.2.330-334), prosodial struc¬ 
tures, figures of speech and rasas . Its ganailds nadavati , hamsavati , nandavati, 
bhadravati and five (?) sankarailas, ratilekha, kdmalekha, banalekhamA candralekha , its 
seven varnailds viz. madanavati, sasilekhd, prabhdvati, mdlati, hemavati, kusumavati, 
and varnanibandha , other seven varnailds viz ramanl, candrika,, laksmi, padmini, 
ranjani , m^tozand mohini ; five desailas viz. /«/«, kamata, gauda, andhra and dravida 
totalling 28 (493-495, p. 152) are described. 

AC (4.16.99-175, pp. 51-59; 4.16.444-524, pp. 69-79): It has two parts of U each 
consisting of two words in alliteration followed by gamaka, then a word containing 
the patron’s name. Then two words are sung in the third foot, followed by M 
rendered in gamaka. Next is D composed with no restrictions of gana etc.; then A 
is sung with the composer’s signature. The song rests on D, sung after A. The elds 
described are (illustrated elds are marked *): nadavati*, harhsavati*, bhadrdvati*, 
ratilekha *, kdmalekha *, bdnalekhd*, candralekha *, mada navati *, sasilekhd * prabhdivali *, 
lalitd*, bhogavati*, kusumavati*, eleven varieties of •varnamdld elds viz. madhukan, 
susvari, karini, surasd , prabhahjini, kubjini, vipuld , tadillatd, visdld, tarald, kdntimati *, 
mdlati, mdlini (visdld is read as visdkhd, 522a, p. 79). 

JS (pp. 25-39) bases treatment of elds on the authority of Sailakanya (Parvatl), 
Mataiiga, Partha (Dhananjaya, Arjuna), Bhoja, ParamardI, Somesvara and contem¬ 
porary musical practice. The eld is called suda here for the first time and is an 
indispensable, integral part of sudaprabandha. It is composed with many gitagunas, 
set to yati, tala, laya, rasa and alamkdra (figures of speech). It has padas followed by 
a prayoga and then pallava words, which are not restricted by rules of ganas. This is 
the first foot; the second is sung exactly similarly. The third foot is followed by M; 
all these three feet are regarded as a single entity. Then D is sung with rhyming 
words containing the patron’s name; then A is sung with the composer’s name. The 
song rests on D. This work describes the four suddha elds nadavati etc., mdtrailas such 
as ratilekha, and varieties rdmd, manorama, unnata, ramani santi, laksmi, kamuki, gaun, 
saumyd, rativigrahd,jdhgald, vijayd,jay amahgald etc. etc. Hundreds of ^subvarieties 
are described here; the treatment is the most elaborate of all available sources and 
is the source for later writers such as Sarngadeva. 

SS (5.7.101-108ab): Eld has many varieties and only nadavati is described. It has 
three feet in U, words set in rhyme, each foot carrying six ganas; prayoga is 




performed at the end of the foot. This is followed by pallavawords which are not 
restricted with rules of gana\ the second and third feet are similar. M is sung in the 
fourth foot; all the first three feet of the eld are regarded as a single entity. This is 
followed up by rendering D which contains the patron’s name set in rhyme; then 
A is sung in tanas\ the song concludes on D. 

PS (4.130cd-134, p. 33): It has two feet, with rhyming words, each foot having six 
ganas , and aprayogaat the end; then follows pallava-pada which is not bound by rules 
of ganaand varna\ the second foot (of U) is similar; then the third foot containing 
M is sung; then is rendered D, with prasa, containing the patron’s name. Next, A, 
containing the composer’s name is sung. The song concludes on D, 4 d,2 angas; an (4.57, p. 28). 

LS (5.37-200, pp. 356-381) describes names and pranas of eld padas , with 
presiding deities: 1. padmalaya ( kama-dipta) 2. patrini ( manmathavat-samana : gamakd) 
3. ranjani (kdnta-madhura —P^ 4 sumukhl (jita-sandra —PJ 5. saci ( matta-kanta —P^) 
6 . varenyaka (vikan-dipta) 7. vayuvega (mandhata-samana-gamaka) 8 vedirii (sumati- 
madhura — P } ) 9. mohirii ( sobhi-sdndra —P 9 ) 10. jaya ( susobhi-kanta —P^) 11. gaufi 
( gita-dipta ) 12. brahnii ( ucita-samahita-prayogabahula , contains vocative words, 
M optionally) 13. mdtangi (vicitra-agramya — D } ) 14. candika (vasava-sukumdra —DJ 
15. vijaya (mrdu-prasanna —D^) 16. camunda ( sucitra-ojasvin —A). 

Next, varna-ganas, their presiding deities and effects, varnavargas and presiding 
deities, matrd ganas are described. Suddha ganailas—nadavatie tc. four, the vikrtailas 
rdma , manorama , unnatd , santi, ndgara , vasavl , ramaniya , visama , samd, laksml, 
kaumudi, kamotsavd , nandini , gaufi , ratideha , mahgala , ratimahgald etc. totalling 108 
varieties of vikrtaild ; varnailas (12) viz. madhukan , susvard , karani , surasa , prabhanjani , 
madanavati, sasinl , prabhd , mdlati , bhogavati , kusumavati, kdntimati , kumudini, 

kalika, kamald , virnald , kdlindi , vipuld, vidyullatd , visald, sarald, tarala , desailds and 
varieties of kamataild (20), giving 356 eld varieties in all. 

RK (3.41-55, pp. 44, 45): £7« samdnyalaksana concurs with SR, but is ascribed to 
Bharata etc. (3.46a); distribution of the sixteen words among the dhdtus , their 
names, presiding deities and pranas are described. 

SD (4.380-393, pp. 67-69) borrows samdnyalaksana from SR. 

SP (1.547, p. 72) first half is U, conclusion is with rfn/ta (! D), second half is in 
vilamba laya. 

77ab-83ab 2. Karana 

78b. istasvare: If U is construed as grahasvara , it becomes consistent with 
descriptions of eld in parallel treatises; otherwise it would mean that the entire U 
may be composed in svaras of the composer’s own choice. 

79b. munlsvaraih: This is not Bharatamuni but Matahga and Kohala. 

79b. karanasya: This is svarakarana ; all early authorities are unanimous in 
regarding this as prakrti (model) and describing other karana varieties in terms of 



deviations from it; description of misrakarana and citrakarana here (NN 3.2.80-83) 
has followed the same method. 

80b. tat karanam: Hence karana is of eight kinds viz. svara, pata, bandha, pada, 
tena, biruda, citra and misra: patakarana is again of two kinds —kramapdtakarana and 
vyatyasapatakarana (depending on the use of pdtas in a predetermined order or in 
disorder respectively). So the karanasare actually of nine kinds. In each of these 
U is in svaras; D is composed of svara, pata, pada etc.; pata means hastapdtas , i.e. 
sounds generated on percussion instruments by manual techniques. In 
kramapdtakarana the order is svara-hastapata; in vyatyasapatakarana this is reversed, 
i.e. hastapdta-svara; bandhakarana has pdtas of muraja in its D. In citrakarana, U 
consists of sv and pt while D consists of pd and pt. The mention of Kohala in this 
connection may be spurious and calculated to confer acceptability at the hands of 
undiscerning readers. Misrakarana has a mixture of sv, pt, tn in its D. 

Each of the above 9 karanas has three subvarieties viz. mangalarambha, anada- 
vardhana and kirtilahan. The differences among them lie in the sequence of the 
dhatusm performing the karanas ; if U,, U.,are the first half and second half ofU and 
likewise D,,D 2 are the first half and second half of D respectively, then mangalarambha 
has U-D-A-D-U; anandavardhana has U-D-D,,-A-D-U; kirtilahan has U-D-U.,-A-D-U (cf. 
SR.4.132-144; CDP 9.85-106) 

The prolific variety and subvariety of prabandhas in Indian music is amazing; eld 
alone had 356 varieties, and by their systematic admixture, countless. The jhombada 
alone had as many as 3510 subvarieties etc. (vide Sathyanarayana, R., Kamataka- 
sahgUa-vahini, pp. 353-356). Among the seventy-five major prabandhas some had 
namesake talas-, rather, theywere named after the talas to which they were restricted 
e.g. dhehki, rasa, ekataU, varna, hayatila, gajalila, hamsalila, simhalila, tribhahgi, and 
among salagasudas (later, suladis) mantha,pratimantha, nihsaru, addatali, rasa, ekataU 
etc.; some derived their names from the metre in which the song was prescribed to 
be composed; e.g. hayalild, krauncapada, arya, dvipathaka, kalahamsa, totaka,jhampata, 
paddhadi; some others derived their names from the words which occurred at the 
end of the prabandha or recurred at the end of each carana (stanza) e.g. mahgala, 
dhavala, ovi, dhollan, danti. 

BD (6.426, 427, p.146; 506, p. 153) describes karana m general (506, p. 153) as 
set to karanayati tala; consisting of pt, tn, sv, bd, pd, tl; the initial mention of pt and 
tn may imply their initial use, i.e. in U and the remaining svetc. in D; bandhakarana 
(426, p. 146) is composed in svaras, muraja-patas; an additional feature is that it is 
set to the (namesake) karana tala; it is sung by gandharvas. (Does this suggest a marga 
or gandharva origin for bandhakarana ?) Patakarana (427, p. 146) is of two kinds: 
both contain pt and sv; kevala patakarana contains pdtas but not words; 
aksarapatakarana has both. 

AC describes only three karanav arietiesviz. bandha-, pata- and tena-; bandhakarana 
(4.16.89, p. 50) is composed with sv, muraja-patas and set to karana tala. Pata (Pada}) 




karana is sung similarly, with hastapdtas , with sv, and words of Prakrta replacing pt 
(4.16.90, 91, p. 50). The svaras should be composed vihita, i.e. appropriate or of 
one s own choice. Svarakarana is sung in two segments, U and D; U is sung with 
continuous sv in aditala ; patron’s name is included in A, at the end of which D is 
repeated and the song concludes on U (4.16, 431, 432, pp. 68, 69). Pada(Pddal) 
karanais performed without hastapdtas , but with svaras (4.16.434, p. 69). 

JS (pp. 25, 26) Seven karanas, sv, pt, bandha , pd (sv-pd?), extra, tennaand misraare 
described separately. S \-karana has two dhatus , sung to sv without pause (in both U- 
D) to drutasekharatala ( karanatala is not found used in practice); graha is in any 
desired sv, conclusion is on arhsa svara; A contains name of the patron. The 
sequence is U-D-A-D-U. It has three varieties viz. mahgalabharana , kirtilahari and 
anandavardhana in which the sequences are as described above. Patakarana: sv, pt, 
two dhatus; bandhakarana : sv + murajapdtas , two dhatus ; padakarana two dhatus, sv 
+ pd, citrakarana: sv, pt, pd ( murajapdtas ); tenakarana: sv, pt, tn; misrakarana : sv, pt, 
tn; bd at end; three dhatus. 

SS, (5.7.85-95) Svarakarana is model; it has 2 -dhatus, sv sung (in both U, D) 
without pause; it is first (U?) performed in drutasekhara-tala and then (D?) in 
karanatala ; graha is in any desired sv; conclusion is on amsasvara. A has only patron’s 
name; U is sung twice; D, A, once; D is sung again and conclusion is on U: (2U-D- 
A-D-U). Patakarana has (same) two dhatus ; sv, hastapdtas yatis. Bandha karana: 2 
dhatus , sv, murajapdtas; sv-pd-karana: 2 dhatus, sweet sv; citrakarana: two dhatus , pd, 
sv, hastapdtas of muraja; tennakarana: 2 dhatus, sv, tn; misrakarana: two dhatus, sv, pt, 
tn; bd at end. 

PS (4.135-152cd. pp. 33,34) Svara-karana is described as inJS; but karanatala also 
is offered as alternative to drutasekhara (in theory?) but not carroborated in 
practice. A contains, besides the patron’s name, the composer’s name also. 
Mahgalarambha , kirtilahari, and Anandavardhana varieties of svarakarana are de¬ 
scribed. The reading ‘ padakarana replaces patakarana in AC and PS and therefore 
merits the status of a contender for the name. Pada, bandha -, svara-, pada-, citra-, tena- 
and misrakarana are described as in JS. 

Padakarana: 3d, 3 ahgas —sv tl bd, an: svarakarana: 3d, Sahgas — tl bd sv, an or 3d, 
four angas— tl pt bd sv, an; patakarana: 3d, 3 ahgas —tl bd pt; an: tena karana: 3d, four 
angas— sv tn tl bd, an; citrakarana: 3d, four ahgas— sv tn tl bd, an: bandhakarana: 3d, 

4 angas— sv bd tl pt, an; misrakarana: 3d Mangas— tn pt sv, an (4.45-51, p. 28). 

LS (5.207cd-230ab, pp. 381-384) enumerates nine karanas by considering pata- 
and vyatydsa karanas separately. Svarakarana is described to accord with the 
foregoing, A is composed with words which contain the names of patron and 
composer; the composition is in druta mdna. Birudakarana has U of sv, D of bd, A of 
pd; graha etc. are as before. The other karanas are described to accord with JS, PS 




RK (3.56.64, pp. 45, 46) describes eight karanas, holding krama- and vyatyasa- 
karanas as subvarieties of pdtakarana. In svarakarana, both U and D are composed 
of dense svaras; A has names of both patron and composer; the tala is rasaka. 
Bandhakarana has patas of mrdahga', it may be recalled that mrdahga and murajawere 
regarded as mutually synonymous since Sarngadeva’s times (SR 6.102, cf. NN 
2.47); the laksana of bandhakarana is apocryphally ascribed to Bharata; mahgala- 
rambha, anandavardhana and kirtilahari are described as subvarieties of all nine (!) 
karanas, giving a total of twentyseven forms of the prabandha. 

SD (4.394-403, pp.69-70) holds that karana has no samanyalaksana). Svarakarana 
is set to rasaka tala and druta laya\ the details of all nine karanas agree with the 

SP has a lacuna for karana prabandha. 

CDP of Venkatamakhin (9.85-106) concurs in all details of all nine karanas and 
adds that the essential difference between citrakarana and misrakarana is that in the 
former the components are disdnguishably mixed up e.g. rice and gingelly, while 
in the latter they are inseparably mixed up as milk and water. The karana has 
twentyseven varieties because of kalabheda, i.e. difference in number and order of 
performing U-D-A such as in mahgalarambha, anandavardhana and kirtilahan. 

83cd-90ab. 3. Dhehki 

84b. prayogatma, i.e. of the nature of gamakalapti. 

85b. Dhenki-tala is described as 5 IS (NN 1.190); 

85c. Kankala tala has four forms; puma ooooSI, khanda ooSS, sama 551 (acc. 
CDP 9.344, it is 5311 , visama 155 (NN 1.192) 

85d. Anya: any tala other than dhehki and kankala; any laya other than vilamba, i.e. 
madhya or druta. 

87b. Sa dhenkika. Let U r U r U 2 -M-D-A = X and U,44,44.,-D-A (i.e. sans M) = Y. 
Then the order of components in singing dhehki is 2X-A-X-D (first word) or 2Y-A- 
Y-D (firstword). 

88a. Visesa-dhenkI is of four appropriately named kinds: muktavah (nonmetrical), 
vrttabandhinl (single vrtta), yvgmini (two vrttas), vrttamala (numerous vrttas) ; the last 
three have each three varieties: varnika (composed of varna vrttas), ganika (com¬ 
posed of gana vrttas) and matrikd (composed of matra vrttas)', together with 
muktavah, these total to ten. Each of these has again three subvarieties viz. sama- 
lamkarana (containing even numbered figures of speech), visamalarhkarana (hav¬ 
ing odd numbered figures of speech) and citralamkarana (mixture of both). 
Therefore dhehki has as many as thirty forms (SR 4.145-152; CDP 9.467-481). 

89a. cf. 84d supra: caturdhdtuka if meldpaka is present; tridhatuka, if not. 

89b. Aniyamatalatah seems to imply that if U-M have no tala, D-A also have no 
tala. There is no reference to this in parallel texts. 

89d. cf. 85ab supra. 




BD (501cd-502ab, p. 153): Melody set to words is of composer’s own choice; it has 
dhenki tala or has no tala ; thus the composition acquired kahkala-tala later. 

AC (4.16.547b, p. 81) mentions dhenki; but the text suffers a lacuna for descrip¬ 

JS (p. 39): It is called thehki because its U and M are set to thehki tala ; the sequence 
of ahgas is as described in SR. Its conclusion is in 2 measures of the thehki tala. 
MuktavaU , vrttamdla , vrttabandhini and yugmini varieties are given, but the subvarieties, 
samalamkarana etc. are restricted to muktavaU; the vrttas are classified into ganika , 
varnika and matrikd. The dhehkika-laksana is ascribed to Matanga Muni. Graha is 
sama or visama in dhenki tala. 

SS (5.7.108cd-l 1 lab): Uj-Uj-M-l^ sung twice in sama-visama-graha of dhenki tala; 
similarly Dj-D 2 -A-D t> is sung once. 

PS (4.95cd-100, p. 30) agrees fully with JS; D has three segments; the first two 
have words of alliteration, different in matu but same in dhatu ; the third is different 
in both matu and dhatu ; D is executed in a different tala and laya\ sequence of ahgas 
is as above; conclusion is in the measure of U. The composition has 4d, two ahgas 
viz. pd-tl, n-an or 4d, 2 ahgas —pd bd, n-an ( 4. 57, p. 28). 

LS (5.230-241, pp. 384-386): All details of thirty dhenki varieties are same as above; 
U-M in dhehkirtala or kahkala-tala or neither; only U-M is in vilambita-laya ; third D- 
segment is sung once in high, strong, intense pitch. The four varieties muktavaUe tc. 
and the subvarieties varnika , ganika and matrikd are as before giving a total of thirty 
dhenki forms. 

RK (3.65cd-69, p.46): Only dhenki samanyalaksana is given, attributed to Bharata 
etc. apocryphally, but its varieties are not described. Sequence of rendering ahgas 
is as before. 

SD (4.404-408, pp.70-71) describes samanyalaksana as before and ascribes thirty 
forms to ‘ granthdntara . 

SP (1.548, p. 72) is brief and incomplete; merely gives sequence Uj-Uj-LL and 

90cd-94 4. Vartani and Vivartini 

90cd-92ab. Vartani is sung in this sequence: U-U-D-A-D (first word). 

92cd. For kahkala and prati tala see commentary on NN 3.2.61 cd; pratimantha is 
III (NN 1.151; but 115 or 511 according to SR and SD); kudukka is the same as addatala 
00 II (NN 1.140). Vartani may be performed in any desi tala other than rasa\ but 
vivartini is restricted to one of kahkala , pratitala , pratimantha and kudukka. 

93d. Adi includes restriction of laya. 

94d. Both vartani and vivartini are of bhavanijati , three-dhatu-prabandhas (cf. SR 
4.152-154; CDP 9.60) 




BD (429cd-431ab, p. 146) prescribesa graha (?); conclusion is on arhsa svara of 
the rdga; contains name of patron and composer (in A?) sung in svaras to any tala 
other than kahkala, pratitala, drutamantha and kudukka. 

AC has no description. 

JS (pp. 25, 26): Variant, fashioned after svarakarana has the sequence 2U-D-A-D 
and avoids prati tala, dhruva, matta, kahkala and kudukka, and vivartinl is composed 
in only one of these talas. In both, there is at first an alapa without tala. 

SS (5.7.95cd-101a): Variant commences with an dldpa in svaras without tala; then 
follows the sequence 2 U-D-A-D and is composed in any tala other than pratitala, 
dhruva, mantha, kahkalaand kudukka; the main difference from karana is that variant 
is set in vilambita laya while the karana is in druta laya. Vivartinl also avoids the five 
talas pratitala etc. (?) and has a svara-dldpa wi thout tala at the beginning. 

PS (4.152cd-15ab, p. 35): The sequence of ahgas, avoidance of talas and the 
difference from karana prabandha are as above. Vivartinl is sung to one of these five 
talas. Both begin with a svaralapa sans tala. Variant: 2d, 3 ahgasv iz. sv pt tn, an or 3d, 
four ahgas— sv bd pd tl, an (4.31, 50, pp. 27, 28) Vivartinl: 3d, four ahgas- sv-pd pd 
tl;an (4.50, p. 28). 

LS (5.242-245ab, pp. 386,387): U-D in sv. A in pd; performed in kahkala, pratitala 
kudukka or pratimantha (?) in vilambila-laya; sequence: 2U-D-A-D. Vivartinl is not 
described, but is probably mixed up with variant, cf. tala prescription. 

RK (3.73-76, p. 47): Similar to svarakarana, in a tala other than rasa, in vilambita 
laya; sequence is 2U-D-A-D; vivartinl is sung in kahkala, mantha etc. tala. 

SD (4.409-411, p. 71) variant and vivartinl as in SR. 

SP (1.549ab, p. 72). Svaras are sung in this song. 

95.99 5. Jhombada 

97-98a. Pratitala, kudukka and pratimantha are shown above; nihsaru = hamsatila 
if (NN 1.190), triputa dl (ibid., 1.181), dvitiya oil (ibid., 1.140), yatilagna ( =rupaka ) 
oi (ibid., 1.152), garugi oooo' (ibid., 1.161), rasa= adi I (ibid., 1.138), ekatali o (ibid 
1.150), SR prescribes mantha <a/aalso from an alternative school (4.158) but rejects 
it because it is not found in the practice of this song. 

98c. Bahavo bhedah: SR (4.155-168) counts as many as 3510 forms of jhombada 
thus: taraja with melodic movement in tara register; ataraja, without such move¬ 
ment; tarajajhombada has four varieties: U, M, D or A is in tdra register. Among these 
are four of four dhatus, three of three dhatus (without melapaka); in ataraja jhombada 
there is one of four dhatus, one of three dhatus thus giving 9 in all. Each of these 
has two forms: prabhutagamaka (abundant use of gamaka, i.e. tonal curvature) and 
stoka-gamaka (modicum of gamaka) thus resulting in eighteen jhombadas; each of 
these has five forms again: prayogika (?) (is composed in a metre of four ganas per 
verse foot), kramakhya (in a metre of five ganas per verse foot), kramavilasa (six 
ganas per verse foot), extra (seven ganas) and vicitraUla (eight ganas ); so 90 



jhombadas are got. Each of the 90 jhombadas forms thirteen varieties according to the 
figure of speech and rasa as follows: 

i. Brahma— upama, rupaka, slesa ii. Visnu— vlra rasa, vilasa iii. Cakresvara— vlra 
iv. Candikesvara— blbhatsa v. Narasimha— adbhuta vi. Bhairava— bhayanaka 
vii. Harhsa— hasya, srhgara viii. Simha— vlra, bhayanaka ix. saraiiga— vipralambha 
x. Sekhara— karuna xi. Puspasara— srhgara xii. Pracanda— raudra xiii. Nandlsa— 
santa. This gives 90 x 13 = 1170 forms of jhombada. Each one of them again, is of 
three kinds— gadyaja, padyaja and gadya-padyaja. So the total is 3510. An example 
is taraja-caturdhdtuka-dhruva-stokagamaka-kramavildsa-sdrahga-padyaja jhombada : its 
melody lies in the tara register; it has four dhatus; of these D ocurs in tara register; 
a modicum of gamakas is employed in it; it is composed in a metre with six ganas per 
foot; its theme is vipralambha-srhgara. 

99d. dvyanga: pd tl. 

BD (495-498,pp. 152,153) has an opaque text; there are four feet; first half is sung 
twice followed by the second half; each half has rhyming (alliterative?) words; this 
is true of all pddas\ it is set to any desi tala other than kahkdla; it is decorated with tanas 
and figures of speech. 

AC (4.16.77-79, p. 49; 535-538, p. 80): the first passage contains only the mention 
of jhombada, set in dohaka metre; which is implausible; in the second passage, the 
sequence of ahgasis (UUDDAD). It may be set to any ^toother than madra ( mattha), 
kahkdla, and prati tala; it is of six varieties because of the use of garugi, dvitiya, nihsaru, 

JS (pp. 40-44) is the source for PS, SR etc. The seeds of evolution—fatal 
proliferation—are found here. Its samanyalaksana prescribes the sequence U, U f L 
M (±) DDAD where M± indicates melapaka with gamakas, optionally employed' 
According to some, a component called ‘ bhaga ’ (this consists of the udgrahaoi the 
original song composed in different or other words so as to complete the intended 
meaning); gamaka occurs in the jhombada sometimes in abundance ( prabhuta- 
gamaka) and sometimes scarce ( alpagamaka) even as the shadow of a body some¬ 
times increases and sometimes decreases. 

Jhombada is of two classes viz. taraja (in tara sthayi) and ataraja (not in tara sthayl) ; 
taraja is again of two kinds, duskara and sukara. Duskara has four subvarieties called 
pratapatilaka, pratapasahgama, acalapratapa and pratapavardhana, depending on the 
occurrence of U, M, D or A in the tarasthana respectively; these are obviously 
composed by, or dedicated to Jagadekamalla (whose original name is not known, 
but who is invariably called Pratapaprthvlbhuja in his inscriptions). 

Next, the jhombada-prabandha ( ataraja) is of three kinds —prabhuta gamaka, 
alpagamaka and tridhatuka ; the first is called duskara-ataraja. The first two are 
appropri-ately named; tridhatukahas copious, facile gamakas but omits melapaka ; the 
sukara-ataraja is of two kinds again— tridhatuka and alpagamaka. All these seven 



forms o{ jhombada are required to be composed in gdrugi tala; these seven may also 
be set to dvitiya tala. 

There are four other forms of duskara viz. udyatpratapa, pratapayoga, sthirapratapa 
and pratapasekhara (created by or for Jagadekamalla) in which UMD and A are 
situated in what is called sthdnaka respectively (this is tarasthana). These are again 
divided into the three prabhuta-gamaka etc. as well as duskara and sukara. Again, the 
name of the jhombada varies with the tala employed; there are three more varieties 
of jhombada; gadyaja is composed in prose words of Sanskrit or regional language, 
with alliteration; padyaja is composed in any metrical form; gadyapadyaja contains 
both prose and verse. The prabhuta-gamaka-jhombadavarieties are set in laghusekhara 
tala while the alpa- gamaka varieties are set in matta, nihsaru, candanihsaru or 
candatrtiya. Those composed in laghusekhara or kudukka tala have an A without 
words (as a special case). Thus there are eighteen jhombadas. 

PS (4.101-130ab, pp. 31-33) copies JS completely: 3d, 2 ahgas —pd tl; n-an, (p. 

SS (5.7.114d-l 16ab, p. 222) describes jh o m bad a on the model of dhvanikuttani; a 
bhdga is to be sung as in dhvanikuttani; U has the other words (as befits bhdga) ; it has 
gamaka (prayoga) and (anu-?) prdsa as well as a metrical structure. 

LS (5.245cd-268ab, pp. 387-390) follows SR closely. 

RK (4.73-76, p. 47) mentions the sequence U, U, U 2 M (±, />rayoga)DDAD; 
ascribed to the Munis, the song is set to any one of the ten talas v iz. nihsaru, gdrugi, 
rasa, kudukka, pratimantha, tripula, adda, yatilagna, divitiya, ekatdli, as required in the 
SR (4.156cd-157); its 3510 varieties are mentioned. 

SD (4.412-415 ab, pp. 71, 72) mentions the ahga sequence and the ten talas as 
above; gives the total number as 3510. 

SP (1,549cd) U is in pancama and dhruva in sadjal 

100-102ab 6. Lambhaka 

100b. va: So lambhaka is of tw'o kinds. 

lOOd. dhruvapratinidhau: If the lambhaka has D, U is sung once; if D is absent 
then U is sung again, in its place. 

101a. dvir-abhogo: SR describes this differently (4.169) ^ 

■gfrT>: iThe vikalpa (disjunctive) ‘t/a’here is interpreted differently: Sirhhabhupala. 
(p. 266) explains this as ‘D is to be sung once or twice; so also A’. Kallinatha. (p. 264) 
places another construction: D is sung twice; A may or may not occur. It is not 
known whether such differences are due to divergence in practice or merely 
exercises in literary exegesis. SR has abbreviated the description at the cost of 
clarity; as usual, Sirhhabhupala is content with a syntactical rearrangement; 
Kallinatha is quite elaborate. So later authorities such as Pandarika Vitthala and 
Vehkatamakhin borrow from Kallinatha, rather than from Sarhgadeva. For 



example, while describing the lambhaka variety called vilambha, SR says (4.174): 
^il Kallinatha exapands this as follows: 

7ft ^ ^ i (loc. cit.) 

Unaware of this, Pandarika Vitthala amalgamates this as lambhaka samanyalaksana: 
‘dhruvapratinidhau tatah \ 

101b. sa lambhah: Pandarika Vitthala has athetised the text considerably here, 
omitting the alternative descritpion/characterisation of lambhah also its varieties. 
These are furnished here from SR (4.170-174) for the sake of completeness. 
According to the alternative view ( matantara ), both U and D 2 have the same dhatu 
in both jhombada and lambhaka. The sequence of lambha are: i. Alapalambha : U has 
no tala , ii. Pralambha : in the absence of D, U is sung again with the same words but 
different dhatu. iii. Bhagalambha: components of different lambha varieties afe put 
together, iv. Lambhapada —After U of different dhatus (and matus ?) D (of the same 
constant dhatu and matu) is repeated 3, 4 or 5 times, v. Anulambha is the reverse of 
this; i.e. dhruva of variable dhatu and matu is executed 3, 4 or 5 times after U of 
constant dhatu and matu. vi. Upalambha: dhatu and matu of both U and D are varied 
(and sung repeatedly). Lambha, anulambha and upalambha omit A. vii. Vilambha has 
no D or A; U of a constant dhatu is sung again and again with different words in place 
of D. 

BD has no description of lambhaka. 

AC (4.16.539-546, pp. 80, 81): U and D are composed of one verse foot each. 
Sequence is 2U-2D-A: (contains patron’s name)—D (repeated many times); 
vilambharV (1 foot)—D (1 foot)-A; pratilambharU (different tala , 1 foot)—D (with 
tala) ; bhagalambhor U is sung again with different words in dhatu of the first half. 

In lambhaka the U-variety called bhaga is invariably the second component; in 
jhombada it is performed optionally to represent dhruva. 

SS (5.7.116cd-118ab,pp.222-223):One ortwo words (feet?) are sungwith a little 
gamaka\ sequence is U-2D-A-D. 

JS (p. 44): U has one or two words (or feet) with a little gamaka: U-2D-A-D; it is 
decorated with two or three bhagas. Ifhas two varieties viz. vilambha and upalambha ; 
in vilambha U is alapa ; D, A are set in tala, conclusion is on D; upalambha has U and/ 
or D repeated several times with different words but same dhatu; it has no A. 

PS. (4.180cd-185ab, p. 37) borrows from JS; 3d, two ahgas —pd tl; an (4.40, p. 27) 

LS (5.268cd-276ab, pp. 390, 391) describes sequence as U-2D-A-D, and the 
varieties alapa, pra-, bhaga-, anu-, upa, vipra- and pada lambhas as in SR (4.170-174). 

RK (3.77, p. 47) 2U-2D-2A-D (U: one or two feet) 

SD (4.415, p. 72) 2U-2D-2A-D (U: one or two feet) 

SP (1.551, p. 72) U-2D-2A-D (U: one or two feet), vilambita laya. 




102cd-103 7. Rasaka 

102d. gamaka-sthanake vina: NN has athetised rasaka-laksana to a great extent. 
Rasaka is modelled on the jhombada prabandha but with an important difference; 
jhombada is characterised with the following: copiousness or modicum of gamakas , 
occurrence or absence of movement in tarasthana , occurrence or absence of M, 
application of specific rasa and figures of speech etc. Rasaka has none of these. 
Therefore, it is only of three kinds depending on the dispensation of gana , varna 
or matra in each verse foot. (It may be recalled that in jhombada there is only gana - 
structuring and that its varieties arising out of varna- and matra structuring of the 
verse foot are ignored because of their obsolescence.) Thus rasaka-prabandha has 
the following varieties by possessing matra ganas in the verse foot thus: i. rasavalaya: 
cha-gana ii. hamsatilaka: pa-gana iii. ratirahgaka : car gana iv. madanavatara: ta-gana. 
Secondly varnarasaka has twentyfive subvarieties in respect of the verse foot 

possessing 6,7, 8 , 9. 29 or 30 syllables. Thirdly, in matra rasaka , there are 

fiftythree subvarieties in respect of the verse foot populated by 8 ,9, 10 , 11,12 ... 59 , 
60 matras. So the rasaka has altogether eightytwo forms; but varna- and matra-rasakas 
had lost the sanction of currency, so that only the four varieties rasavalaya , 
hamsatilaka , ratirahgaka and madanavatara were known even to the encyclopeadic 
Sarngadeva. * 

BD has no description. 

AC (4.16.547, p. 81) only mentions rasaka among suda prabandhas but does not 
describe it. 

SS (5.7.112cd-l 19, p. 223): Rasaka is composed in aditala (= rasatala, NN 1.138b) 
without gamakas; the rest is as in jhompada prabandha. 

JS (p. 44) composed in adi (= rasaka) tala without gamakas\ it follows jhombada 
(krombada ) in other details; it is of three kinds because of application of varna , gana 
and matra like lambhaka; but these are not found in current practice; some prescribe 
alapa in its U while others describe the rasaka U with words in one foot. 

PS (4.185cd-188ab, p. 37) borrows literally from JS; 3d; two ahgas —pd tl; n-an, 
p. 27; or 4d; two ahgas —pd bd, n-an (4.57, p. 28) 

LS (5.276cd-282, pp. 391, 392) closely follows SR. 

RK (3.78, p. 47) Rasaislike jhombadawithoutgamaka and sthanav ariation butwith 
rasa-tala ; it has numerous varieties. 

SD (4.416, p. 72) same is in RK; there are fiftythree matrika-rasas and twentyfive 

SP (1.552ab, p.72): jhombada performed in rasa tala is rasa prabandha (!) 
104-106 8. Ekatali 

104c. nyaso: cf SR 4.180-181: Simhabhupala reads ‘ nyasoyatra as ‘ nyaso nyatra 
and therefore explains that the conclusion is elsewhere than D or A, i.e. only in U 
(p. 264). 



105a. alapamatrena: Kallinatha suggests that alapa should be interpreted as with 
orwithout syllabic content (p. 268): : 

ftcf %T*Tf^PTcT^, I 

It is more consistent to understand absence of tala rather than of words in 

106b. munina: This is a spurious invocation to the muni ; this passage is directly 
borrowed from SR (4.360cd-361ab): 

^ +lRfdi n 

BD (502cd-503ab, p. 153) describes ekataR as having dense alliteration with 
frequent caesurae: 4 ^ifd4^ ^ \' 

AC (4.16.547, p. 81) mentions ekatalias part of sudakramabut does not describe 

SS (5.7.120-122b, p. 223) gives sequence 2U-2D-A-D. It has prasa , yati and 
repeated dhruva copiously and is sung in ekatati. 

JS (p. 44) gives the sequence of dhatus as 2U-2D-AD; it has copious rhyming, 
caesurae and druta', it is composed in ekatali ; according to some, its U is made from 

PS (4.188cd-190, p. 37) copies JS: 3d, two ahgas —pd tl; n (4.40, p. 27) 

LS (5.283, 284, p. 392) gives the same sequence for dhatus r, set in ekatala ; 
according to some it is composed of alapa ; prasa , yati and druta are not mentioned. 

RK (3.79,80, p. 48) describes the same as in LS but ascribes the laksana spuriously 
to Bharatamuni and others. 

SD (4.417, p. 73): same sequence 

SP (1.552cd, p. 73): ekatalc, and druta layaare prescribed. 

suddhasOda prabandhas 

Classification of prabandhas into suda, alikrama and viprakirna seems to emerge 
in the twelfth century A.D. The same is true of division of suda into suddha and 
chayalaga ( salaga ). Suda is not a Sanskrit word; it is explained by Kallinatha as a 
vernacular word referring to a special group of gitas collectively (op. cit. on SR 4.22, 
pp. 213,214): 

I have shown elsewhere (Sathyanarayana, R., Suladis and Ugabhogas of Karnataka 
Music , p. 5 and Snpadaraya: A Musical and Literary Study, under preparation) that it 
is a Kannada word meaning ‘predetermined order’, ‘by turn’ etc. and was applied 
to a group of songs which were required to be sung in a particular order. This order 



was called sudakrama', sul also means ‘to sound : the suladi talas were so named 
because (i) they occurred in a predetermined, fixed order (sulakrama) and (ii) they 
were performed in a fast tempo with only sounded beats ( chapu). 

Suda was divided into suddha and salaga {chayalaga). The eight compositional 
prototypes eld etc. described above are suddha', dhruva, mantha etc. are salagasudas 
(,Salaga is phonetic degeneration of chayalaga) ; they are so called because they 
partake ofashade (chdyd) of eld etc. in architecture. Sarngadeva raises an objection 
to this nomenclature in purvapaksa: according to the acarya(s), the ela etc. are 
themselves chayalaga', how then, may they be called suddha ? For, suddha lefeis to 
the time honoured ( marga ) musical forms jati, grama-ragas, bhasa, vibhasa and 
antarabhdsa rdgas (described in the first two chapters of SR) as well as the fourteen 
(madraka etc.) prakarana gitis (described in the fifth chapter of SR). He reconciles 
this by saying that it is true, but in the case of eld etc. suddha should be interpreted 
liberally as suddhasadrsa (similar to suddha) because of the popular application of 
this term to them (SR 4.312-313b). It is interesting to note that Simhabhupala once 
refers to eld etc. suddhasudas as ‘marga’ (on SR 3.16, p. 135) 

The word ‘ acarya ’ is interpreted by Simhabhupala as Bharata (p. 335) while 
Kallinatha is silent. Justification of this equation is not known, though later writers 
such as Srikantha and Damodara ascribe the suddha-sudas to Bharata. No such 
reference is available in the extant sources of the Natyasastram. Unless these authors 
are indulging in gaining for their statements the credibility and authority of 
antiquity, it has to be assumed that such references'are found in the work of a later 
(than URNS) namesake author; this possibility cannot be entirely ruled out 
because of the occurrence of the panca-bharata names as well as the reference to 
Vrddha-bharata, Adibharata etc. in later works on music, dance etc. 

Kallinatha explains suddha in connection with eld etc. (p. 335) as only a 
proximate expression, a figure of speech: suddha refers to such music as does not 
exceed or violate established and prescribed rules, whereas salaga refers to music 
which contravenes them. In other words, suddha and salaga are relative to each 
other, in terms of the degree of conformity with rules. Eld etc. conform more while 
dhruva etc. do (far) less; but, says Simhabhupala, suddha does not mean complete 
conformity (p. 335) :‘natu mukhyam suddhatvam ’. Deviation from rules or tradition 
in the salagasudashas been recorded by Kallinatha and Tulaja and will be discussed 
in the commentary on salagasudas. 

Classification presumes the existence of similarities (and dissimilarities) and 
their recognition. BD does not reveal these in respect of eld etc. and does not 
describe lambhakaand rasaka, much less dhruva, mantha etc. 7 alaniryukti, especially 
nomenclature on the basis of the (afa-name must have played an important role 
in grouping these songs as suddha and salaga. Most of the suddhasudas e.g. karana 
(BD 426, 427; AC 4.16.89-91), dhehkl (BD 501cd-502ab; JS p. 39; SS 5.7.108-111), 
rasaka (AC 4.16.547) and ekatdli (SS 5.7.120-122; JS p. 44) began their careers with 



niryukti of self-named tala and gradually grew independent of it. It is not clear if both 
suda songs were of desi (non ‘classical ’) origin, and were already regarded as groups 
(cf. Kallinatha ‘ gitavisesasamuha pp. 213, 214) in their desi environment or if only 
the name suda is of desi origin; for, while the eld was composed in provincial 
languages like Kannada also, they were composed in Sanskrit in sophisticated 
metrical forms and figures of speech etc. The salagasudas must have been composed 
in Sanskrit before sulddis were composed in Kannada by the Haridasas (14th-15th 
century A.D.), and much later, in Telugu also. Only one sulddi of Annamacarya in 
Sanskrit has survived in both matu and dhdtu in an inscription in the temple of Sri 
Venkatesvara in Tirupati. 

In its early days, Indian music had developed a conventionally accepted order in 
the performance of its compositions. There were two such sequences viz. sudakrama 
and alikrama. The viprakirna prabandhas were associated with activities or special 
occasions. It is interesting that Somesvara mentions sudakrama only, but includes 
other types of composition in the sequence; he includes some e.g. rasaka which 
he does not describe; he omits vartani and vivartani altogether (AC 4.16.547-554, 

pp. 81, 82): 

cRUT xf cl^TT I 

cTSTT -WIcHdlRwi II <V*V9 II 

^ ^JcT: II II 

BNcft qdHcfl 4-fa H^-d'klsil I 
1SQ\ ^ II W II 

Tfa TPTT: W«fT dlRbdil m\: I 

fd*J4il u lf: M'lld^Ml II II 

fttfat -W*IT: MfHlPddl: II II 

Thus Somesvara defines sudakrama as consisting of larger prabandhas such as eld 
followed by smaller ones such as kanda; he seems to include tripadi, satpadi... danti 
among the sudas\ Again, early authorities such as BD, JS, PS do not give them in the 
same order, and even insert other prabandhas such as svarartha and gadya between, 
say vivartini and lambhaka\ only some karanas such as svara, pata and bandha are 
found in the earlier works, that too not together but scattered among others. BD 
etc. show the earliest phase of these e.g. eld (number of feet, prasa instead of 
anuprasa etc.). It is interesting that SR does not describe salagasudas immediately 
after the s uddha sudas, but at the very end, after the viprakirna prabandhas:, the 
salagasudas are implied to be evolutes of the suddha sudas and were melting in a 
crucible of change. The order suddha suda-alikrama-viprakirna-sdlagasuda probably 
reflects the decreasing degree of conformity to rules or norms. 





107-109ab 1. Varna 

107a. udgrahadhruvakau: SR (4.181cd, 182ab) is not explicit on the dhatus. 
Kallinatha argues (p. 269) that they are indispensable to every prabandha and 
should be composed of birudas (unless otherwise stated); he further quotes 
Sarngadeva: ‘ anuktabhogavastunampadairabhogakalpana (SR4.310ab) to infer that 
the varna has an abhoga composed of words. Therefore, it has three ahgas —pd bd 
tl; so it is of bhavani class; it has three dhatus viz. UDA. Pandarika Vitthala quotes 
the above line which is pertinent, but also the next line (SR 4.310cd: ‘ ovyadayastu 
catvaro bhavanty-abhogavarjitafi) but has omitted the line (SR 4.182ab): ‘ tala - 
traividhyatas-tasya traividhyam gaditam budhaiK\ varna tala has three forms viz. tryasra 
> (llooll), misra (oooooooooooo55oo5II5) and caturasra ( 5 |oo5 ) as described in NN 
(1.172, 173). So varna prabandha is of three kinds— tryasra , misra and caturasra. 
BD (403, p. 144): bd, tn (?), tl; Kannada language 

JS (p. 49): bd; Kannada language; varna tala; so three varieties as above. 

PS: 2d, two ahgas —bd tl; n-an (4.29, p. 25) 


LS (5.285, 286, pp. 392, 393): U-D: bd, A-words, varna tala ; 3 varieties; Kannada 

RK (3.94, p. 49): bd, varna tala ; so, three varieties, Kannada language 
SD (4.428, p. 74): same as in RK 
SP (1.556cd): Kannada language 

109cd-112ab 2 . Varnasvara 

llOd. vedaksi: Of the six ahgas , tala is fixed to be varna tala and bd is absent. 
Hence only sv pd pt tn remain; with each composed in the beginning, there are four 
varnasvara varieties viz., svaradi , padadi , patadi and tenadi. Following SR (4.182, 
183), both Simhabhupala (p. 270) and Kallinatha explain this. In each of these 
varieties, the remaining three ahgas may be composed in any desired order; in each 
varna , then 4 C 3 , i.e. six forms are available. So the total is twentyfour. Pandarika 
Vitthala offers this as an additional observation. 

111c. ekena dhruva(h): This is not mentioned in SR; Simhabhupala is also 
silent. But Kallinatha (p. 270) avers that among svarae tc. two should constitute U, 
and two, D; A is composed of words. But ‘ anuktabhogavastunam, padair-abhogakal- 
pana is only a general rule (SR 4.310ab). So, if out of sv pt tn and pd, two occur in 
U and pd in A, only one ahga remains. So D cannot have two ahgas , as stated by 
Kallinatha. It would thus appear that Pandarika Vitthala is more acceptable. If 
Kallinatha is to be justified, it must be argued that even if there is pd in the two 
sections of U and D, A should be composed with words again. Venkatamakhin also 




takes this view (CDP 9.143). He states additionally that the composition concludes 
on tn. 

BD. (507, p. 153): sv pd pt tn tl; tl is not specified. 

AC (4.16.92, p. 50; 4.16.437, p. 69): pt tn pd sv tl; tl is not specified. 

JS (p. 40): four kinds: svaradi , padadi , patadi, tennadi ; tl not mentioned. 

PS—3d, 5 ahgas- sv pt pd tn tl, n-an; (4.55, p. 27) 

SS (5.7.139cd-140, p. 225): sv tl pd tn; bd not mentioned; A in other words; 
conclusion on tn 

LS (5.287-290ab, p. 393): four forms svaradi , patadi, padadi , tenadv, these are of 
many further varieties. 


SD (4.429, p. 75): sv pt pd tn in any desired order; conclusion is on tn. 

SP (1.557ab, p. 73): Varna performed with sv tl is varnasvara. 

112cd-124 3. Gadya 

112cd. chandobandhahlnam: prose, without prosodial or metrical structure. 
113d. samavedatah: Gadya is padya without prosodial structure; samans are 
formed by melodising the rks which are liberated from metrical or tala restrictions. 

114b. Gaud! is a riti, i.e. style. Vamana ( Kdvayalamkara-sutravrtti , 1.6-13) holds 
that style is the soul of poetry; style is characteristic composing of words. Such 
characteristic is the quality of poetry. It is threefold: vaidarbhi , gaudi and pancaR, so 
named probably because of the original, provincial pecularity in literary composi¬ 
tion, but in reality, not limited to geographic boundaries. Riti has two aspects: 
quality of sound and quality of meaning. These have ten qualities (guna) each: 




1 . 


taut structure 

full development, maturity 



structural laxity 

clarity or purity of meaning 







sameness of marga 

absence of unevenness, or of oddity 



regularity in ascent 
and descent 




discreteness of words 

speciality or charm in expression 



softness; absence of 

softness; absence of harshness 



‘ vikatatva : as if the 
words are dancing 

‘ agramyatva : absence of vulgarity 



generating of clear 

explicitness of context or 



lustre, illumination 

emotive intensity 



Vaidarbhi riti has all ten qualities; it is lovely as the tone of the vind; it involves, and 
transcends grammatical perfection, a good poet and a good theme, beyond and 
above these, it has something without which the words cannot drip sweetness. 
Gaudi rid has ojas send kanti; so it has long, compound word structures and bombast. 
Pahcali riti is a dull style; involving madhurya and saukumarya; it lacks bombast; its 
structure is loose and resembles purana style (Vamana, op. cit. 3.1.1-27; 3.2.1-10). 

As Murray says (J. Middleton Murray, The Problem of Style, p. 5), ‘Whatever goes 
to make a man’s writing recognizable is included in his style’. ‘Here then, we have 
three fairly distinct meanings of the word; style, disengaged; style, as a personal 
idiosyncracy; style as a technique of expression; style, as the highest achievement of 
literature.’ (ibid., p. 7), The second meaning is relevant to this context. 

Other styles such as lati, avantika and magadhi (note again the provincial 
association) developed later in Indian Poetics. 

114c. Curna is more familiarly known as curnika. 

114d. (arabhati)vrtti: mode of diction; vrtti refers to any speciality in costumery 
and make up ( nepathya) , song, instrumental music, rasa, bhdva, abhinaya and nrtya\ 
or, it is the mode of disposition of grace or beauty. Sagaranandin asseverates 
( Natakalaksanaratnakosa, 1044ff.): 

fadwrcMwsfvqt I 

Bharatamuni describes, for the first time the origin and characteristics of the 
different vrttis (NS 20). Here vrtti is a my theme. When Lord Narayana shrank the 
earth to a seed and expanded the universe to the ocean (cf. Valmiki Rdmayana, 7.72; 
Kurmapurana 13) and lay down to rest on Adisesa, the Asuras Madhu and Kaitabha, 
intoxicated with their own power and strength, picked a quarrel and provoked him 
to battle: they hit him with fisticuffs and derisive abuse. A witness to this, Brahma 
chided Visnu: ‘Why do you tarry with mere words? Is this an occasion of bharati vrtti ? 
Destroy them instantly!’ Visnu said, ‘This bharati vrtti itself will turn out to be the 
cause of my destroying them; the weight ( bhara) of (their) words will go on 
increasing; let this excessiveness of words be known as bharati vrtti in the world! ’ He 
fought the asuras with well formed, neat body movements and ahgaharas. The earth 
became heavy with the sthanakas (stances) he employed; bhdrati-vrtti has originated 
from this ‘ bhara' (heaviness). It is born of Rgveda, is speech-predominant, used by 
men only and contains Sanskrit words. It is called bharati vrtti because bharatas 
(actors) employ it. 

During this battle the bow of Visnu viz. the sarahga tripped sharply, intensely and 
from the power of sattva (mental dispositions); sattvati vrtti originated from this; it 
is born of Yajurveda ; it is called sattvati because it contains mental dispositions 
(. sattvatena), nyayas (weapon modalities in a battle) and vrttasr, it involves intense joy 
and destruction of grief. 




While engaged in executing strange ahgaharas, Visnu tied his hair (kesa) into a 
tuft in a sportive mood. Kaisiki vrtti originated from such tying of hair. It involves 
women who wear specially beautiful make-up and costume, numerous songs and 
dances, enjoyment of, and services to the erotic pleasures. 

Arabhati vrtti originated from the strange and charming acts of combat and cans 
in which Visnu engaged with great excitement and enthusiasm. The arabhati vrtti 
includes the qualities of a bold person ( arabhata ) such as speaking many words, 
deception, bragging and falsehood. It hasjumping, leaping, falling down, crossing 
over, conjuration and magic. 

Bharata prescribes bibhatsa and karuna-rasas for bharati vrtti, vira , adbhuta and 
sama (santi) for sattvati, hasya and srhgara for kaisiki and raudra as well as bhayanaka 
for arabhati. It may be noted that such allocation is at variance with that made for 
gadya varieties with the assignment of vrttis in the NN. 

116c. Kaisiklcitra-vrtti is, according to Kallinatha, kaisiki-vrtti admixed under the 
influence of bharati etc. (on SR 4.190, p. 271): 

116d. citram: citra-gadya; cf SR (4.190, 191) 

^•k 'Wiq I 

Tf^RT TtelT HHKirdfefa™ II 

117ab. Parallel texts such as SR give the complexion and presiding deities for the 
six gadya varieties as follows: utkalika—red , Rudra; curna—yellow , Brahma; lalita — 
white, Madana; vrttagandhi —yellow, Muni; khanda—white , Ganesa; citra—variegated 
colour, Visnu. 

117c. Veni,misra:Venkatamakhin (CDP 9.216) seems to imply the veniand misrn 
varieties for each of the six gadyas. This does not seem plausible since the veni is 
described as a mixture of all six, and misra a mixture of curna and vrttagandhi\ the 
eight varieties of gadya described in SR accord with those found in parallel texts; the 
veni and misra may be regarded as compiled in SR from a different school. 

118d. bahvalpa samalaih: Herein is implied a natural and logical relationship 
between gati (= lay a) and syllabic density; in drutagati(fast)-gadya, only short 
syllables ( laghu) are closely packed; in vilambagati-gadya, laghusare few and gurusare 
abundant; in madhyagati-gadya both laghus and gurus are equitably distributed. 

120ab. sat-gatayah: drutavilambita profuse laghus in first half, profuse gurus in 
second half; the name druta-vilambitd is thus apposite; this avoids guru in first half 
and laghu in the second half of the verse foot. If the laghus and gurus are equally 
distributed it is druta-madhya; madhyavilambita consists of laghus and gurus in equal 
(or equitable) proportions in the first half and only gurus in the second half. 



Thus each of the six gadya varieties has six gati subvarieties, giving altogether 
thirtysix gadya forms. Sarngadeva or his commentators do not extend these 
subvarieties to the veni and misra ; it is not clear why. Simhabhupala derives these 
thirtysix gadya forms somewhat differently (p. 274): 

facliHdl 7 TfcT:, dfeicl ^^ T TfcT:, <sl u ^ 

£dfadfMdl J lirlRfd ... ^kT^TI I I 

^1: I 

124b. gadyam nigadyate: The samanyalaksana and mode of singing gadya de¬ 
scribed in the above nine hemistitches may be summarised here: First, the syllable 
‘aum’is sung without tala; the words of the gadya should be recited without tala (as 
in kavyavacana, poetry recitation) set to the fifteen gamakas and the four varnas 
(alamkaras) . Solfeggio passages should be sung in between sentences, in between 
words, in between syllables of words (passages such as citta-svara, ettugade-svara , 
kalpana-svara in Karnataka music and sargam in Hindustani music). Then, two 
words containing the name of the gadya variety should be sung with tala, and 
repeated again, once. After this, gamakalapti is performed twice; next, a word 
containing the composer’s signature, set to tala , followed by a word incorporating 
the patron’s name also set to tala in vilamba laya (i.e. with modicum of laghus ), is 
performed. These two talas must be different or in different layas. The same is 
repeated in druta (madhya ? cf. Kallinatha p. 273) laya. Then the whole prabandha is 
sung again as described above, and commencing with the two words set to tala , the 
rest should be completed in vilamba layain a different (third) tala. Thus concludes 
the gadya. Here U is the first portion without tala; the two words, set to tala and 
repeated twice, constitute D; the last portion commencing with gamakalapti (prayoga) 
is A. It is aniryukta since there is no restriction of tala, raga, chandas etc., it is of 
bhavanijati and is tridhatuka (UDA). Compare with SR (4.184-198). 

BD (400, p. 144): opaque text with lacuna 

-SjlfaT rRpT'^TWTcT: I 

^ cTMt i 

AC (4.16.247-249, p. 27): Gadya has no restriction of verse feet (or words) and of 
prosody; it is densely populated with compound words; it has sv but no tl. The 
patron’s name is sung at the end with tala. Somesvara offers the following 
illustration (he does not describe the varieties of gadya): 




Jiu-q^iquq Ml^<^ifq<'«i^a=t)<rq^fqspy'll 4iHHl yfdgdfa- 

f<e)MPdMRM<£dr+ & T f^TT ^PHdPHRddd | cbHNct,pH^nct,irHHlH^HKrc|^H 

3TpRl SlSte^qcli ‘ ; jncTT ^Iddi WJlPldi ^ 

^T: I 

JS (pp. 14,15) is probably the source for SR to describe gadya; its 6 varieties are 
characterised thus: vrttagandhi —portions of padya ( vrtta ), curna —two, three or 
four feet (words?) compounded or discrete; utkalikd — gaudi-riti; lalita —in five feet 
(words?) compounded together; khanda —large and small feet in ‘ prakranta ’ 
(aforesaid) ntibhahgis; citra —various ritis; the riti, rasa, vrtti and veda affiliation for 
these are: vrttagandhi-pahcaU, santa bharati, satna; curna-vaidarbhi, santa, sattvatv, 
utkalika-gaudi, vira, arabhati ; lalita-pancali, srhgara, kaisiki; khanda-vaidarbhi, hasya, 
sattvatv, citra-vaidarbhi, srhgara, kaisiki. Procedure of singing: ‘aum sans tala; its feet 
(words?) with six or eight yamakas; rendered with all gamakas and varna (alamkaras) 
in vilambita, madhya and druta svaras at the ends of words without tala in between; 
then two words containing name of prabandha, with tala-, the six gatis viz. vilamba, 
madhya, druta, drutamadhya, madhyavilamba and drutavilambita are next described 
with reference to distribution of laghu and guru syllables as above; therefore, there 
are thirtysix forms of gadya; daivi-gadya is in Samskrta. 

PS (4.162cd-180ab, pp. 35-37) asinJS; lacuna for four gads in impressi typis; but 
text is complete in MS (Sri Varalakshmi Academy, Mysore); 3d-three ahgas— pd tl 
sv; n-an; (4.31, p. 27) 

SS (5.7.50cd-57ab, pp. 214, 215): vrttagandhi-^padyagadyanusari; curna —com¬ 
pounded or discrete words: utkalikd — ‘utkalikd'sabdadambarayuktam ; khanda — 
ntibhahgasarhyuktam ; lalita —five compounded words (or feet); citra —variegated; 
any suitable tala; has expertise in svaras and variegated charm in rendering: A 
contains name of composer and patron; gadya is pleasing to the gods. 

LS (5.290cd-309, pp. 393-396): same as in SR 


SD (4.430, p.75) describes gadya merely as array of words without metre; many 
varieties are described in other treatises. 

SP (1.557cd, p. 73): merely ‘ chandohinampadakadambakam . 

125-126ab 4. Kaivada 

125a. nirarthaih-sarthairva: NN seems to be content with only these two varieties 
by athetisation of ‘sa suddhair-misritaihpdtaih suddho misra iti dvidha (SR 4.200). If 
there is a lacuna in NN for this passage, then kaivada is of four kinds: suddha- 
sarthaka, suddha-nirarthaka, misra-sarthaka, misra-nirarthaka. 




125bc. pada: A is composed of the names of the patron and composer. 

syatam... nyasanam. Pandarika Vitthalahas improved the description in SR(4.199) 
by resolving the ambiguity and potential misimplication in T flt: ■Wldi 

Kaivada is a Kannada word which means intervention or interference; lit. 
‘putting one’s hand to’. Kallinatha derives it from Samskrta (p.275 ): hasta-kai; pata> 
vada by phonetic degeneration; it is so called because of the preponderance of 
kara(=hasta) pdtas: 

%cn^|fcl W I 

As mentioned above kaivada means intervention, hastaksepa\ it seems more likely 
that karapdta is a Sanskri tisation of kaivada rather than kaivadabe'mgan apabhramsa 
or tadbhava, for, this prabandha has been consistently called kaivata/kaivada from 
the time of Matanga (BD 427, 428, p. 146). 

BD (427cd-428ab, p. 146): sung only with pt and/or pd ( aksara ); tl; sung 
by gandharvas(=expert musician? ‘classical’ musician? association with gdndharva 
music ?) 

AC (4.16.86, p. 50; 4.16.430, p. 68): pt of many kinds ( padaih, padaih are 
mislections); tl; contains name of patron/hero; ‘ bhavyaih' and ‘ navyaiK are variae- 
lectionness describing pdtas. 

JS (p. 49). Four kinds viz. suddha-sarthaka, suddha-nirarthaka, misra-sarthaka , misra- 
nirarthakaare described: A in bd; conclusion is on U; contains name of prabandha. 

PS 3d; three ahgas —pd bd tl; an (4.45, p. 28) 

SS (5.167-169, p. 229). kaivdra; hastapatas , tl; four varieties mentioned above; A 
in other words (containing names of prabandha, composer and hero). 

LS (5.310-312, p. 396). U-D in hastapatas-, name of prabandha in A; conclusion is 
on U; four varieties as mentioned above; karapdta has undergone apabhramsa into 
kaivada. According to some, there is dlapa of words at the beginning of A. 


SD (4.431, 432ab, p. 75): U-D in pt only; four varieties; conclusion is on D (!) 

SP (1.558, p. 73): UD in pt only; A and antara (!) in pd. 

126-128ab 5. Ahkacarini 

127a. trivarnya: NN is influenced by Kallinatha: 

3T3 <4H^ TJlJrf I 

faKIft ill* I 

127d. ahkacarini: Parallel treatises (e.g. SR 4.201-204) describe six subvarieties: 
i. vasavi —eight birudas in one tala ii. kalikd —sixteen birudas in two talas iii. vrtta — 
thirtytwo birudas in three talas w. viravati —fiftytwo birudas in four tdlasx. vedottara — 



one hundred four birudas in five talas vi. jatimati —no rule for number of talas and 

128a. aniryukta: Restriction refers only to number of talas and not to specific 
talas . 

BD mentions (386b, p. 242) but has lacuna for description. 

AC (4.16.8-10, p. 42): bd; tl of choice, contains name of patron/hero; an 
illustration is given: 

! TSTRT ^ *T Kiqu| || 

The above example contains twelve birudas, presumably rendered in a single 

AC does not classify ahkacarini into six kinds. 

JS (pp. 44-45) describes above six varieties; A in other words (presumably 
incorporating name of patron/hero and composer) performed with two spans of 
the tala. 

PS 3d, two ahgas —bd tl; an (4.41, p. 27) 


LS (5.313cd- 32lab, pp. 396, 397): U-D in bd; A has name of prabandha\ six 
varieties as above. 


SD (4.418b, p. 73) mentions, but does not describe, ahkacarini. 

SP (1.559ab, p. 73): ^ t fpf ! 

128cd-130ab 6. Kanda 

128c. Aryagiti is also called skandha(ka) whence the name of the prabandha: kanda 
is derived by phonetic degeneration; when the arya verse contains 8 caturmatras in 
each half, it is called aryagiti', according to some, it is arya itself, extended by two 
matrds in each half, i.e. 32 and 29 matras respectively. (Bharatamuni, NS 16.167; 
Hemacandra, Chando nusasanam, 4.13; Jayadeva, Jayad&uacchandas, 4.14;Jayakirti, 
Chando’nusasanam, 5.13-18; Piiigalanaga; Chandahsastram, 4.31; Virahahka, 
Vrttajatisamuccaya, 4.9; Kedarabhatta, Vrttaratnakara, 2.11.) 

NN describes the arya-prabandha (3.2.151,152), but not the aryaor aryagiti metre. 
The description is thus not self contained, a fallacy from which even great 
authorities such as Sarngadeva are not exempted. Many early authorities have 
classified the prabandhas on the basis of the names of tala, chandas, jati etc. So the 
serial order of presentation is occasionally affected. 

Piiigalanaga has defined aryagiti (as a form of arya metre): ‘ardhe vasugana 




drydgitih' (loc. cit.). Kedarabhatta (loc. cit.) coins a verse which is both its laksya and 
laksana : 

gcUilsElKs Rri ^ I 

Aryagiti also has the six varieties similar to those of arya. 

Arya is a metre in Sanskrit; it is called skandhaka or sahkirna in Prakrta, and is 
described by Svayambhu ( Svayambucchandas , 1.3), Hemacandra (loc.cit.) and 
others; there are eight caturmatra-ganas in its half; among these, the sixth is a 
madhya-guru (or ja-gana) or sarua laghu (na-gana ); ja-gana should not occur in the 
odd positions; Halayudhabhatta ( Mrtasanfivani , comm, on Pingala, op. cit. 4.31) 
offers the following illustration: 

3HcRH ■qFFFTl WjfW: : II 

128b. desabhasa: Elsewhere (BD, AC, SR, vide infra), this is prescribed to be 

129b. padantaraih: consisting of the names of composer and hero/patron. 

129d. Kandah has twentynine forms arising out of systematic decomposition of 
each guru into laghus progressively. Their names—and the nth guru, which is 
decomposed (cumulatively from the right towards the left) which gives the kanda 
its particular form are given below; e.g. 30 means that the 30th (last) guru is 
decomposed; twentyseven means that the 30th, 29th, 28th and 27th gurus are 
decomposed (SR 4.205 cd-209ab): 

Pavana thirty, ravi twentynine, chanda twentyeight, havyavahana twentyseven, 
suranatha twentysix, samudra twentyfive, varuna twentyfour, fast twenty-three, saila 
twenty two, tnadhu twentyone, madhava twenty, makaradhvaja nineteen, jayanta 
eighteen, madhupa seventeen, snka sixteen, sdrasa fifteen, kekinl fourteen, hari 
thirteen, harini twelve, hasti eleven, kddarnba ten, karmuka nine, naya eight, vinaya 
seven, vikrama six, utsdlui five, dharma four, (ivthu ihree, hum a two. 

BD (396,317,p. 143): Kanda is a mixutre of Kannada etc. words; pt. bd; no tl; it 
is very well known in practice. 

AC (4.16.292, p. 32): Only in Kannada words; pd, bd, no tl. 

JS (p. 21): Kandaka metre; no tl; has words of Kannada etc., and pt. A in other 
words, conclusion is on charming pt. The twentynine forms of kanda mentioned 
above are named and characterised. 

PS 3d, two ahgas —pt bd, n (4.42, p. 27) 





LS (5.321cd-330, pp. 398,399): Words of Kannada, Lata etc. viva rasa, conclusion 
on pt; no tala; twentynine varieties as above. 



SP (1.559cd, p. 73): It is sung in one khanda in vilamba gati. 

130cd-134ab 7. Hayatila 

130c. turarigalila tala: *viramantadrutadvayat drutau turahgaUlah syaf (NN 1.176): 

131a. anyapadaih: words not occurring in U or D 

132. arya: see commentary on NN 3.2.151a. 

132a. Asvalalita is synonymous with hayaUla , and haya=turahga; so this is a niryukta 
prabandha by svanamaka chandas (namesake metre). Asvalalita metre occurs in two 
forms, with twentytwo and twentythree syllables perverse foot; the first is described 
by Bharata (NS 16.100, 101) as having the gana disposition: naja bhaja bhaja bha 
ga; this is compiled by H.D. Velankar (Jayadaman , 1.22.2, p. 143) from the 
Chowkhamba (Kashi) edition of the NS (16.100, 101). However, this prosodial 
form is not supported in the Kavyamala edition of NS (15.98-100) or the Baroda 
(G.O.S.) edition (15.137-139) wherein asvalalita is a metre with twentythree 
syllables to the foot with the following gana disposition: naja bhaja bhaja bha la ga 
with caesura at 11th and 23rd (i.e. 11,12) syllables. This agrees with the definitions 
given byjayadeva (Jayadevacchandas 7.26), Jayakirti ( Chandonusasanam , 2.248), 
Pingalanaga ( Chandahsastram , 7.27); Kedarabhatta ( Vrttaratnakara , 3.101) and is 
called lalita by Hemacandra ( Chandonusasanam , 2.358); it is also called adritanaya 
by Gangadasa ( Chandomanjan , 2.231) and others. It is described in an alternative 
form by Hemacandra (op. cit. 2.358, commentary) and Virahanka ( Vritajatisamuccaya , 
5.47) as hayatilagati, in which the final bha gana is replaced by ja-gana, i.e. naja bha 
ja bha jaja la ga. 

As already mentioned, Bharata inclines to the former version and offers an 
illustration (G.O.S. edn. 15.139): 

AC gives (14.16.332, p. 37) the definition of asvalalita as follows: 
spjfl' q) I 

cl^dfrlci II 



and contributes the following example: 

^dVlP^cl: ^K^iuiiq^lcK-hrH I 

PHRsM'jPMHlPsfa^: ‘'R'TTf^TIcri rI: 
wPi^SRlERRI ^lc'?h'>#cTt ^ II 

Kallinatha (pp. 281,282) quotes Pihgalanaga ( Chandahsastram, 7.26) for laksana 

3RJRfcRT i# i^lPccq: I 

and Halayudhabhatta (Mrtasahjivani, comm. ibid. loc. cit.) for laksya of this metre: 

Hq^(q%jdql' c i1' c iHcn' 4Uqci cFJ^tTf 

cpjtfq ^TRPFlf^RT 'jRIclPld-m d^dPwp I 
mfe pHMl^H^PrR R Tmfcsf T0f%IMNR^: 

MfdPHd l H ^^l cTSTTfo II 

133c. vikhyata: Gadyaja-hayallla has no subvarieties; but the padyaja-hayatHa has 
the following eight: i. tl in first half (U) but not in the second half (D) ii. tl in latter 
half but not in former half iii. tl in both halves iv. U has sv, pd, bd. Simhabhupala 
(p. 282) differs: U in sv, D in bd; U and D in tala. The varieties i, ii and iii have U 
composed in pd. If these four are composed in arya metre instead of asvalalita, there 
are four more; together with gadyaja-hayallla, the total is nine. 

134d. dipanijatiman kvacit: i, ii and iii above have only two ahgas, pd tl; in iv, there 
are sv pd bd tl; so the first three are of taravaU, and the fourth, of dipani class. 

BD (412, p. 145): (one) half (i.e.) U in svand turagaUla-yati (?tala); the other half 
in bd. Since BD does not specify which half, one more variety is possible by 
exchanging sv and bd in the two dhatus. This seems to be the earliest form of this 

AC (4.16.332, p. 37): First half is sv; second half is bd; ganas composed in hayaRla 

JS (p. 21) describes four varieties as above; hayallla-tala; only two dhatus\ A in 
other words. 

PS 3rd, four ahgas —sv bd pd tl; n (4.54, p. 27) 


LS (5.331-338, pp. 399, 400): gadyaja and eight padyaja forms as above; hayatila- 
tala; arya or hayallld metre ( naja bhaja bhaja bha la ga) 

RK (3. 116, 117, p. 52) AsvaRla is gadyaja and padyaja-, the latter is in hayallla tala 
and is of four kinds; arya metre; first half has tl; second half has (! no) tl. 




SP (1.560ab, p. 73) Turagalila is in sampa-tala ; gives pleasure. 

134-135ab 8. Gajalila 

134c. gajalila tala: (NN 1.162) 

JMdlcrl fWTRPJW ( Mlf) 

135b. anyat : gadyaja and four padyaja varieties and arya metre, thus resulting in 
five varieties 

BD (413, p. 145) gajaVila-tala\ (rest is like hayaUla ?) 

AC (4.16.333-335, pp. 37-38): composed in gajalila tala , but rest is like hayaUla; 

JS (p. 21): like hayalila without chandas , but in gajalila tala. 

PS 3d, four ahgas —sv pd bd tl; an (?n) (4.56, p. 28) 

LS (5.339-341ab, p. 400): one gadyaja and four padyaja varieties like hayaUla 
without namesake metre. 

RK (3.115, p. 51): similar to hayaUla except chandas r, composed in gajaUla-tala 


SP (1.560cd, p. 73): composed in dhruva tala (!) 

135cd-140 9. Dvipadi 

135c. karunatala (NN 1.176): c b^ u lldloi: (5). AC lifts tala 


136-137. This is dvipadi samanyalaksana , not so explicitly stated in parallel texts 
in terms of dhatu-ahga allocation. 

138a. apare: This is AC (vide infra). 

140b. Dvipadi is a matra-vrtta (moraic metre) with two equal feet. Each line has 
six matras followed by five caturmatras and a final guru. The first and fifth caturmatras 
should have ja-gana or sarvalaghu\ but the ja-gana cannot be used elsewhere; if 
sarvalaghu is used in the above positions, yati occurs after the first laghu , i.e. a new 
word must commence with the second laghu. According to Jayakirti 
( Chandonusasanam y 6.28) dvipadi is a Sanskrit metre; but Hemacandra classifies it 
among Prakrta metres ( Chado'nusasanam , 4.64-67). 

Thus the dvipadi-prakrti (model) is a cha-gana , five ta-ganas (according to NN; 
elsewhere, it is five bha-ganas) and a final guru. This has eight modifications 
mentioned below (mentioned without names in NN but with names in SR 4.215- 

i suddha: cha bha bha bha bha bha ga (NN cha ta ta ta ta ta ga) ; alternatively, cha 
ja bha bha bhaja ga ; according to Simhabhupala, chaja bha bha bha bha bha 



ja ga\ sv between U and D (i.e. first half and second half); tl of one’s own 

ii khanda has only first two feet of suddha , but not the 3rd and 4th feet. 

iii matra has guru in place of ja-gana (in sixth position). 

iv sampurna contains a guru in excess at the end of each foot of suddha. 

v manavv. Each quarter has cha-gana followed by two ta-ganas. 

vi candrika : Each quater is structured thus: pa pa ta la ga. 

vii dhrti: Each quarter has cha followed by three caturmatra-ganas. 

viii tarn: Each quarter has cha ya ya ya ya ga. 

140c. taravall: two ahgas viz. pd tl. 

140c. niryukta because of prescription of karuna-tala and dvipadt metre. 

140d. bhavanl: pd, tl, sv according to others. 

BD (428cd-429ab, p. 426): (kara-ruf)na tala , dvipadi-vrtta. 

AC (4.16.273-275, p. 30) structure: cha ta ta ta taga\ja in second and sixth ganas, 

WTcWTt: Wlfo II 

sv must be composed at the end of two quarters; tl of one’s own choice. 

JS. (p. 23) karana (karuna?) tala; gamakalapti at end of (first) half; A in other 
words; in two spans of tala ; six varieties described as above. 


SS (5.76b-78c, pp. 217, 218): karana tala , gamaka in middle; Ain other words; in 
two spans of tala 

LS (5.341cd-351, pp. 400, 401): Eight varieties aforesaid. First half is U; second 
half is D, A in other words, containing three names (of prabandha, patron/hero, 



SP (1.561ab, p. 73): three asvagatis (?), two segments. 

141-143ab. 10. Cakravdla 

141d. cakravala: see commentary on NN 3.2.71a. 

Also found in Kannada and Telugu, it is called samdasta yamaka. Numerous 
instances of this may be found in a range of prosodial structures such as vrtta, kanda , 
ragale , gadya etc. (e.g. Candraraja, Madanatilakam, , 1.5; Santinatha, Sukumaracari- 
tam, 8.66; Gunavarma II, Puspadanta puranam, 10.45; Ranna, Ajitatirthakara pura- 



natilakam , 4.79 pr; Nemicandra, Lilavati,\.\^b pr; Rudrabhattajagannathavijayam, 
12.57ff., E.C. 6.161). A tenth century example of ( muktapada grahana) cakravala 
maybe given here fromjanna (Ajitafirthakara puranatilakam, 4.7 pr.): 

HHMKM^d-M(^1^d^'flprdld<r L l , +c r MddldHH-grfd V ifd ^ Hfu IH d f<M k+1 [<L M Fi d - 



142d. abhoga: The aforesaid syllabic recurrence is imperative in U and D, but not 
in A; for otherwise the names of prabandha , patron/hero and composer would 
become distorted. 

BD (424, p. 146): recurrence of end syllables of words in yamakalamkara. 

AC (4.16.304-307, pp. 33, 34): recurrence of end syllables of words in yamaka- 
lamkara ; it occurs in two forms viz. gadya and padya ; contains name of hero/patron 
at the end (A). Example of gadyacakravala : 

^Hdl^^^d^l^rd<+r^d=h^R'=hNd^ : - 1 : 

flSld^^-^r+d- ^Tbdddr^d-'SFfh^^I^NId^^d<ddirdd^- 


example of padyacakravala : 

Hd^rdfeHcM II 
Wk cR*TR PddRHd^ I 
l=Mdc) II 

JS (p. 22): recurrence of end syllables of words; desired tala; two kinds— gadya 
and padya : A in other words; conclusion in two spans of tala . 

PS 3d, two ahgas —pd tl; n-an (4.43, p. 26) 


LS (5.341cd-351, pp. 400-401): aforesaid recurrence in U-D, not A; auspicious 

SD (4.431, pp. 75, 76): aforesaid recurrence; gadya-padya varieties. 

SP (1.561cd-562ab, p. 73): recurrence as above. 

143cd-145ab 11. Krauncapada 

144ab. nyasa udgrahe: SR (4.221) agrees: svara-nyasah 



144b. pratitala (NN1.193): eft Sjcft UPddM: (Moo) 

144d. svanamacchandasa: Krauncapada (-pada) is samamdtrdvrtta with twentyfive 
syllables in every quarter having caesurae (yati) after 5, 5, 8 syllables: its gana 
structure is (Bharata, NS 15.144-148, pp. 278, 279); Hemacandra, 

Chando’nusasanam, 2.372; Jayakirti, Chando’nusasanam, 2.258; Jayadeva Jayadevac- 
chandas, 7.29; Pingalanaga, Chandahsastram, 7.30; Kedarabhatta, Vrttaratnakara, 
3.104; Virahanka, Vrttajatisamuccaya, 5.49). Two illustrations are available for the 
vrtta and one for the prabandha. Thus Bharata (op. cit. 15.147, p. 279): 

MlPd tT^I felHdNM I 

ch l ^^d l ^ oqt l qdli9l | J | P9(j J N l PH^ II 

Ph^H-hI % ftrqwft: Tl^ Pt^lvHptgd^ II 

The second is from Halayudhabhatta (on Pingalanaga, loc. cit.) quoted by 
Kallinatha (p. 287)and Venkatamakhin (CDP 9.275) and interpolated in NS 
(16.148, p. 279): 

■qi c6pH<ni$ft 

dNddf q; 4\dP4KlPft: iP^dd^Pdidq^PlcdOPd: I 

31iqd'd^-l Pdy<=h4feT d^dlJd^NR J ld^<qi 

fit qftwiqf sh1«iM^i Tft sjqfw ftrcqfft ytaHp^ciPidi n 

Somesvara offers another example, his own composition (AC 4.16.238, p. 25): 

yH^il'd: UIHpH'qqi: Jpd^ipfidl 

W fqqpft ^cdldldi HHlP)Kp9 I 

Pl4 r 1il{l( cril‘c|d)d1crl)<Mcr1 c Hp : ( c 6^M^l c t>tlf5H <:: hl: 

yllPd^r^a: ^ 71 ^K<Pd4>P9ddddd$^4Tq: II 

BD (408, p. 144): pratitala; pd sv; this is the view of the cognoscente in gandharva. 

AC (4.16.237-239, pp, 25, 26): structure of krauncapada-vrtta : ^dH^ddddO with 
yatis after 5, 5, 8 and 7 syllables. For illustrations of krauncapada see above. 

JS (p. 21): krauncapada metre: pratitala, sv, A in other words and other sv. 

PS 3d, three ahgas —pd pt tl; n-an, (4.48, p. 27) 


LS (5.354-357, p. 402): pd, then sv; conclusion on sv; prati tala; in gadya or 
namesake metre; U and D at different pitch levels; U in sv, D in pd, A in three names. 

Metrical structure: 



RK (3.95, p. 49): pd (U), sv (D); prati tala-, namesake metre. 

SD (4.433cd-434, p. 76): as in RK; in namesake metre of muktaka. 

SP (1.563cd-564, pp. 73, 74): pd sv pd pt pd (tn?), pd bd pd (?) 

145cd-148 12. Svarartha 

145c. sapta: sa ri ga ma pa dha ni 

146a. krama e.g. sariga mapani; vyutkrama e.g. ni pada, nisari 

146b. samastae.g. sari, sama, dasa, pada, samapada, ni-mari, magagari, niga\ vyasta 
e.g. ni, ma, mam, sa, pd. 

146d. anya: other than such above combinations (e.g. sariga) like aksaravyuha, 
Somesvara etc. 

148a. eva: The varna commencing with words ‘sarigani dani, in todi raga by 
Ramasvami Dlksita is an example of suddhasvarartha-prabandha. 

148d. ayam: SR (4.22, 223) et al distinguish seven forms of suddhasvarartha 
obtained by combining one, two, notes, and many other varieties by 
their combination; they are countless in misrasvarartha. Simhabhupala says (p. 289) 
that they were obsolete in his time. 

BD (504cd-505ab, p. 153): a vastu in which the desired meaning is brought out 
only with sv. 

AC (4.16.11-12, p.42): sv syllables taken in regular or irregular order are 
arranged to yield desired meaning. An example is given: 

TRFFTFM TOHKH (TO) srfft TRFTR) I «1T (^T) TIOHIh i Ph EfT (RT)ft 

JS (p. 26): Meaning is expounded through svara syllables; two kinds— suddha, 
misra; two kinds again by regular and irregular order of sv; suddha-svarartha — only 
seven sv; appropriate to the raga, hutiand sthanaare employed; if mixed with other 
letters of the alphabet, it is misra-svarartha\ by using one ( sasi) , two (stand), three 
(agni), four ( veda) , five (Aw), six (sva) and seven (svara) svara-syllables to generate 
single or synonymous meaning, svarartha is of seven kinds. It has A in other words; 
conclusion is on U. 

P. (4.157cd-l 62ab, p. 35): borrows fromJS as above; 3d, three ahgas — sv bd d; an 
(4.44, p. 27) 


LS (5.358-363, p. 403): composer’s intended meaning brought out in sariga etc. 
syllables or a a i I etc. vowels ingeniously; conclusion on U; two kinds— suddha, and 
misra; suddha —only with svaras\ misra: sv + vowels or sv + other consonants; U-D 
composed only with these; A in other words; seven forms by using one, two, 
three. svaras. 





SD (4.435, 436, p. 76): as above (JS) 

SP (1.562cd-563ab, p. 73): aptly named; intended meaning obtained only with 
svara syllables 

149-150 13. Dhvanikuttam 

149ab. NN thus summarises SR (4.225): ‘ dhehkivad tdladvayena and Kallinatha 
(p. 289 on ibid. loc. cit.): 

W dKng^h fMt f*Wdl<rH dld^rHfd- 

^TT*f: I 

Since it prescribes different tempi—‘ bhinnalaydtmakau —comparison with dhehki 
prabandha and proscription of M— 4 meldpako na ca (SR loc. cit.)—have been 
rendered unnecessary. Atidesa means extended application, a rule providing for 
more than the usual rule, extending the dharma of something to something else; 
here, extending the laksana of dhehki to dhvanikuttam. It is defined as , 

4 yufld'RI: fKWTT ^Ff^cf : 9 Purvamimarhsa distinguishes five forms of atidesa 

viz. sastra -, karya -, nimitta -, vyapadesa -, rupa-\ grammarians have adopted a sixth also 
viz. tadatmya. 

149c. Yati is natural pause (usually in the middle of a verse foot) after a cluster 
of syllables. 

150a. prthak-tala: This rule implies, or includes:- d^l’-cAs^dlcrH * stated 

by SR (4.143) in the context of dhehki prabandha. 

150b. (prthak) padaih: words other than those in U or D, and containing the 
names of composer and patron/hero. 

150d. Niryukta: because mantha and kahkala-talas are ruled out. 

BD. (501, p. 153): Matra and dhyanimet even (equal?), followed by pause; other 
tala (than in jhombada, viz. kahkala). 

AC (4.16.60-62, pp. 47-48): Composed in pd containing intended meaning, in 
two tl, in only sama yati but not visama; an example is given: 

, H , HKClK u i dlfH cT sR^J 

^clf^^crWlRlH dlRl $RHt I 
cil^q HcW<J>4chld^ 

JS (p. 40): Dhvanikuttam is like dhehki but without mantha or kahkala talas', it has 
mediate caesurae; D is in a tala other than in U. 

PS 3d, two ahgas —pd tl, an (4.41, p. 26) 

SS (5.7.11 lcd-114c): Mantha and kahkala-talas should not be used; first part of U 



is sung twice; the second part is sung once in gamakalapti ; M is sung twice in high 
pitch. A is rendered once; conclusion is on D. 

LS (5. 364, 365, p. 403): U and D in different talas and layas , talas other than 
mantha and kahkala , yati at equal (even?) matras\ A in (other) words. 



SP (1.566cd, p. 74): ‘ arthantaram bhatil 

151-152 14. Ary a 

151a. Arya chandas is a very famous, ancient, Sanskrit matravrtta of two feet. The 
first foot, i.e. first half has seven caturmatras with final guru\ the second has five 
caturniatras, laghu , caturmatra and guru. Thus the moraic quantity is thirty matras in 
the first and twentyseven in the second. Throughout the metre, ja-gana must be 
avoided in odd ( caturmatra) positions. However, the sixth caturmatra ganain the first 
half must be a ja-gana (151) or a na-gana with a laghu , i.e. sarvalaghu (Mil). If it is 
sarvalaghu , there is yati after the first laghu, i.e. a new word must begin with the 
second laghu. But if the sarvalaghu occurs at the seventh gana in the first half or the 
fifth gana in the second, a new word should begin with the first laghu therein 
(Bharata, NS 15.195-227, pp. 287-293; Hemacandra, Chandonusasanam , 4.1-2; 
Jayakirti, Chandonusasanam , 5.1-3;Jayadeva ,Jayadevacchandas, 4.6-7; Pihgalanaga, 
Chandahsastram, 4.14-21; Kedarabhatta, Vrttaratnakara , 2.1-2; Virahanka, Vrttajati- 
samuccaya, 1.23-25). 

Thus Pihgalanaga defines aryaWwh the aphorism (op. cit. loc. cit.) 



Kedarabhatta gives a sloka which is at once its definition and example (op. cit. loc. 

WM TTftcTT sptfcT % ^T: I 

1 WfS«f pHdHIilkl: II 

cTFRTf^F TO* el: II 

(Fora detailed study of this definition see Sathyanarayana, R., Caturdandlprakasika , 
Kan. tr., pp. 103, 104.) 

Some examples of the arya are given below: 

1. Harsavardhana, Ratnavali-natakam (1.6) 

SfFTfa Srfidcl Md-Mfd II 




2. Nagavarma, Kannadakadamban (5.78) 

(jrftleldqi f^R-lddl fcfildl^fild'l Tf | 

^ eT9T AtA: II 

3. Somesvara, AC (4.16.255, p. 28) 

dciqg, ^bHi4) 4)^^RuisrsFnr i 

f^(W?)^fq 3 "SIFTrf II 

Arya has the following ten varieties (Pihgalanaga, op.cit. 4.22-27) 

i. pathya: Yati completes the word at the end of third caturmatra ganam each half 
of arya: e.g. Bharata (NS 15.293, p. 219): 

^1I d^l^9l<0 A&A II 

ii. vipula: The verse-foot proceeds without such yati: e.g. Bharata (NS 15.214, 
p. 290): 

3TFldHmMI'jlcridl<i=h'j1: cf^qr || 

iii. capala: The second and fourth are ja-ganas, preceded and followed by a guru. 

iv. mukhacapala: Aforesaid definition of capala occurs in the mukha (first half) of 
arya: e.g. Bharata (NS 15.218, p. 290): 

cT2TTfq rfpqf 3 ^ ^RT: TK <J I 
W AW ^ «Tcrf?r II 

v. jaghana-capala: Aforesaid definition of capala occurs in the jaghana (second 
half) of arya: 

q<.*f M-Mi qwifa 

vi . mahacapala: Aforesaid definition of capala occurs in both halves. 

vii. (arya) giti: Both halves of arya, especially the third and fourth quarters, are 

viii. udgiti: The two halves of arya are interchanged. 

ix. aryagiti: This has been explained above (comm, on NN 3.2.128c). 

x. upagiti: Aforesaid definition of pathya occurs in both halves of arya. 

The arya has a total of fourteen caturmatra-ganas (seven per foot); among these, 



the sixth (in each foot) is ruled to he ja-ganaov sarvalaghu , leaving twelve caturmatra- 
ganas. If each of these is composed of only gurus , then there are 24 gurus in all; a guru 
is prescribed to occur at the end of each half; so the total number of gurus is 
twentysix. This is regarded as prakrti. If each of these is decomposed into two laghus , 
the arya becomes modified. Therefore, there are twentysix varieties of arya (the 
number after the hyphen indicates the number of gurus decomposed): 

laksmi- 0 vrddhirl buddhi-2 Ilia- 3 lajjd-4 ksamd-b dlrgha-6 gauri-7 rafi-8 jyotsn&9 chaya- 
10 kantirW mahi-\2 mafalS kirti- 14 manoramd-lb rohinlAh visala-\7 vasudhdrl8 sivdr 
19 harinb20 cakra-2\ sarasi-22 kuran-28 hamsV24 vadhu-2b 

Abhinavagupta ( Abhinavabharati , comm, on NS 15.222-227, p. 291) gives a 
beautiful example in which the arya is sarvalaghu : 

He quotes from an anonymous authority on the staggering number of aryas 
derivable by permutation (loc. cit. p. 292): 

3Mf: Vld^*Hlfu| ittT $=bhHfa>lfd: I 
3^ !JHI>J|d: II 

152b. sa”rya: This is the manner of singing the arya : this vrtta has two segments 
( dala) . The first consists of the whole of the first foot and first half of the second foot. 
The second segment consists of the second half of the second foot. First segment 
is U; this is sung twice; sv are composed at the end (of the second rendering). 
According to SR (4.225) sv may be composed at the end of the (first) foot; second 
segment is D. A is composed of words not contained in U or D and includes the 
names of the prabandha , patron/hero and composer. Conclusion is on U. So the 
sequence is 2U-sv-D-A-U. 

152c. BhavanI jati, because arya has sv pd tl. SR does not mention tl but 
Kallinatha does (p. 292). AC is more explicit (4.16.253, p. 28): ‘ talenaikena kenacit. ’ 
Thus Pandarlka Vitthala seems to imply the inclusion of tl in this prabandha by 
classifying it as bhavanl 

152d. Niryukta, because arya metre is prescribed. 

BD mentions arya (379b, p. 142; 398a, p. 143) but suffers lacuna for its 

AC (4.16, 254, 255, p. 28): Mdtrd disposition in arya is 12.10.8/2.10.15. For an 
example, see above. 

JS (p. 20) gives sdmdnyalaksana in agreement with above, mentions and describes 
five arya forms viz. vipuld , capala, jaghana, mukhacapalaanA pathyd. The manner of 
singing is as outlined in commentary on NN 3.2.152b. 



PS 3d, three ahgas —sv pd tl, n. (4.46, p. 27). 

LS (5.366-376, pp. 404, 405): samanyalaksana : U-first half, D-second half; A- 
names of prabandha , patron/hero, composer; sequence: 2U-sv-D-A-U. Sv may be 
sung at the end of the quarters or at the end of the first half; twenty-six varieties 
beginning with laksmi and ending with vadhu are described. 



SP (1.566cd: p. 74): set in arya metre. 


15. Gatha 

153a. aryaiva: The difference between arya and gatha is one of language; the 
former is composed in Sanskrit and the latter, in Prakrta. There are two forms of 
gatha in Indian Prosody: The first has four equal feet and nine syllables per foot, 
such that they are structured as a ma-gana followed by two sa-ganar.S 33115115. This is 
called gatha by Jayakirti ( Chandonusasanam , 2.83) and kanaka by Hemacandra 
(Chandonusasanam , 2.97). This is relatively rare. The second form is the one 
described for arya above and adopted by Hemacandra (ibid., 7.73), Jayadeva 
(Jayadevacchandas , 7.36), Pingalanaga ( Chandahsastram , 8.1), Kedarabhatta, 
( Vrttaratnakara, 5.12). 

But Sarngadeva compiles a second view of the gatha , according to which it may 
have three, five or six feet instead of four (SR 4.231, 232): 

stfN ■rfaT ^T^^-cRuiisi ^ i 
M '-idHcl TT^cW-l ^PJ: II 

Simhabhupala reads Parana ’ in the above as ca-gana (p. 293). This ascribes to SR 
the view that gatha is derived by composing five ca-ganas in each of the four quarters 
of arya. In this case, gatha is not specifically restricted to the gatha metre, because 
the disjunctive ‘ va ’ would mean that gatha is composed in Prakrta or in five ca-ganas 
in each of its feet. In this case, gatha does not have four feet, but three or six. 

153d. Niryukta, because Prakrta language is prescribed. 

BD mentions gatha (379c, p. 142; 398d, p. 143) but suffers a lacuna for its 

AC (4.16.256-257, p. 28): Same as arya but in Prakrta language. An example is 

^ -ijHfUui -HTHHcWYcKiil II 

JS (p. 22): Composed in Prakrta with 3, 5 or 6 feet; so it is of three kinds; it has 
varieties such as laksmi. 



SS (5.7 72cd-74ab, p. 217): gatha is like arya (which is not described by it), but in 
3,5 or 6 feet; its structure is of arya , composed in Prakrta words, in any raga and tala ; 
it narrates a story from purana etc. or poetry. 

PS 3d, three ahgas- sv pd tl; n (4.46, p. 27) 

LS (5.377, p. 405): set in 3, 5 or 6 feet in words of Prakrta 




154-156 16. Dvipatha 

154a. dodhakena: Kallinatha (on SR 4.232c, p. 294) establishes the useful 
equations dvipathaka=dodhaka=doha (in Prakrta) so that dvipathaka has a niryukti of 
namesake metre. Doha is of course a well known metre in both ancient Prakrta and 
many North Indian languages such as Hindi. 

Dodhaka is sama catuspadl-varna-vrtta with eleven syllables to the quarter, struc¬ 
tured as WPFT (Bharata, NS 15.37-39, p. 257; Hemacandra ,Chando’nu’sasanam , 
2.130; Jayadeva, Jayadevacchandas , 6.19; Jayaklrti, Chando’nusasanam , 2.97; 
Piiigalanaga, Chandahsastram , 6.18; Prahtapaihgalam, 2.104; Virahanka, Vrttajati- 
samuccaya, 5.24; Kedarabhatta, Vrttaratndkara , 3.33; Virahanka also calls it bhittaka , 
op. cit. 4.55 and tarahgaka , op. cit. 4.22). Prakrtapaihgala also calls it bandhu ; 2.100. 
Some examples of this vrtta are: 

Bharata, NS (15.39): 

AC (4.16, 263, p. 29): ( dodhaka) 

AC (4.16.260, p. 29) (dvipatha): 

$cM9fo'Hd9'=bird4: I 

155b. ubhayanubhayau parau: Dvipathaka is of four kinds: i. U-D both composed 
in sv with or without tl ii. both composed in ( gamakalapti) prayoga in tl iii. both 
composed in both sv and prayoga iv. both bereft of both, composed only in pd. 
156b. bhavani, when composed in sv pd tl 



156c. taravall, when composed in pd tl only. 

156d. bhuribhedah: Doha is an ancient time-honoured Prakrta metre; among 
the earliest examples are those composed by Buddhist Tantrikas. It is a very popular 
metre in many North Indian languages used extensively by poets and saint singers. 
Prdkrta-dohd has 9 varieties: sarasa, bhramara, hamsa, kurara, candralekha, kunjara, 
tilaka, hamsaknda, mayura, which accrue from differences in matra quantities in the 
odd and even feet, and more varieties by interchange and extrapolation. The last 
variety viz. mayura is formed by retaining the original foot structure and suffixing 
a sikhapada, i.e. an appendix of five, six or seven laghus. (For details, see SR 4.232- 
241); sikhapada seems to have been a popular compositional device in early Indian 
music e.g. sikhapda in elds, which I have discussed in detail elsewhere (Sathynara- 
yana, R., Eld; A Literary and Musical Study, under print). 

BD mentions dvipathaka (379d, p. 142) but has lacuna for description. 

AC (4.16.158-161, pp. 28, 29): dvipathaka and dodhaka (4.16.262-264, p. 29, vide 
supra) are separate prabandhas. Dvipathaka (not restricted to dodhaka vrtta) has 
three ganas and a final guru in odd feet, and two ganas with a pair of final gurus in 
the even feet; ja-gana should be avoided; it has sv, but not set to tl. An illustration 
is given (4.16.260, p. 29; vide supra). 

JS (p. 23) is the source for SR. Four dvipathaka varieties and its nine kinds as 
discussed above (comm, on NN 3.2.155b, 156d) are described in detail. 

SS (5.7.74cd-76ab, p. 217): dohd metre in Prakrta, desired tl, A in other words; 
conclusion on sv in two spans of tala. 

PS 3d, three ahgas- sv pd tl; n (4.46, p. 27) 

LS (5.378-396, pp. 406-408): mentions niryukti of dvipathaka metre— bha-bha-bha- 
ga-ga; four varieties, nine kinds and sikhapada (which has five laghus here and the 
dvipatha possessing the sikhapada suffix is named sikhadvipatha here; such a 
prabandha avoids equal moraic quantity in its feet). Dvipathaka has many varieties, 
but these are obsolete. 



SP (1.565cd. p. 74): Dvipathaka has two forms: nibaddha and anibaddha . 

157-159ab 17. Kalahamsa 

157a. hamsakacchandasa: This shows that the influence of Kallinatha is greater 
on NN than of Sarngadeva himself. Sarngadeva has, in fact prescribed the kala¬ 
hamsa metre (4.242a). There is actually a metre called kalahamsa as will be seen 
presently. Both Kallinatha and Pandarlka Vitthala ignore this (obvious chando- 
niryukti of a namesake metre).The latter abbreviates (?) the name to hamsaka. All 
collative sources of the text are unanimous on this reading. But it is not unlikely that 
it may have been hamsakhya a la Kallinatha. 



The harhsa mentioned by PandarikJl Vitthala is a sarna-catuspadi metre structured 
with bha-ga-ga in every foot and is so described in Prakrtapaingala (2.37). It is 
variously called bhutalatanvi (Bharata, NS 32.65, 66, p. 309), kuntalatanvl (Hema- 
candra, Chando’nusasanam, 2.33; also, aksaropapada , 2.25), kahcanamald (Jayaklrti, 
Chando nusasanam, 2.23), aksarapahkti (Virahanka, Vrttajatisamuccaya , 5.5 ), pahkti 
(Kedarabhatta, Vrttaratnakara , 3.6) etc. It is very unlikely that this is the metre in 
which kalahamsa-prabandha was composed, in view of the examples available. 

Kallinatha’s commentary on the prescription of kalaharhsa-chandas (SR 4.242a) 
is confusing. He equates this metre with hamsakhya (harhsa- named?) on the 
authority of a verse ascribed to Bharatamuni, which describes the metre (p. 297): 

WRFT cTSPJT Wm *FTR1T hTh H I rbHj ^*TT- 

‘‘fg'cfl99HHI'v4 ^ WT ^TfTtsfq cfT I 

3T*Trf^lT f? ^ 3 ^R KsflPHPd ll” 

ffcT I ^ I-I 

Venkatamakhin, who like Pandarika Vitthala depends more on Kallinatha than 
on Sarhgadeva borrows the same passage, claiming it to be written by the Mahatma 
Bharata in the Adibharata (CDP 9. 278, 279). However, the available versions of NS 
do not contain this verse, which gives a verse foot 151515511515, i.e. in gana 

Further, hamsakhya is claimed to be a variety of narkuta belonging to the prosodial 
prototype called jagati by Kallinatha. This is not true. NS describes eight varieties 
of narkuta under jagati metre (32.273-292, pp. 351-355) viz. rathottara ( rathoddhati, 
T A T cT R), budbuda (7T 'H R cl R ), varmsapatra (*T T A 'R ef tT ),udgata (R ^ RFf 
^ 1 T), sivaksara (pramitaksara, R R R ), hamsavati (dhvajini, Tf^TTT T T ”HTH T T T T ) 
, hamsasya (R J R T) and totaka (R R7T R). Hamsasya is described in NS (32.290, 
291, p. 355) thus: 

<v?IH W1 RR I 

RrFT ^P«Ici (fRTRi) ■jPIdPldH II 
and an example in Prakrta follows: 

f^3RTRT 7Tfeo5RTTT <£^i|WKcri«&l <=bH uu l3^; I 
| J|Pcz5>J|]ht 1H'^) HP^P^I WTT31l9Rd'J'J|| WRet II 
(f^oii^^n -HPddl^li) ^Ol’WIHyi^ e b i WI'*A I 
iRP^pJ^dl RTHMWftsbll ‘‘JtRMd) II) 



The illustration conforms to the laksana viz. T *T T.^ven if it is assumed that 
hamsasya has generated harhsakhya by graphic deterioration, this laksana does not 
agree with the one quoted by Kallinatha (and Veiikatamakhin) which yields a gana 
disposition *1 J 7. 

On the other hand, kalahamsa is a very well known metre in Sanskrit. Its gana 
sequence is 'T it is so described by Hemacandra ( Chando ’nusasanam, 2.160), 

Jayakirti ( Chando’nusasanam, 2.132) and under the name drutapada by Kedarabhatta 
(Vrttaratnakara, 3.64.11) et al. Jayakirti (op. cit. 2.142) also calls it drutapada and 
divides the foot with yatis at 4,8. Somesvara agrees with this description of kalahamsa 
(AC 4.16.324, 325, p. 26) and gives an example which accords with it: 

7^9419 <41 I 

Candraraja ( Madanatilakam , 10.83) corroborates this with an example of kalahamsa 
(also called drutapada in the work) in Kannada: 

Only the 4th, 8th, 11th and 12th syllables in each foot are gurus, thus yielding the 
gana disposition 'T*f5PT. 

It is thus clear that Sarngadeva meant this kalahamsa. It is strange that this vrtta, 
so well known to the Prosodists of Karnataka and Maharashtra escaped the 
meticulous scholarship of Kallinatha. Pandarika Vitthala has added to the confu¬ 
sion by being content with the ambiguous ‘hamsaka ’which could be an abbreviation 
for kalahamsa or for harhsakhya-, this confusion could have been avoided if he had 
followed Sarngadeva instead of Kallinatha. 

157b.jhampa-tanmitatalatah: (NN. 1.153) ^idlc} fcKlHl-fl ^rlg-g d^w^ITI (oo'|); 

‘ tanmita-talah’ means any desi-tala whose avarta (cycle) has the same time quantity 
as jharnpa tala. Kallinatha elaborates ‘jhampaditalatah’ of SR (4.242) with ‘ ddi- 
sabdena tanmatrasammita-desitalantaram grhyate ’ (p. 298). NN is more explicit here. 

158a. gadyajah padyajah: SR (4.243) has called these, varnaja and matrika more 
appropriately. Pandarika Vitthala has so modified the statement of SR that if the 
kalahamsa is composed in prose, sv should be first sung and then the words. The 
basis of such modification is Kallinatha (p. 298): 



cpjfa: TTsr?rt: mBiebj 7ra^q : , 

HlfachfMlPWd'IUN^I^ I 

BD (423, p.146): Each verse foot is first rendered, followed by sv; composed in 
jhampa etc. tl. 

AC (4.16.324, 325, p. 36): see above. 

JS (p. 27): describes only matrdrkalahamsa which has 14 laghus in odd numbered 
feet and graha (?9) in even numbered feet (in a visama-catuspadi ). 

PS 3d, 3 angas —pd pt tl, n-an (4.48, p. 27) 

SS (5.7.66b-68a, p. 216): kalahamsl prabandha, in kalaharhsa metre in sampa tala 
(2.68ab: oo '\|); sv sung after first foot. A in other words; conclusion is on sv. 

LS (5.397-401ab, pp. 408, 409): hamsakhya metre; sv first, then pd of first foot; 
jhampa or equivalent tl; sv preponderates at end of (each) foot; padyaja , gadyaja 
varieties; U—first half; D—second half; A in other words, including (the three) 

RK (3.129, p. 53) describes only gadya variety; sv first, then pd; chandas has bhajaya 
(!) ganas. 


SP. (1.565ab, p. 74) composed in the tl hamsanadal 

159cd-160. . 18. Totaka 

159c. Totakacchandas is a sama catuspadi with twelve syllables per quarter, a 
prastara of the metric prototype^zga#, structured as (Pingala, Chandahsastram 

6.31, Prakrtapaihgalam 2.129; Bharata, NS 32.288, 289, p. 354; Hemacandra, 
Chando ’ nusasanam , 2.162; Jayakirti, Chando ’ nusasanam , 2.121; Jayadeva, Jayadevac- 
chandas , 6.33; Kedarabhatta, Vrttaratnakra , 3.47; Virahanka, Vrttajatisamuccaya , 
5.27; also chittaka , ibid., 4.54; also nandinl , ibid., 3.20; also bhramaravali , ibid., 4.61) 

Three example are available; thus Bharata (NS 32.289, p. 354): 


3T(^Fn)^Ti % fcWpSTt MRwR II 

SpptPnftf fdMfgd: "Tfet yfodH II ) 

Halayudhabhatta ( Mrtasahjlvani , comm, on Pingala, loc. cit.): 

'Hdl'W ! II 

Somesvara (AC 4.16.266, p. 29): 




^rdcllMH^^TTFl t?T: Tl^fl ^ W-KqiRld^t I 

Tpn^^^Rt '■TplT: ^sfRrRfsRI: II 

159d. pratipadam padaih svaraih: SR (4.244-245) does not declare this laksana 
for the totaka foot; NN has athetised the laksana therein that sv should occur at the 
end of each foot. 


AC (4.16.267, p. 29): in totaka metre (4PTO4T); four feet; Sanskrit or Prakrta; in 
any desired raga and tala. For an example, see above. 


PS lacuna 





SP (1.569ab, p. 74): composed in totaka-vrtta. 

161-162 19. Dhata 

This prabandha is called ‘ ghata' by some (e.g. SR 4.244, 245; CDP 9.68); in dhata- 
ghata, one is probably derived by graphic deterioration of the other. 

161a. dvipadi (see NN 3.2.136 and comm, on-same): cha-b ta (or 5 bha)-ga. The 
first half of dhata should be composed with such structure. 

161b. Adya is the collative consensus; if conjecturally emended to 'ardha\ it 
confers textual consistency as well as concurrence with parallel treatises such as SR 
(4.246), Somaraja ( SangUaralndvafc extr. Bhamtakosa, p. 292), JS, AC (see below) 
etc. Siriihabhupala also explains the text similarly (p. 301); but Kallinatha (p. 301) 

His attempt tojustify this interpretation on the ground that the expression ardha 
is relative and the sense would remain uncompleted if not explained this way is 

161c. padottarardham: If the text is emended to mean half of the vrtta, it would 
gain the support of parallel works. 

162c. dvyangah: ‘ Tryahgah ’accords well with the stated laksana. It is of dipani-jati 
because of pd, tn and (accruing from dvipadi) tl, if it also has sv according to a 
different school; if only pd, tn and tl are present, its class is bhavani. Kallinatha is 
silent, but Venkatamakhin (CDP 9.68) classifies ghata as a dvijati prabandha under 
dipani and bhavani. 




JS (p. 24): First half in dvipadi, second in tn, or vice versa ; A in other words; 
conclusion is on tn; any desired tl. 

SS (5.7.77d-79ab, p. 218) as in JS. 

PS 3d; three ahgas —pd tn tl, n (4.47, p. 27) 

LS (5.401cd-402ab, p. 409): First half in dvipadi metre, U; second in pd. 
Prabandha is called ghata. 



SP (1.567ab, p. 74) dhatta, sadabahulya (sabda-?pada-?) 

163-165 20. Vrtta 

163a. vrttena chandasa: ‘ Vrtta' has a general meaning: any verse form of four feet 
with a definite prosodial structure; it also means a specific metre of this name and 
a specific namesake prabandha. Sarngadeva mentions both views while describing 
totaka prabandha (SR 4.244cd-245), is personally inclined to the first and compiles 
the second from others. Kanda, turaga ( =haya) Vila, krauhcapada, arya, gatha, dvipatha, 
kalaharhsa, dvipadi, totaka, tripadi, satpadi etc. are restricted ( niryukta) to namesake 
metres and therefore may be called vrttaprabandhas. Sarngadeva accords only half 
consent to this view; for non-consent, he argues that according to other (ancient) 
teachers vrtta is (also) a specific metre with a definite prosodial structure; this 
prabandha employs it by prescription and is so named vrtta. However, he does not 
characterise the vrtta. 

The vrtta metre appears in two forms—as varna vrtta samacatuspadi —in Indian 
metrics. First, it has ten syllables per quarter, structured as 'R^t^FT (Bharata, NS, 
Chowkhamba edn. 32.217; it is also called dodhakaby Bharata, NS 15.37.39, p. 257, 
saravati by Prakrtapaihgala, 2.94 and citragati by Hemacandra, Chando’nusasanam , 
2.113 and byjayakirti, Chando’nusasanam, 2.89). Second, it takes twenty syllables 
per quarter, structured as or more simply, ten units of laghu-guru. The 

former is defined by most of the prosodists e.g. Hemacandra ( Chando’nusanam, 
2.335),Jayadeva (Jayadevacchandas, 7.23),Jayakirti (Chando’nusasanam, 2.232) and 
Kedarabhatta ( Vrttaratndkam, 3.98) and th£ latter by Pingalanaga (Chandahsastram, 
7.24: ‘gliti vrttam’. 

Besides the above, a third form of vrtta is also defined by Kedarabhatta 
( Vrttaratndkara, 3.40; it is called vrntaby Hemacandra, JayakirtiJayadeva, Pihgalanaga 
et al. ). This has the gana disposition TTWT and thus has eleven syllables per quarter. 

As mentioned above, SR does not define the specific form of vrtta, but leaves the 
question open; but Kallinatha shows here his personal preferene to Pihgala’s 
definition (and this lead is taken up by Pandarlka Vitthala and Venkatamakhin) 



and extracts an illustration from the latter’s commentator, Halayudhabhatta 
(Mrtasahfivani, on op. cit. 7.23): 

T TTT|:l3q>lR rfHMci 

H^l^criy^dRlfd it ff II 

AC (4.16.244, 245, p. 26) offers an illustration for the same form: 

(%«T)'?TT ^tRTTH 

TF5T% '^Flc^tsfq rara SIFT | 

SfiMNSlR WT w TTOfa FFI fft 
« h)tRllft ^TS^cf dR^H^l f^F M^4idd l H II 

Two illustrations may be given for the third form viz.FWFT; the first is by 
Narayana Purohita in his commentary Maninidhi on Vrttaratnakara (3.12): 

SldHdilRlRl^qM^q^ fsppr | 

3^H4|dH*Ri fepsi cTWnncf?Tt I 

The second is offered by Kalidasa in his commentary Srutabodha on Xrttarat- 
nakara (loc. cit.): 

srra*ra era wkiiR crara ^ n 

As pointed out already, NN favours the form 'gliti dasadvayam, i.e. 

164d. purvaparavibhagatah: U -pada 1-2, D -pada 3-4. 

165a. padatah: other than those in U andD (and containing names of prabandha, 
patron/hero, composer). 

165cd. Taravali because vrtta has pd and tl if it omits sv (according to some; if it 
has sv also according to others it should be bhavanl; it is described in this latter 
manner by PS (see below). However, it is not clear how it could be dlpanv, probably, 
it takes bd also optionally. Venkatamakhin also describes it (CDP 9.67, 68) as 
bhavanl , but Kallinatha is silent. 

While concluding his description of vrtta prabandha, Sarngadeva refers the 
reader for the numerous varieties of vrtta metre to a work called Chandoviciti (SR 

WrafsraT Rl^aoqi^'^'Hi «1W^ f*rai: 1 



Kallinatha merely says (p. 301): ‘ chandovicitisamjnakenagranlhena ityarthah'. But 
Sirhhabhupala makes Sarngadeva its author (p. 302): ‘ chandovicitinamni madiye 
granthevilokaniyah' (emphasis is mine). There are several works of this name: a text 
on Vedahga-chandas, alternative name of Yadavaprakasa’s commentary on Pihgala, 
of Pingala s Chandahsastra (Chandahsiitra) , of fdnasrayichandas, of Ratnamahjusa, of 
a work by Gargya, of Dandin, of a work in Buddhist Pali, etc. But no work of this name 
wr itten by or ascribed to Sarngadeva is known. 

BD (400, p. 144) mentions vrtta (378b, p. 142) but the description is opaque due 
to corruption. 

AC (4.16.244-246, pp. 26, 27). Vrtta varieties are endless; according to Matanga, 
vrtta prabandha should be composed in vrtta metre which has for its structure three 
ra-ja(gana) units followed by guru and laghu. For an illustration, see above. 

JS (pp.16-17): The vrttas, sama, visama, ardhasama etc. varieties are discussed in 
general; laksanaoi guru, laghu, ganas etc. isgiven. Vrtta prabandha is sung in any vrtta, 
in any tala suitable to the metre, with or without sv; when sv is present, it is sung at 
the end of the pada or at the end of he vrtta itself. A is composed in words other than 
those in the vrtta. 

SS (5.7.57cd-64ab): the eight ganas ma, yaetc. are described; the vrtta prabandha 
has pt tn tl and bd suitable to the theme in all (any) ragas. 

PS 3d, three ahgas —pd tl sv, n (4.46, p. 27) 

LS (5.7.402cd-403, pp. 409, 410): sung in vrtta metre; according to some, it has 
(sv, and according to others) no'sv; the U,D and A(?) are composed in the metre. 



SP (1.567cd, p. 74): composed in all metres. 

166-17lab 21. Matrka 

166a. Matrka means alphabet or mother goddess. For Sanskrit alphabet (see 
comm, on NN 3.2.27d). Mother goddesses are variously described, Purnodan, 
Viraja etc. 50 (Nijaguna Sivayogi, Vivekacitamani, 8.506), Brdhml etc. 7or 8, Sri, 
Laksmie tc. 7 or 8, Kali, Kausika etc. 7 (Musunuri Venkatasastri, Vidyartikalpataruvu, 
80), Vyapini, Tdpini etc. 8 (Saradatilaka), Gauri, Padma etc. 17 (Bahvrcaparisista, 
Nrsimhaparijata). The bija-mantras of these deities are the matrka mantra varna, or 
the kalamdtrkas (Naradiyapurana) etc. 

The bijaksaras of mantras are acyuta, anandabhairava, istadaiva, isvarae tc., words. 

167d. marga talas: caccatputa etc. five talas (NN 1.110-114) 

168b. desi talas: ddie tc. talas (NN 1.138-195) 

168c. misranad: Sanskrit— desi tala, Prakrta— margatala 

169b. matrka: cf SR (4.251): 




srfwi fwi ^ ww ii 

Does ‘ sa here refer to the mdtrka-prabandhaas such or (because of proximity) to 
its variety divyamanusi alone? Pandarika Vitthala has avoided this ambiguity and 
explicitly states that each of divyd, mdnusi and divyamanusi has two varieties, viz. 
nibaddha and anibaddha. 

169d. padasodasato AC (4.16.310-314, pp. 32,33) gives the following illustration 
for the mdtrka U, a creation of his own: 

3f*ft !(K u IHIdHI^ I 3Hi<*>KHi5ir«tM<iw=nlH: I 

TTcRT y^lMlH, I ^ii'i'i’^: 'hRl'McitHl: I 

I 'Q^Tcm 'hd'M't'SDjodH, I 
I STtg^vRTc^WTTHfrR: II 

i -qa^raFfh^ i 

31: l 

( ^d l of cTR: I) 4TtrfWSFlFlf^^W I 


170a. kakaradi catustrimsat: In the mahasodha nyasa of Srividyatantra, the follow¬ 
ing mantra names commencing from ka to ksa have been prescribed for yogini nyasa : 

The D and A of mdtrka prabandha may be composed from these. While Kallmatha 
requires the D to be composed of twentyfive words commencing with ka through 
ma (p. 303), Pandarika Vitthala mentions only thirtyfour; the syllable to be omitted 

is not known. 

170c. niyata: the unclassified consonants from ya to ksa._ 

I70d. varnapurvapadaih: divyd —Sanskrit words; mdnusi Prakrta words, 
divyamanusi mixture of both. Pandarika Vitthala has thus erroneously inter¬ 
preted Kallinatha’s words (p. 303): 

According to other ancient authorities A of mdtrka varieties should be composed 
thus: divyd —Sanskrit words commencing from the letters ya to ksa, marga talas ; 
mdnusi —words of Prakrta, desi talas; divyamdnusb- Sanskrit words, desi talas, Prakrta 




words, marga talas ; Simhabhupala asseverates that the matrka prabandha is of the 
nature of the entirety of mantras and of the pantheon; so it bestows all fruits and 
fulfilments; he therefore exhorts that it should be performed when one is pure, full 
of faith and attentiveness. Sung otherwise, demerit (sin?) accrues. 

171b. niryukta in tala', has two ahgas —pd, tl and so belongs to taravali class. 

BD (503, 504, p. 153): Intended meaning is sung in words, each commencing 
with a matrka letter. 

AC (4.16.310-315, pp. 34-35): as in BD; no rule on rdga or tl. 

JS (p. 13) as in BD; three kinds: divyd —Sanskrit, divya tala; manusi-?rdkrt?L, desi 
tala; divyamanusi-bhasa-vaicitrya , marga and desi talas; again of two kinds: nibaddha, 
anibaddha; matrka delights king, gods, sages, gandharuas etc. and extols upanisadic 
doctrines. JS describes it as the first prabandha ; composed of bd pt pd tl. 

SS (5.7.35cd-39ab): first to be described; as in BD; composed in Sanskrit or 
Prakrta, or their mixture, with pd pt bd tl. 

PS 3d, three ahgas —pd bd tl; n (4.47, p. 27) 

LS (5.404-41 lab, pp. 410-411): composed in words commencing with each of the 
fifty alphabets; divya, manusi as above; divyamanusi in manipravala language (a 
mixture of South Indian languages and Sanskrit); nibaddha-anibaddha mdtrkas. U in 
sixteen words each beginning on a different vowel; D in thirtyfive words commenc¬ 
ing from ka to ksa. A in Sanskrit, desi tala. 


SD (4.437-440, pp, 76, 77): as in BD; a few sentences are sung prior to matrka- 
mantra varnas; divyd etc. three varieties as above; anibaddha and nibaddha varieties 
as above; matrka is sarvamantramayi, sarvasiddhipradayini. 

SP (1.538, p. 78): as in BD; sarvamantramayi, sarvasiddhipradayini. 

171cd-176 22. Ragakadamba 

171c. ragaih: Among rdga, tala, vrtta, rasa etc. which may be applied to a 
prabandha, rdga is the most prominent; hence it is mentioned first; also, this is why 
the prabandha is named ragakadamba’, every vrtta, its half or quarter in the prabandha 
may have a different rdga ; hence, aneka ragaih, ragakadamba. 

171c. talaih: each vrtta is set in a different tala. 

172a. gadyaih: AC (4.16.51, p. 46) declares that this song may be composed in 
prose without tl; the plural implies different forms or segments of gadya to suit the 
various ragas, rasas etc. 

172a. Padyaih is redundant to vrttaih. 

172a. rasaih: Each vrtta, or each of its parts, or each of the gadya segments should 
express a rasa such as santa, vira etc. 

172c. talaih: Each of four vrttas is set to a different tala. 

I72d. Angakaih implies the prabandha jati. Among the six ahgas , pd and tl are 
already indicated. If only these occur, nandyavarta ragakadamba is a taravall. If the 



composer employs one, two, three or all four of sv, pt, bd and tn, the composition 
is of bhavani, diparii, anandini or medinijati respectively. 

173b. nandyavarta: NN has omitted a line from SR (4.254) in the definition of 
nandyavarta : 

The meaning of the disjunctive 'va here is: if the tala of the prabandha has a long 
span e.g. simhanandana , U and D may both be encompassed within a single avarta 
of the tala; if the tala has a short span e.g. adi, jhampa etc. these may be accommo¬ 
dated in its two avartas. 

174b. dvigunah: Svastika rdgakadamba is composed in eight rdgas, eight talas and 
eight vrttas (or two of each). 

174c. Abjagarbha is included in abjapatra according to Simhabhupala (p. 306). 
Kallinatha adds (p. 304) that according to some, svastika defined as above, itself is 

175b. parah-parah-svastika or abjagarbha —eight (or two each) rdgas, talas and 
vrttas; abjapatra —sixteen (or four of each); bhramara —thirtytwo (or eight of each); 
amredita— sixtyfour (or sixteen of each). JS, AC and SS do not describe these 
ragakadamba kinds. 

175d. udgrahadhruvau: Whatever the variety, the first half constitutes U and the 
second D. 

176b. abhoga: Sarngadeva and others do not mention A separately for rdgaka¬ 
damba; but as required in the general rule (SR 4.310), 

A must be composed for rdgakadamba with words other than those in the vrttas in 
the concluding section of the final raga the names of prabandha , patron and 
composer should be incorporated. 

176d. adi: This composition has no rule for the number or order of the ahgas; so 
it can have two, three, four, five or all six ahgas (in whatever order) and hence may 
be of any of the five jatis. 

Rdgakadamba was a scholarly but popular prabandha. Gopalanayaka of Karnataka 
had composed, in the late 13th or early 14th century bhramarasvastika and 
amreditasvastika varieties which were quite well known in the middle of the 15th 
century and are mentioned by Kallinatha (p. 305) in illustration. It may be 
remarked that these are the only songs he offers as illustrations from contemporary 
musical practice in the entire prabandhadhyaya of the SR. It is strange that he refers 
to them as svastikas rather than as ragakadambas. Thus Gopalanayaka’s 
bhramarasvastikawas composed in thirtytwo rdgas and thirtytwo talas , its U being in 
the raga malavasri, and the tala simhanandana; it was a tardvaVi , consisting of only pd, 
tl; he had composed another bhramaraWith pd pt sv tn tl (i.e. without bd) in the raga 
velavadand the tala darpana, an anandini; he had also composed medirii rdgakadamba. 



The ragakadambacorresponds somewhat to the ragatdlamalika-p-abandhaofKamataka 


AC (4.16.50-51, p. 46): Nandyavarta and svastika are composed respecdvely in 
four and eight vrttas, ragas and talas', they are composed with tala if in verse and 
without tala if in prose. 

JS (p. 46): Nandyavarta and svastika as in AC; A in other words; conclusion on U 
in two tala spans; svastika in many ragas. 

SS (5.35cd-39ab): Nandyavartaznd svastika as in AC; A in other words; conclusion 
on U in two tala spans. 

PS 3d, two ahgas —pd tl; n -an (4.43, p. 26). 

LS (5.41 lcd-418, pp. 411-412): all four varieties as in NN; conclusion on gadya 
according to some. 

RK (3.98-100, p. 50): only nandyavarta and svatikaas in AC; the former is in gadya 
according to some. 

SD (4.441-446ab, p. 77): all four varieties as in NN; varieties formed by progres¬ 
sively doubling ragas etc. beyond abjapatra not found in usage. 

SP (1.569cd, p. 74): called ragamisra : ‘ raganam misranadeva sammato raga- 
misrakaK . 

177-185 23. Pancatalesvara 

177a. Ragaih is saksaralapti but is ragalapti in parallel texts. This is clearly stated 
by Simhabhupala (p. 310): 

rdr^dMmrH :^i r<rd 

(Absence of talais implied in the word alapa \ even then, absence of tala is explicitly 
stated in atala in order to obviate a possible doubt that an appropriate tala may be 

and by Kallinatha (p. 306): 

7THMIM ^ g WFMfH: I 

177c. caccatputena: Pancatalesvara is so named because it is required to be 
composed in the five mdrga talas, caccatputa, cdcatputa, satpitdputraka, sampakvestdka 
and udghatta for details of which see NN1.110-114. 

177d. padapancakam: If these five words are denoted by p 9 p 5 p 4 p. then they 
are sung in this order- Pl p r P 2 P 2 ‘P 3 P 3 -P 4 P 4 -P 5 P 5 

178a. Ipsitam: without restriction that the patas of only such instruments, that 
only such and such svaras, that only such and such ahgas, in only such and such 
order shoud be composed. 

178b. prthak: After alapa, the first word is sung; then svaras (or patas) in a 
different dhatu ; the word is sung again; next patas (or svaras) are rendered in 



different melody. Now the second word is sung; this is followed by svaras/pata in 
different dhatu. The second word is sung (in the same) dhatu\ then the pdta/svara 
follows in different dhatu. Care should be exercised that the order svara-svara or 
pdta-pata is avoided between the words. The remaining three words are performed 
in the same manner. This is the manner of singing the pancatalesvara and is true of 
all the five segments. 

178d. patahasambhavaih: For such pdtas, NN 1.12-16. SR (6.822) mentions 
sixteen pataksaras for putahcu. ka kha ga gha to tha do. dha no to tho do dho no ra ha. 

179a. antara: Expedient bridge between D and A prescribed for only salagasuda- 
prabandhas. (For its use in pancatalesvara see comm, on NN 3.2.7b.) 

179c. purvavat: With this atidesa (extended application), it should be understood 
that an antara should be composed in hudukka pdtas in two tala spans. 

179d. Haudukka pdtas are obtained by omitting ‘dm’from pataha pdtas and 
adding ‘majhem (SR 6.1076, 1077): 

3>cjld ^|;KqP4ai'y I 

H^Kl HHlfafa: II 

180d. saiikhapataih: sounds such as ghumghum tho digi etc. (Kallinatha, p. 308). 

181b. Dala is understood as pd here. The use of sv and pt which were prescribed 
in the singing of five or six words in caccatputa etc. talas is not specifically mentioned 
here. But they must be taken as implied here by purvavat. 

181d. kamsyatalasambhavapatakaih: pdtas preponderant with tatakata. 

182b. padasatkakam: thus totalling twentyseven words in the pancatalesvara. 

182c. murajapataih: pataha-patas in which takitatom are prominent. 

183b. Abhoga should be composed in udghatta tala itself, after the antara of 
muraja patas in two spans of the same tala , in druta or madhya-laya. After A, tn is 
composed in the same tala. Because tena signifies auspiciousness, this is called 
mangalavakya elsewhere (SR 4.263, JS p.14, Rk 3.112 etc.). 

184a. panca: Bd is omitted; hence dnandini in jdti. 

184a. niryukta JS (p.14) and RK (3.114) further require that pancatalesvara 
should be sung in one of the ragas, viz. sri, mdlavasn , veldvaU, todi, natta and 

184b. dhatukam: UDA -antara-, if A is omitted, only three dhatus in each of the sub¬ 
compositions (in caccatputa etc.). cf. Kallinatha (p. 309): 

f^TrTTTSdl-dTTTATT: W I W : I 

184c. isvara: It is like the master or king in respect of all other prabandhasr, cf. also 
commentary on NN 3.2.177c. 






JS (pp. 13, 14). as in NN; the number of words is explicitly mentioned as 
twentyseven; raganiryukti is given as aforesaid (comm, on NN 3.2.184a); viravatara 
and srhgaratilaka are described. 

SS (5.7.39cd): as in NN; Mrdahgais mentioned vicemuraja; A is called mangalavdkya; 
the composition is dear to the gods; it should be sung in suddha- or ragahga ragas. 

PS 3d, 4 ahgas —sv bd tn tl; an (4.51, p. 27) 

LS (5.418cd-434, pp. 413-415) : as in NN. A also contains words of benediction; 
U and D are each set to three talas. According to Kohala and others, the first two 
words in each segment constitute U while the remaining three form D. All gods are 
propitiated by the prabandha which yields the fruits of the agnistoma etc. yajhas and 
of bathing in the celestial river to the performer, patron and listeners. 

RK (3.103-114, pp. 50-51): as in NN; ragas prescribed as above (comm. NN 

SD (4.446-455ab, pp. 78-79): as in NN. 

SP (1.570cd, p.74): pahcatala is composed in five talas. 

186-188ab 24. Talarnava 

186a. Ipsitangaih: The prabandha may have two, three, four, five or six ahgas and 
therefore may belong to any of the five classes. 

186c. avrttibahubhih. Pandarika Vitthala has thus modified ‘ bhuritalah’ of SR 
(4.265a). He seems to mean that the same number of talas are repeated over and 
over again. But SR means that the number of talas is very large. This is why it is 
talarnava, ocean of talas. 

188a. dhruvamadhyapada: The general rule is that A is composed of words other 
than those in U, M or D. Talarnava is an exception; its A is constituted by words 
which occur in D; so the names of the prabandha, patron and composer have to be 
incorporated in D itself; there is no A other than this. This exception is made only 
by Pandarika Vitthala. 

188b. anyat: There are some differences: Talarnava has only one raga, not many 
as in ragakadamba; progressive doubling of the number of components applies to 
tala and vrtta alone but not to raga. 


AC (4.16.52, p.46): composed in many talas, one raga, prose or verse. 


SS (5.7.133cd-134): as in AC. 

PS 2d, 2 ahgas —pd tl; an (4.26, p. 25); 3d, two angas —pd tl, n-an, (4.43, p. 26) 

LS (5.434cd-435, p. 415): composed in many talas; two kinds: prose or verse. 

RK (3.118cd, p. 52): as in LS 

SD (4.455, p. 79): as in LS; name is apt. 

SP (1.570ab, p. 74): composed in many talas. 




Among the thirtsix viprakirna-prabandhas, BD describes only eight. AC, twenty- 
seven, JS, 35; SS, 22; PS describes none, but summarises all information (dhatus, 
ahgas, niryukta etc.) but directly borrows it form JS; LS and SD are content mostly 
in following SR (as NN, CDP etc. do). SP is frivolous, uninformed. Therefore, the 
following commentary will draw upon only BD, AC,JS, SS and PS where pertinent. 

188cd-189 1 . Srirahga 

_ 188c. caturbhih: This is only a restriction of number and not of specific rdgas or 
talas. So the prabandha is aniryukta. 

188d. padanvitah: Since this is a mediniprabandha, sv pd pt bd tn and tl must be 
accommodated in four sections; pd is the final ahga. Kallinatha adds that each raga 
must include all ahgas, of which pd is the last (p. 311). 

189b. ragapunjavat: SR and other authorities do not refer to ragakadamba ; NN 
(and CDP) picks this up from Kallinatha, thus making the prabandha a medini. 
Venkatamakhin expands ‘ rdgakadambavat (CDP 9.71-75) and declares that each of 
the four sections is composed in a different raga and tala', words must necessarily 
occur at the end; the remaining sv etc. five ahgas may be composed in any desired 
order; in each section, U is the first half and D, the second half. The composition 
has no M or A, but the names of prabandha, patron and composer are incorporated 
into the fourth section. 

189c. nyaso nuktastu: This is an independent remark of Pandarika Vitthala. 

190-192 ab. 2. Snvilasa 

3. Pahcabhahgi 

4. Pahcdnana 

5. Umatilaka 

srirangavat: See comm, on NN. 3.2.189b. 

The five prabandhas srirahga, srivilasa, pahcabhahgi, pahcanana and umatilaka are 
considered as an interrelated set by AC,JS, SR and most post-SR treatises, including 
NN and CDP, because of some common features viz. division into two, three, four, 
five segments, employment of six ahgas, ragamdlika-talamdlika form, and compul¬ 
sory use of a specific ahga in the beginning and end. It would seem, therefore, that 
they were looked upon as a group. But these five are seperate prabandhas-, there is 
no rule that they should be performed in any particular order, nor that all of them 
should be necessarily performed in the same recital. They differ from dlikrama 
prabandhas such as ragakadamba and taldmavcmhkh take the rdgamdlikaor talamdlikd 
form on individual merit, not as a group; a common criterion for classifying is found 
only among these five in viprakirna prabandhas. 

AC(4.16.39-43) takes pahcabhahgi as model (prakrti) and describes the others as 
its modifications (in fact, they are regarded as varieties of pancabhahgi): 



HircMW: Wlft: Mld^ef*: I 

WTT: fa«lR^ qic#T: I 

^if^Mlfa: TftWt I 

Umatilaka is not found in this passage; ‘ stu mataliK may be construed with 
unwarranted strain and implausibility into ‘ stumatilakafi. Upadhi is not found 
elsewhere. The last line suggests that the compositions srivilasa , srirahga , pancanana, 
matali and upadhi are sung as five aspects or modes of the same single com¬ 
position, and are collectively known as pahcabhahgi.]^ (p.47) also takes pahcabhahgi 
as the model but describes the five prabandhas differently; these may be regarded 
as derived by systematic permutation for concluding and initial positions among sv 
pd pt bd and tn. 

T3TT: fTO: MldlfcHl MilRdl: I 

yWKpcMI^ cMlft^ I 
U.+dl^+{MI§J WHf^-kldl I 
^b||i|c| fcMWI^qRt | 


uwA»ji w<i<ldi qft m<iP<=h: i 

qfr i 

fa«lMdl Wx\ dldHHf^d: I 
wfq^cT: I 

On the other hand, SR and following it, NN etc. take snrahga as the model and 
describe the others viz. srivilasa etc. relative to it. The differences in details among 
these authorities show that these compositions were in fluid, varied usage. SS 
(5.7.142cd-147ab, pp. 225, 226) also takes pahcabhahgi as prakrti but describes 
pancanana and srirahga relative to it; however it does not depict srivilasa and 

The laksanas of all these five prabandhas are common and are summarised into 
a single formula by PS (4.37.38, p. 26) and JS 2d, six ahgas —pd pt bd tl tn sv; an. 

193a. sridah: This laksana of umatilaka is found only in NN. 

193cd-196 6. Tripadi 

194d. rati-manmatha: Ratigana, also called brahmagana is a variety of the proso- 



dial prototype atyuktd and assumes four forms viz. 55 15 51 II; manmathagana, also 
known as visnugana is a variety of madhya chandas and assumes eight forms viz. 555 
155 515 115 551 151 511 III (SR 4.64.65). These are bisyllabic and trisyllabic prosodial 
units respectively; the number of syllables is fixed but the moraic quantity/duration 
is variable, so that the poet has a wide choice. See comm, on NN 3.2.26cd. 

195-196a. Manner of singing the tripadi is compiled by Pandarika Vitthala from 
Kallinatha (pp. 313, 314): 

rraTST : I tscfft sp: I “ 3TT^TT^TS 'W^TT^Tt T T- 

cjMcll:’ ’ ^fcl ^ u lft<=ll*lhPl^ ? n^, ScAqi ^T: “ h^I^T- 

d><rMHl’’^^^9l u lcdl^'T^' ) Tt T T: IrRPTt^^fT^: IfFT'HlMlFl^Hir^i^: I 3TFTT 

“37^PT^RTt cRfW: •wyAhilsfq WSRTfWl 

^H^ p-q»zrr-'^q:l 3T^I«n dldlRglHt^R 

I 3Tcft5^f RTT^fRnfcRT^ I 

So, if sv also is omitted, only pd remains as aiiga and tripadi is no longer a musical 
composition ( prabandha ), nor of taravali etc .jatis; hence sv should be used and tala 
to accommodate it (only). So tripadi has two ahgas —pd, sv, i.e. it is a taravali. NN 
does not concur with this view (according to which the ahgas should be three viz. 
pd sv tl, and not two), and holds that restricted use of tala for sv alone does not 
elevate it to the status of a fullfledged ahga. 

196a. Tripadi is an ancient, classic metrical song in Kannada, also known as tividi, 
tivadi and trivadhi. An epigraphic example is available as early as c. 700 A.D. 
Nagavarma ( Chando’mbudhi , 5.11) andjayakirti (Chando nusasanam, 7.9) describe 
its two varieties viz. citra and vicitra of which extra has survived today in wide 
popularity in poetic and epigraphic usage. The latter is also known as citralatika. 
The dtrahas four feet with two, four and three ganas respectively; among these, the 
sixth and tenth (second in the third foot and fourth foot respectively) are rati ganas 
while the rest are manmatha ganas. Citralatika {or vicitra) is different from thisinonly 
one respect; the eleventh gana is not manmatha ; it is a bana (or rudra) gana 
commencing on guru (Jayaklrti, op. cit. /. 10). That this was a music composition is 
evident from Jayaklrti who, in the very next two verses clearly states that, notwith¬ 
standing this rigid amsagana (syllabic structure), its mdtra (moraic) frame (of 
sixtytwo matras) is elastic enough to expand or contract to accommodate various 
prosodic situations (ibid., 7.11); thus if it contains only laghus, its duration is only 
forty two matras', and he is aware (ibid., 7.12, 13) that a saivagaru tripadi is not 
viable. Such elasticity is of the very essence in metrical (or nonmetrical) forms if 
they are to be feasible as music compositions also. According to these authorities, 
the composition rhymes on the second syllable in every foot. Its first two feet are 




sung along with part of the third: then this part is sung again, the third foot is 
completed and the fourth foot is finally sung. 

AC (4.16. 276,282, pp. 30, 31) concurs with the above and offers on illustration. 
D.L. Narasimhachar (‘ Mdnasolldsadalli Chandassu’ in ‘ Fithikegalu, Lekhanagalu 
p. 691) has carefully edited it into the following correct version: 

WTferf || 

We learn from AC (4.7.32; 4.16.551) that the tripadiwas sung as onakevadu (an 
occupational folksong sung while pounding corn) and as ahkamdld (a song of irony 
con taming a small number of touche taunt words directed at a rival defeated in battle 
or combat). For an excellent account of the origin, evolution and use of tripadi 
in classical and folk literature, see T.V. Venkatachala Sastri, Kannada-Chandah- 
svarupa, pp. 384-425). 

JS p. 51. as in NN, adds that the conclusion is on second foot after reverting to 
the first. JS and PS summarise thus: 2d, two ahgas— pd tl (!sv?); n (4.27, p. 25) 

197-199. 7. Catuspadl 

197a. kamata-bhasaya: Early authorities such as AC, JS and SR do not declare this 
bhdsd-niryukti openly, for they must have been aware of the occurrence of catuspadl 
in other languages also. 

But Kallinatha extends the Kannada language to catuspadl from dvipadi and 
satpadl on the strength of the rule: 1 anuktam-anyato grdhyam (p. 315), because they 
also have Kannada and lack tala. Pandarika Vitthala and Veiikatamakhin (CDP 
9. 298) have followed him. 

It is known as caupada in Telugu and is a very popular metre, described by 
Kakunuri Appakavi ( Appakavlyamu , 4.288), Vemulavada Bhimakavi ( Kavijandsra- 
yamu, 3.32) and a variety of folk song ( gilakala padyamu ). In Hindi also, it is a very 
popular metre called caupax. It is defined in Chandahprabhakar (p. 49) thus: 

cpf cTl eTC 31% I 

It is a mdtrdsama vrtta, related to ( Prdkrtapaingala , 1.97) and renowned 

under the name jayakdn. Jagannath Prasad ‘Bhanu’ ( Chandahprabhakar, p.46) and 
Bikharidas ( Chandarnavapihgal, p. 22) describe it as consisting of fifteen matras 
followed by a guru and laghu at the end in each foot. It is used by Chandbardayi 



( Prithviraj-rdso) , Surdas (Sursdgar), Nanddas ( Jndnamanjari , Virahamanjari), 
Kesavadas (' Viranarasimhadev carit)', it is employed as a sama-matra vrtta of sixteen 
matras per quarter (sometimes relaxed to fifteen matras by these poets and 
Tulasidas,Jodhraja,Jatmal, Gore-ul, Sudan, Gulab, and indohas (for love-lyrics) by 
Katuban,Jayasi, Usman, Noor Muhamad etc. (See Hindi Sahityakos Ed. Dhirendra 
Sharma, p. 290.) 

197cd. nrpa-dasapanca: Catuspadi is known to Kannada as caupadi(ge). Nagavarma 
(Chando’mimdhi, 5.14) and Jayakirti ( Chando’nusdsanam , 7.15) describe it as con¬ 
taining a visnugana followed by a rudragana (or kdma followed by bdna gnna) per 
quarter. Candraraja (Madanatilakam, 8.34) agrees with this laksana and gives two 
illustrations. However, catuspadi as a prabandha differs from this literary analogue, 
and has been experimented with extensively. Somesvara (AC. 4.16.283, p. 31) gi\es 
a variable pada of sixteen, twentyoneortwentyfour md trds\] agade ka mall a (JS p.25) 
prescribes seven or eight matras per foot. SR, NN and others declare sixteen matras 
in even numbered feet and fifteen matras in odd numbered feet, this is corrobo 
rated in the caupdyi of Hindi as mentioned above. Numerous caupadas are available 
in Kannada: Rdvana-digvijaya, Saranalilamrta, Cikadevardya-caupada, Gange-gaun- 
caupada, Virasahgayyana-caupada, Alamelurmahge-ldlipada, Maisuru-doregala caupada 
etc.; these consist of eighteen matras , more or less, per quarter. It is sometimes 
argued that catuspadi is a modified form of chandovasanta and that it is derived by 
the fusion of two dvipadis. The statement ofjagactekamalla (JS loc. cit.) that tripadi 
is derived from dvipadi maybe recalled here. Somesvara (AC 4.16.284, p. 31) gives 
an illustration (which is not in Kannada): 

qJckHlPHft TfTfl 3TT =WHl<rl W II 

198a. yamaka: See comm. NN 3.2.71a. 

198a-199b. kramat.. .catuspadi: these details are compiled by Pandarika Vittahala 
and Venkatamakhin (CDP 9.295-302) from Kallinatha (p. 315). 

199c. niryukta:, because of restriction on language and matra number. 

199d.taravallyakah: cf.Kallinatha(p.315): : I W*11^9141 

catuspadi lacks tala from dvipadi lakasana ; pt and bd are not prescribed. So it had 
only sv pd tn. It is not clear how it is classified as a taravali. This has a variant reading: 
‘syadatra dipani' from C. This is also plausible; for, there are two instances^of 
corroboration of this from JS and PS: 3d, four ahgas —tl tn pd sv; n , (4.53, p. 27). 
JS (p. 25) says that catuspadihas seven or eight matras per quarter and is composed 
in the metre named catuspadi, rhyming occurs in line-pairs or in all lines; all pddas 
are equal. A third source ascribes for it dipanljati also: SS (5.7.79cd-81c): catuspadi 
consists of sv, tn, tl, sv-pd; but the text is somewhat ambiguous: ‘ svardh satennakdsta- 



tra talah svarapadabhidhah). It further prescribes a yamaka in each half, and 
conclusion on tenaka. BD (406, p. 144) also seems to prescribe tala, tenaka, svara 
(and pada ?) for the composition. 

200-202. 8. Satpadi 

200c. kamagana: see comm. NN 3.2.26cd; 3.2.194d. 

201b. banagana: see comm. NN 3.2.26cd. 

201c-202. Manner of singing satpadi is borrowed from Kallinatha (p. 316). 

202b. jivanada: This is merely ‘ nadamuktika in SR(4.274), but interpreted by 
Kallinatha as jivanada which he explains as the sthayi svara of the rdga, but to be 
executed as svara sequence carried on vowels and not by uttering the names of 
suara-symbols (p. 316): 

WlfW'l I IT ^rifcd'Jii'ccUUfed cpiifteMsf; | 

202b. Satpadi is at once an ancient, classic metre and a music composition in 
Kannada; it should be distinguished from the ardhasama-catuspadi varnavrtta 
named satpadd (Kedarabhatta, Vrttaratnakara, 4.12.1) which has twentynine sylla¬ 
bles per quarter (17:12) and is structured with the gana sequence 
BD mentions it (c. fifth-seventh cent A.D., 386, p.142) but the description is lost in 
a lacuna. Satpadi occurs in two forms— amsagana and mdtragana. Its definition by 
Nagavarma (Chando’mbudhi, 5.21),Jayakirti (Chando’nusasanam, 7.17) and others 
conform to its definition in the musical tradition such as by Somesvara (AC. 
4.16.287-289); the latter adds other considerable information: it is composed in 
Kannada in six feet among which 1 =2=4=5, 3=6; each of the former feet consists of 
two kdma ( =visnu) ganasznd each of the latter consists of the same and an additional 
bana ( =rudra) gana at the end; it is not set to tala; its lines rhyme (usually on the 
second syllable) and alliterate; it narrates a story (4.16.289, 552, 1125) and is used 
for this purpose. As mentioned above, sudakrama is according to him, the singing 
of long and classic prabandhas ( mahan) such as eld, dhenki, followed by shorter, 
miscellaneous ( alpa) prabandhas. The latter include tripadi, satpadi, dhavala, mahgala, 
ovi, carcan, carya, rdhadi and danti. These were laukika prabandhas, i.e. their themes 
were mundane (AC 4.16.549, 550), to be sung in one’s own language (mother- 
tongue, regional language; AC 4.16.557). This authority also offers an illustration, 
the text of which is ably reconstructed by D.L. Narasimhachar (‘ Manasollasadalli 
Chandassu, in Pithikegalu, Lekhanagalu, pp. 692, 693) thus: 



'isciHoo^ fq^J, 

The form of satpadi described by prosodists such as Nagavarma and Jayakirti as 
well as music authorities like Somesvara is archetypal. The sivasarana poets of 
Karnataka of the llth-12th century A.D. expanded the satpadi in scope and variety 
by systematic experimentation and came up with six forms, through a progressive 
increment of 2 mdtrds in the first, second, fourth and fifth feet and adding half of 
this quantity again and a guru in the third and sixth feet. Thus the six varieties are 
sarar8 (4, 4), kusuma- 10 (5, 5), bhoga- 12 (3, 3, 3, 3) bhdmini-U (3, 4, 3, 4), pariva- 
rdhint-\6(4, 4, 4, 4) vdrdhaka- 20 (5, 5, 5, 5). The above illustration conforms to the 
kusuma-satpadi format. (For a detailed discussion of the satpadi —both amsa gana 
and matra gana varieties, see T.V. Venkatachala Sastri, Kannada Chandah-svarupa, 
pp. 488-544.)’ 

Sarngadeva is fully aware of the potential for evolution and proliferation of 

tripadi and satpadi when he says (SR.4.274): ^1 at 

the conclusion of the satpadi prabandha. P. Basavanna has offered a most compre¬ 
hensive, latest proof of this statement in his Sri Sivakumaracaritam. He has classified 
the satpadi metre as sama , asama, samasama, samasama , asamasama , asamasama , 
visama and miscellaneous. His innovation lies in the concept of repeating prosodial 
units and verse feet to yield larger matrices for satpadi. Such repetition consists in 
doubling, trebling, quadrupling etc. up to six times the original units e.g. thirtythree, 
thirtyfour, fortythree, fortyfour, thirtyfive, fiftythree, fortyfive, fiftyfour, fiftyfive of 
matra dispositions. The experimental range is from the smallest satpadi of 6 mdtrds 
per foot (tala) to the largest consisting of forty mdtrds per foot e.g. mahdvdrdhaka, 
mahamaruvaka, mahamallika, mahamandara and mahoddanda. His achievement 
consists in composing laksana-laksya stanzas for all the varieties. 

JS defines satpadi as composed in Kannada, in six feet consisting of two ganas in 
each of 1,2,4 and 5 and three in each of 3 and 6 so that there are altogether fourteen 
ganas in the stanza; it features many yatis and concludes on nada (svara passage 
carried only on vowels); the seventh and fourteenth ganas are bana while the rest 
are Kama. SS (5.7.178cd-181ab) concurs with all this, and says additionally that it has 
no tala and the language is desya (however, no examples of satpadi are available in 
other desya languages than Kannada of his times; so, he probably means Kannada 
by this expression). PS shows a lacuna for the laksana. 

203-205. 9. Vastu 

204a. ebhih: U consists of the five feet and tenaka at their end. 

204d. dodhaka: see comm. NN 3.2.154a. Simhabhupala reads it as dohaka. 



205b. talayuk: SR is silent on tala (4.275, 276); Kallinatha interprets this (p. 317) 
as the absence of talaniiyukti, not of tala. Pandarika Vitthala in turn interprets it 
positively. Venkatamakhin (CDP 9.148) is content with ‘ taladi niyamabhavaf. 
205c. AnandinI:,. because the vastu has all aligns except bd. 

205d. niryukta: because of prescribed matra quantity and dodhaka metre; but 
aniryukta in raga, tala, bhasa etc. Venkatamakhin (loc. cit.) defines it as aniryukta. 
205d. vastu: AC gives an illustration for vastu in Prakrta (4.16.296, 297, p. 32): 

t| d'4^HNi'H L ld < +ld4iaf^T fop? I 

HIHlfq^Ht^T II 

According to AC the vastu has five feet; 1,3,5 have each fifteen matras while 
2, 4 have twelve matras each; at the end of fifteen matras is composed a dodhaka; it 
is sung in plays; according to Bharata’s dictum, it arises from many rasas. JS and PS 
(4.55, p. 27) summarise it thus—3d, five ahgas, pd pt sv tl tn; an. 

Vastu is depicted in JS (p. 25) in five feet with fifteen matras in 1, 3, 5 and twelve 
matras in 2, 4: it has sv, tn, pt, pd and no tl (?). A is composed in other words; 
conclusion is no tn. Dohaka precedes A and follows D. SS (5.7.71d-84), gives the 
same details: it adds dohalika at the end (of each foot? of 5th foot?). First half (U) 
has pd while second half (D) has tn. This is followed by dohalika; A is composed in 
other words. Conclusion is on tn; tl is of one’s own choice. BD (407, p.144) has an 
incomplete description: vastu has tena; it is a desi gita, sung in plays. 

206-207ab. 10. Vijaya 

206a. Vijaya is a talaniryuka-prabandha. Vijaya tala is (NN 1.193): TJ: WTefl : 

(5551) which agrees with its description in SR (5.283). 

206cd. pataih...krtah: NN is not clear in stating the content of U or D; nor is SR 
(4.277). The translation of this passage is based on Kallinatha (p. 318). 
Venkatamakhin (CDP 9.149, 150) agrees with this. JS (p. 47) gives the contents as 
' tenapatapadasvaraiK; if this also implies sequence, U consists of tn pt; D has pd sv. 

207a. vijayo nama: JS (loc. cit.) describes the composition as an eulogy of the 
victory {vijaya) of heroes and Simhabhupala (p. 318), of kings. So the name is apt. 
This is enhanced by the use the namesake tala. 

207a. pancanga: All ahgas except bd; hence anandini in jdti. 

207b. niryuka because of vijaya-tala. 

207cd-208ab. 11 . Tripatha 

207c. Tripatha has three feet (JS p. 48; SR 4.278): the first has pt, the second, 
bd; both constituteTJ; the third foot has sv and is D. 




208a. Pancanga includes tala by implication ;JS (loc. cit.) explicitly mentions the 
application of a tala of one’s choice. All ahgas except tn are present. So tripatha is 
an anandini. PS: 2d, four ahgas —sv pd tn tl; n,( 4.34, p. 26) 

208cd-209. 12. Caturmukha 

208d. varnagaih: As 'tn is significant in tripatha, ‘catur’ is so in caturmukha because 
the prabandha has four feet: the first has sthdyi varna and (separate) sv (passages); 
the second is composed in arohi varna and tn. The first two together constitute U; 
the last two, D. 

209d. tripathavat: conclusion on U (SR 4.279), an, five ahgas (sans bd)—and so 
an anandini (Kallinatha p. 319); these bear out the similarities with tripatha. 

AC (4.16.35-38, p. 45; 4.16.396-398, p. 66): Caturmukha has four feet, the first two 
of which are sung like svarahka, the third with tenakas and the fourth with gamakas. 
The four parts (feet) are rendered with sv, pt, pd and tn respectively; no example 
of this is available. 

SS (5.7.138-139ab): Caturmukha is composed of sv pt pd tn and of sthayi, arohi , 
avarohi and sahcari varnas respectively. A is in other words; conclusion is on U. 

210-21 lab. 13. Sirhhalila 

210c. simhalila-tala (NN 1.189): l°°° 

210d. simhalilake: This depiction of simhalila prabandha conforms to that given 
inJS (p. 47), SR (4.279,280). PS (4.30, p. 27; 4.33, p. 27); 2d, three ahgas— pd tl bd, 
an/ 2d, five ahgas —sv pt bd tn tl; an. Allocation of U etc. are compiled by Pandarika 
Vitthala and Venkatamakhin (CDP 9.107-111) from Kallinatha (pp. 311, 312); it 
has all six ahgas; so it is a medini (SS 5.7.149cd-152a): composed of bd sv pt in 
simhalila tala. 

211cd-212. 14 . Hamsalila 

211c. hamsalila tala (NN 1.189, SR 5.267): TcKHl-ci ^lf. But Kallinatha says 

(p. 320): 'W’TS ( 155IS) 'irfo cTFT ’. But this laksana of 

hamsalila tala is not found in any available source—impressi typis or MS of SR. 
212c. niryukta, because of hamsalila tala. 

212d. bhavanl jati because of three ahgas: pd pt tl. 

213-214. 15. Dandaka 

213a. Dandakacchandas is a well known varnasama metre of ancient origin. It is 
found in as many as thirty forms. Its prototype is defined by Pingalanaga 
( Chandahsastram, 7.37) as consisting of two na-ganas followed by seven ra-ganas in 
each of four equal feet. This is named canda, candavrstiprayata(-prapata) and 
suvarna. In general, any vrtia having more than twentysix syllables per foot is called 
dandaka, the ones beyond canda are collectively called pracita by Piiigala (ibid., 




7.35); others have grouped them into two classes, dandaka and mdlavrtta. Jayadeva 
(Jayadevacchandas, 7.34) regards pracita not as a collective name but as a specific 
instance wherein occur two naganas followed by seven ya-ganas (instead of ra-ganas 
of canda dandaka) 

Dandaka varieties maybe grouped under three heads: variation in the initial six 
(two na-gana) syllables, variation in the number of ra-ganas and substitutes for 
ra-gana. If the initial six laghus are substituted with three, four, five or seven laghus , 
the dandaka is respectively called simha , abda , canda and vata; if the six laghus are 
retained at the beginning but the ra-gancis are increased from eight to fourteeen 
(by one, progressively), the following forms are obtained (n = na-gana , r = ra-gana ; 
number of syllables is given after hyphen), (i) candavrstiprayata 2n7r-27 (ii) arnava 
2n 8r-30 (iii) arria 2n 9r-33 (iv) vyala 2n 10r-36 (v) jlmuta 2n llr-39 (vi) Ulakara 2n 
12r-42 (vii) uddama 2n 13r-45 viii sahkha 2nl4r-48. These are described by most of 
the prominent prosodists such as Rata, Mandavya, Varahamihira Jayadeva,Jayakirti, 
Kedarabhatta, Virahanka etc. Varahamihira adds two more: samudra 2n 15r-51 and 
bhujahga 2n 16r-54. Nagavarma (Chando'mbudhi, 3.23) mentions three viz. racita, 
pracitaznd nacita ; the text is too opaque by corruption for decipherment. The third 
departure from the prototype is to substitute ra-gana with ya-, ta-, bha-or other ganas. 
Jayakirti (Chado ’ nusasanam , 6.32-37) is more detailed and informative in describing 
dandaka among prosodists as isjagadekamalla among musicologists JS pp. 17-20). 
Both classify the dandaka under gana-, matrci-,, ubhaya-, vrtta- and mala and charac¬ 
terise such forms as mattamdtahga, Ulakara, simhaviknda, anahgasekhara, puspamahjan, 
kusumastarana, utsava, vilasa, simhavikranta, mrgdhka, bhujahgavildsa, citramdld, 
citra. JS adds that if one sings the dandaka prabandha in song or dance in a tala which 
is appropriate to the yatis and in words which accord with sruti (Veda), one is 
redeemed of all blemishes. Velankar holds (Velankar, H.D., Kavidarpana, Introduc¬ 
tion, pp. xii, xiii) that “the dandaka was originally a talavrtta sung to the accompa¬ 
niment of a time keeping instrument or of a regular rhythmic dance” as in the fifth 
Act of the Malatimadhava of Bhavabhuti. “It was sung in a tala of eight or ten matras 
according as the particular aksara-gana contained four or five matras in it.” This 
conjecture is plausible; but there is no musicological evidence to support the 
specificity of the ta'a size. 

Dandaka may be composed in padya(=vrita) or gadya. H.D. Velankar (Jayadaman , 
pp. 147, 148) compiles the following thirtythree forms of dandaka from various 
sources (abbreviations: /— laghu ; g— guru ; r— ra-gana , n— na-gana , t— ta-gana , 
y— ya-gana, b— bha-gana , s— sa-gana, z—any gana , x—any number). 










1 . 


(lg) X 



61, 7y 



41, z 



6/, 16r 



6/, 8r 



xt>, gg 



61, 9r 





asokapuspamanjan ( gt) , x 



ng, llr 



61, any panca- 
matra ganas 



6/3g, xy 



61, 13r 



61, 12r 



ng, 13r 



ng, 14r 






6/, 7b 






7/, z 



ng, 12r 



6/, lOr 



51, z 



61, 14r 



51, xr 



61, 15r 



6/, xy 



3/, z 



61, llr 



51, xy 





ng, 9r 
ng, 8r 



ng, lOr 

Nagavarma claims that the formula 2n+xr for dandakay\e\&s varieties upto x=333. 

Most authorities in prosody or music are content to illustrate the dandaka with 
the model of candavrstiprayata. Some examples of this dandaka form are: Bharata- 
muni, NS 15.153,154, p. 281 (MSS. Z, Z, S). 

7W < «r4fcT 

rgidebiPcI^Hr^'dlddlcil ddl^di HHWPd T^ll: I 

^feT( * )ebci^l^rTbrHJiIuftiTbl4»^^r4^^4HWPd 7TFKT: 

*jIdd«l<rM<l$<rll: UHldModl: '<^<fa#e| HSlP-HHIl: II 

This is found in Chandovidti (Janasrayi) with the variant readings ( O fd-Hc'l 

( ^) I 

Halayudhabhatta, Mrtasanjivani (comm, on Pingalanaga, Chandahsastram , 7.37): 
5? % s^fcT ^^cfjRtrzr^t ftsrfd; g#TT HdWlRPui 

nK^ird^^14^^Mjlc| d ^( * >t%RT^ui TFfW I 



-HldlMc^f'JdlSFK ^) 

^dd^d'-ll<M<j|( 3 )fwnfp^ET ^MOldl || 

This is borrowed by Kallinatha (p. 321). Venkatamakhin (CDP 9.314) borrows 
in turn form the latter with minor variants: ( % ) ^ ) 1 JclT^ ( 3 )TjTc(W 

Nagavarma, Chando’mbudhi, (3.22, p. 58: laksya-laksana-padya in Kannada): 

otalcfR ^Trf mdUldod (^t, (f%^) 

diHddd'i ^sod itjRi.s^-cKjl ciUdl <; <j 'S c t>^-aj'> 3tyjd4ni)Mi| II 
OnciqcRl dl<+yRl^HI(^Rft^ : 4PTTf^^^n^'2^7j) M ] 


Somesvara (AC 4.16.250-253, pp. 27, 28) delineates dandakawnh the candavrsti- 
prayata structure, numerous feet (note that this is a medial property of dandaka 
between padya and gadya\ but the illustration which follows has only four feet); it 
has svara, talaa.nd pdta;sv is interspersed in the words; according to some, single tala 
is used; elsewhere two or three talas are prescribed; after singing the name (of 
prabandha, patron, hero and composer), the song rests on U. He offers an 

f^RPRfttT Tf cTTW: HTfq tyrr-q 
RiqlHdHdH: ftsfO^l^Rill; SflformW: Tmt^cf^T^TT I 

cTTty (-R-ddldi-W rlty) II 

Gadyadandaka on the other hand, is not regulated by rules of pada or gana. It is 
enough if the same single gana recurs continuously and constantly. It is described 
only byjayaklrti ( Chando’nusasanam, 6.34) among prosodists and byjagadekamalla 
(JS pp. 12-20) among musicologists. Neither gives illustrations. From available 
examples it would seem that the initial na-gana pair is absent and that the prabandha 
starts with pure prose (not gadya prabandha) , and assumes the dandaka form after 
some time. The repeating unit may be ra-gana or ta-gana. 

Some illustrations of gadya-dandaka may be given here: Bandhuvarma, 
Harivarhsabhyudaya, (13.31pr. ta-gana): 

"3^FE Rf’Rrqq^iPiqiPi^ fc^jqfufj'l^ fTcFFft^:T3Tf^ 

1111 iT^fT^fTRTTSlH^FIoST- 



Sripadaraya: Laksiriinrsifhhapradurbhavadandaka, called uddandadandaka by the 
composer ( Sripadarajara-krtigalu , pp. 229, 230): 

d u h m m ^ ^ w Fh ^ w o ^ ^ d d y*i fafra rttfm 1 7 is fwi^ 


Sankaradeva, Nijalinga-cikkayyana dandaka (Pvasanna Sahkavalihga vagalegalu, 
Dharawada, 1976, pp. 51-356) shows ta-gana in the main, occasionally substituted 
by ra-gana and ya-gana. 

^Ifacrilci ynknqlsiT- 

BD mentions dandaka (397d, p. 142), but its description is lost through a lacuna. 
Somesvara (AC loc. cit.) states that dandaka is composed of tl pd sv. Haripaladeva 
(SS 5.7.64,65) depicts it with pd sv, suitable tl-, raga; decorated with numerous yatis-. 
Parsvadeva (PS 4.46, p. 27) summarises its laksana thus. 3d, three angas pd tl 

sv; n, Sarngadeva is very crisp (SR 4.281): I 

Kallinatha (p. 321) expands this to say that U is made ofpd,Dofsv,Aof other words; 
three dhdtus, niryuktabecuuse of dandaka metre, bhavani jati because of three angas 
viz. sv pd tl. Pandarika Vitthala and Venkatamakhin have followed this. 

Many important authorities on music recognise that dandaka had vastly proli¬ 
ferated: e.g. JS (p. 18); 

HHfa siT I SS (5.7.64): q u -s<+l J l u l^TllR^T^fl I SR (4.281): cTFT 

^ftcRl «RT s H5'<l^84Tf’ I T *TlfW: I NN however, does not observe this. 

215-216ab. 16. Jhampata 

215a. tripadlgatha: see comm. NN 3.2.151a, 3.2.153a; gatha is avya metre com¬ 
posed in Prakrta words. It has 3,5 or 6 feet (NN 3.2.153b). When it has only three 
feet it is called jhampata. Kallinatha compiles its laksana—jhampatam tripadaih' 
(p. 321). Gatha is defined by Kedarabhatta ( Vrttaratnakara , 5.12): 


T TT^fcT II 

Pingalanaga ( Chandahsastram, 8.1) andjayadeva (Jayadevacchandas,7 .36) concur 
with this, while Hemacandra, (Chando nusasanam, 7.73) merely says ‘ gdthdtrdnu - 
ktani. The gatha is a visamarcatuspadi, in which the four feet have eight, ten, seven 



and nine syllables respectively; the number of these syllables may vary. The 
following is an illustration: 

■gfafert i 


HlsO^dl I 

Tjcf wt wrma ii 

Thus the jhampata is a metre of three (mutually) unequal feet, composed in 
Prakrta words. 

215cd. yatra...padaih: first two feet of jhampata form its U; the last foot, is D. A 
is composed of words other than those of U and D. 

216a. krida tala (NN 1.143): 561^1 sjcft I ( oo ) 

216a. niryukta in metre, tala and language. 

216b. taravall: because it has two ahgas —pd, tl. NN. has derived details of 
jhampata prabandha from Kallinatha (pp. 321, 322). 


AC (4.16.79, p. 49): jhambada : omits two feet in dohada-vrtta ; the second is 
repeated in part. 

JS (p. 51) mentions jhampata-chandas and krida tala ; three feet. The rest is lost. 

SS (5.7.175d-176a): sompata?-sompata-tala and sompata metre (?) 

PS (4.27, p. 25): 2d, two ahgas —pd tl, n. 

216cd-2l7. 17. Kanduka 

216d. Kanduka is explained by Kallinatha (p. 322) as a variety of gatha like 
jhampata : ‘ ayam api gathabhedo drastavyaK : NN omits this. This prabandha also has 
three feet; the first two, consisting of pd and pt respectively, constitute its U. The 
third foot, composed of pt is D. A consists of words not found in the first and third 
feet. SR NN or CDP do not mention the conclusion of the song. But Kallinatha 
declares that the conclusion of kanduka , sirhhalila , hamsaVila , dandaka and of 
jhampata is on the respective U. 

217c. DIpanI jati because it has four ahgas —pd pt bd, tl. 

AC (4.16.53, p. 47) kantuka\ many kinds of (unequal) feet, pd, bd; tl, raga of 
composer’s choice. 

JS (p. 48): kantuka: composed of pd pt bd. 

PS (4. 33, p. 26): 2-d; four ahgas —pt tl bd pd; an 
218-22lab. 18. Tribhahgi 

218c. Tribhahgi vrtta is a samacatuspadi varnavrtta of twentyseven syllables to the 
quarter, with yati at 7, 7, 13 and a gana disposition: (Jayakirti, 

Chandonusasanam , 2.268) 




218d. tribhangi tala (NN 1.195): ^ 1 ( 1155) 

219b. tribhih: including or excluding the tribhangi tala . 

219c. brahmavisnusivastutya: SR(4.284) merely says: 4 yad-va devatraya stutya\ 
Simhabhupala expands this into 4 kascit trayandm stutya yuktaK (p. 323). Kallinatha 
is silent (p. 323). 

220abc. svara-padasaktah: Allocation of the four ahgas pd pt sv tl in the three 
dhatus UDA is not found elsewhere, including Kallinatha. This is a general or 
uniform distribution. In parallel treatises such allocation is specific to particular 
varieties of the tribhangi or allowed to be arbitrary. So, even though most authorities 
describe the same five forms of tribhangi , these latter differ slightly from each other. 
These may be epitomised here from early authorities. 

BD (418, 419, p. 145) gives application of pd pt sv only generally, and merely 

AC (4.16.345-352, pp. 39, 40) distinguishes tribhangi varieties by (a) three vrttas 
(b) three feet, each composed of sv pt (c) three talas (d) each of three feet 
composed in a different vrtta, It offers two illustrations: 

^ ^ W! c||^c|^ || 

^ "spifaT I 

3Tfq ^ Wife PddRld Wt ^dH, I 

TIT '§RdHM$d I 

It is not known how his words may be conciled with this 

illustration. He gives an additional information: tribhangi has no rule about 
meaning (i.e. theme) or rasa. 

Jagadekamalla (JS p. 45) describes the following five kinds: i. composing sv pd 
pt in three suitable ragas and in ii. three talas in. composing sv pd pt in tribhahgi-tala 
or in three different vrttas'w. composing all three feet in three ahgas in a single vrtta 
called tribhahgiv. composing in propitiation of three gods. It is suggested that in the 
first two varieties the sequence of ahgas is sv-pd-pt and pt-pd-sv respectively in each 




of three feet, in the third, each foot is in a different vrtta; in the fifth, each foot is 
devoted to praise or propitiation of one god. 

Haripaladeva (SS. 5.7.125-128) gives slightly different laksana for these five: i. sv- 
pt-pd (probably in this order) should be sung in each foot separately, thus repeating 
them three times in all three feet; ii. composed in three ragas, three talas-, 
iii. composed in abhahga ( tribhangi ?) tala\ iv. and v. are the same as above. 

Somarajadeva ( SangUaratnavah , extr. Bharatakosa, p. 262) gives the same five 
varieties in the same way. 

Parsvadeva (PS. 4.54, p. 27): 3d, four ahgas— [>d pt sv d. 

Venkatamakhin (CDP 9.187-193) adds that (iii) is composed such that each of 
the three feet is devoted to one of the three ahgas and to one of the three talas. 

It may be recalled that tribhangi vrtta has been described as a catuspadi (3.2.218 
c). But the above descriptions relate to three feet only. This may be conciled by 
assuming that the fourth foot is A (which has words different from these in the other 
two; but whether the names of the prabandha etc. can be incorporated into the 
metrical structure of tribhangi metre is ponderable). On the other hand Kallinatha 
says (it is not known on what authority) that tribhangi vrtta is a variety of gatha (of 
three feet, p. 322). In this case, A is composed separately. 

221a. aniryukta: with no restriction of raga, tala, vrtta etc. e.g.(v) 

221a. niryukta: with restriction of raga, tala, vrtta etc. e.g. (ii), (iii) 

221b. yathasambhava: in any arbitrary order. 

221cd-223ab. -19. Haravilasa 

222d. haravilasa: There is unanimity in the laksana of this prabandha among the 
authorities. It is not described in BD and AC. But Jagadekamalla (JS p. 46) and 
Jagannatha (? extr. Bharatakosa, p. 768) ascribe the following laksana of haravilasa 
to Matanga: 

9ltbl ' : Tr?n || 

This, if genuine, is more likely to be a paraphrase or summary than an extract; 
BD does not reveal any specific distribution of ahgas among dhatus, i.e. allocation 
of this or that particular ahga or ahgas to a particular dhatu. However, the possibility 
of the above passage or its purport in BD cannot be completely ruled out because 
of the large lacunae and corruption in the available text of BD. 

SS (5.7.141,142) gives a somewhat different sequence of the ahgas: 

iii^fq farsm I 

Venkatamakhin (CDP 9.155-158) agrees with previous authorities e.g. SR 




The conclusion of the song on pata, ascribed to Matanga in the above passage, 
is not mentioned elsewhere. 

PS (4.56, p.27): 3d, five ahgas— sv bd tl tn pt; an. 

223b. AnandinI: because it is composed in all ahgas except sv; raga and tala are 
to be assumed. 

223cd-224. 20. Sudarsana 

224b. sudarsana. Kallinatha is silent, but Pandarika Vitthala and Vehkatamakhin 
(CDP 9.179-181) adopt his method to interpret thus. 

BD, AC, SS have not described this prabandha', its description in JS (p. 48) is the 
basis for later accounts. 

224d. Dipani because it is composed in four ahgas v iz. pd bd tn tl. 

PS (4.32, p.26: 2d), three ahgas —bd tl pd; n. 

225-226. 21. Svarahka 

225. svaraih... svaraih: The structure first segment—sv-1 tl, second segment—pd- 
2 tl, third segment—bd-3tl is agreeable to most authorities. In some instances pd is 
substituted by pt (e.g. SS 5.7.123a). Only Sarngadeva and later authorities give a 
different order: pd-sv-bd (SR 4.286). 

226b. malavasriya: Kallinatha adopts this reading for SR (p. 324) and is faithfully 
followed by Pandarika Vitthala and Vehkatamakhin (CDP 9.184). This reading is 
not supported elewhere; the former has conflated both versions. 

226c. caturdhatuka: Here NN and CDP '(9.185) have followed Kallinatha 
(p. 324); from the expression ‘ udgrahaditrayam (SR 4.286b) follows the arrange¬ 
ment: U—first foot composed of pd in a single tl; M—second foot composed of sv 
in 2 tl; D—third foot composed of bd in 3 tl. According to others, the order is U— 
first foot, sv-ltl; M—second foot, pd-2tl; D—third foot, bd-3tl. With both schools A 
is fourth dhatu, composed of words other than those in the first (or second) foot. 
Thus the prabandha is caturdhatuka. 

226d. Dipani: because it has four ahgas: pd sv bd tl. 

PS (4.50, p. 27): 3d, four ahgas— pd sv bd tl. Thus Parsvadeva does not recognise 
the occurrence of M in this prabandha. 

BD does not describe svarahka. 

AC (4.16.30-33, pp.44-45) mentions the three segments clearly: 

W t T TT ^^1 farts rST I 

Tfa cppf II 

It records (4.16.33, p.45) for the first time the admission of the Kannada word 
bayakdra (composer) as a technical term into the perimeter of music theory. It 
further adds that this composition may have its own god or king as hero. An 
illustration is given: 



3Tf£R*TT ^tPlf^fa^ frfwt5^( WPJ I 

^rHdl^H J ltr=K <MU|Hg|$d$1d?| I 

-Ml WHd II 

JS (p. 45) concurs with AC. 

227-228ab. 22. Snvardhana 

227. yatra-padatmakah: Pandarika Vitthala and Venkatamakahin (CDP 9.173- 
175) have followed Kallinatha (pp. 324, 325) in this distribution of ahgas among 

228a. Snvardhana prabandha is not described by Matanga and Somesvara. But 
JS (p. 47) and SS (5.7.154, 155) give the same laksana as in SR. 

228b. AnandinI: because of five ahgas , pd pt sv bd tl. 

228cd-229ab. 23. Harsavardhana 

228c. padaisca birudaih: This is U of harsavardhana. 

228d. svarapatakaih: This is its D. 

229a. udgrahe nirvanah: This laksana is not found elsewhere. 

229b. sesah: aniryukta, tridhatuka, anandinl jati (not found in Kallinaha). 
229b. Harsvardhana is not found in BD or AC. But Jagadekamalla (JS p. 48), 
Haripaladeva (SS 5.7.155, 156), Parsvadeva (PS 4.33), Sarngadeva (SR 4.288), 
Venkatamakhin (CDP 9.176, 177) have described it in the same terms as in NN JS 
and SS add a talaniryukti of citra tala ; this tala is described in NN (1.192) thus: 

eft ^ ^ (o||o||oo|) 

229cd-231. 24. Vadana 

229c. Cha-pa-da are matra-ganas defined by moraic quantity viz. cha —six mdtrds 
(555), ca—five mdtrds (551), da —four mdtrds (55), ta —three mdtrds (51) and da —two 
mdtrds (5), as described in SR (4.63). These were used largely to compose metrical 
structures in Prakrta and Apabhramsa languages; they are discussed by Hemacan- 
dra (Chando’nusasanam, 1.3), Virahanka ( Vrttajatisamuccaya , 1.15, 16, 27-29), 
Svayambhu ( Svayambhucchandas , inter alia) with alternative symbols; two mdtrds — 
da, ddra; three mdtrds — ta, tarn, tarhsa; four mdtrds — ca, edra, cariisa; five mdtrds — pa, 
para, pamsa; six mdtras~cha, chdra, charhsa. Hemacandra employs sa in place of cha. 
It is interesting that Jagadekamalla also employs the same in describing vadana (JS 
p. 50). 

229cd-230a. udgrahe....padaih: Both Pandarika Vitthala and Venkatamakhin 
(CDP 9.198-205) have followed Kallinatha (pp. 325, 326) in the distribution of 
ahgas among the dhatus. Vadana and its varieties are not found in BD, AC or SS. JS 
describes vadana, upavadana and vastuvadana (p. 50) thus: 



■qi^cTl^TpT f^TTf^TcT: I 

m^lchfcld ^T:( M) ^MI^ J l u I^Hd^4dtiMc|<^ 

d^cKd+ -d^Mdd^: «hl4fi e MdiH 1 ( ?) 

PS (4.27, p. 25); 2d, two ahgas— pd tl; n. 

232-234. 25. Caccari 

232b. Carcari chandasis a varnavrtta-samacatuspadiwith eighteen syllables in each 
quarter, which is divided into three natural segments with two yatis at 8 and 5 
syllables having the structure ( Prakrtapaihgala , 2.184). It is called ujjvala by 

Hemacandra ( Chando’nusasanam , 2.313), mallikottaramdlikd byjayakirti ( Chan- 
do'nusdsanam,' 2.220), vibudhapiyd by Pingala ( Chandahsastram , 8.16) and harana- 
rtana by Kedarabhatta ( Vrttaratnakara, 3.94.14). But SR (4.290) remarks that carcari 
has many feet of sixteen mdtras each. NN is silent about this. 

But Kallinatha says (p. 326) ‘ sodasamatratmakapadayuktam cacchariccandah . It is 
not known on what authority he does so or if he infers this because Sarngadeva 
mentions a foot of sixteen mdtras. This is not necessarily carcari metre, for SR gives 
carcari chandas according to another school of thought; hence, this would be 
alternative to a sixteen matra foot and could well be the eighteen matra foot 
mentioned above. NN seems to reject or ingnore the carcari of sixteen matra foot, 
but to favour the carcari metre. SR (4.290-292ab) gives altogether four versions of 
carcari viz. i. caccari tala, many feet, each of which has sixteen mdtras, every pair of 
lines possesses a rhyme; Prakrta words; hindola raga\ sung in the Spring Festival; ii. 
same, but cactari metre instead of sixteen matra foot; iii. same, but krida ta/a instead 
of caccari tala; iv. same, but ghattd etc. chandas instead of sixteen foot matra. When 
caccari prabandha is composed in a metre other than caccari, its name is associated 
with the other metre e.g. ghattd caccari NN omits the last three. 

Ghattd is described in Prdkrtapaihgalam (extr. by Narahari Cakravarti, Sahgitasd- 
rasamgraha, (6.22-24, p.133) as consisting of seven four-matra units in each of two 
feet ( dvipadi ) with three ( laghu ?) yatis. 

d^d^lP^d^#^ 'Hqfd ^ I 

'FIT 3>dFlkPbP43T W'TT 31^FT pH-^d d^P^ I 
TI31RF di-HIH TJ1FT ^J°l II 

If, instead, the ghattd metre has caesurae at 11, 7, it is called ghattananda. 

232b. caccari tala (NN 1.144): 




fatlH I -cl cT4^:Tg?T: | ( oo'| oo'| oo'| oo'| oo'| oo'| oo'| ocd ) If the definition 

ofSR (5.266) is preferred viz. fcKMltl^clS'gMKl the tala is o oo oo oo o'o o'o o'o o'o oq 

Krida tala prescribed in (iii) above of SR is (NN 1.143): fsRIOI-dl -oo 

233c-234a. atra...padaih: Pandarika Vitthala has borrowed information on 
distribution of ahgas among dhatus, number of dhatus and prabandha jati from 
Kallinatha (pp. 326, 327). 

Car(c)cah is not found in BD and SS. CDP has suffered a lacuna for the laksana 
of this prabandha. Jagadekamalla (JS p. 24) offers an elaborate description includ¬ 
ing carcah metre, carcah tala, krida tala, ghatta metre (and some explanation of this 
metre in a text which is now snarled), frequent medial recurrence oi'dhatu, pada 
and prasa’, words of Prakrta languages, god-theme, performance in Spring Festival 

Somesvara (AC 4.16.301-303, p. 33) is evidently the source for SR in its treatment 
of the carcah and contains all the details; it is interesting that the prescription ‘rage 
vasante' occurs in the middle of the song( see below). This is called deft hindola in 
AC (4.16.143, p. 14); it is called vasanta, a piny a of hindola, purna, also called desi 
hindola-, hindola is performed in the spring season, in the fourth watch of the day; 
it is dear to Makaradhvaja, i.e. Manmatha (SR 2.2.95cd-96). This seems to be the basis 
for ‘ kamadevatah' in NN for carcah which is to be sung in the hindola raga in 

AC offers the following illustration of carcah in a Prakrta language (4.16.302, 
p. 33): 

(f,5l c l<S I 

Hdfeg) W-idfe ^fd^ I ^fcl t WI t f ^3^pfr»l3 I 

%i| f^5i -q ^ fsFSTffa fog | 

3FWS f^STfl fot cRlfo I 

# cJdlRlji l^fofo^ I fo?cT 6341^1 Hlfo4 I 

It may be noted that the pada does not have sixteen rnatras, nor set to the caccari 
or ghatta metre. 

Parsvadeva (PS 4.27, p. 25) andJS summarise the caccah: 2d, two ahgas—pd, 
tl; n. 




235-237ab. 26. Caryd 

235ab. arya...vina: Paddhadl etc.metres are prescribed in parallel treatises. This 

metre is explained in comm. NN 3.2.237cd. SR (4.292) reads: :I 

Simhabhupala expands this (p. 327) to H<&>sUl$'Sl I 

236a. dvitlya: SR gives a larger option (4.293): fsLcfi^lf<cilcdd: ‘Adi’ here means, 
according to Kallinatha (p. 327) any tala which is equivalent in matra quantity to 
dvitlya tala. 

Dvitlya tala is explained in NN (1.140) thus! f§cfclt I (i.e. °°l). This is 

explicitly stated in the NN. 

236d. udgrahadhruvakau: U consists of the first two feet of the paddhadl (or 
rahadi) metre; D is made of its third and fourth feet. A is composed of other words. 
Pandarika Vitthala has not derived this ahga distribution from Kallinatha, but has 
inferred it by using the latter’s method. CDP has a lacuna for this prabandha. 

237a. dvyanga: pd, tl; hence a taravaU. 

235c. carya: SR (4.293cd-294ab) describes the following four forms of caryd: 

TfT fg^TT T: I 

^ TfrfjN II 

Kallinatha expatiates on this (p. 327): i. puma : full metre ii. apurna : uncompleted 
metre iii. samadhruva : D= U in length iv. visamadhruvd : D and U are unequal in 
length. According to Simhabhupala however, samadhruva consists of repeating all 
four feet; visamadhmvd repeats only D. 

The caryd is not found in BD and JS. CDP has a lacuna. AC (4.16.57-59, p. 47) 
characterises it as composed with a spiritual theme, rhyming in every two feet the 
second half is similar to the first. It offers an illustration: 


PS (4.27, p. 25) says that carija has two dhatus , two ahgas (pd tl) and is niryukta. 
SS (5.7.176-178, p. 230) gives its laksana thus: its theme is spiritual; yogmssing it in 
many forms; it has terminal rhyming, uses paddhadl etc. metres and dvitiya etc. talas. 

Carya means religious or spiritual conduct. Songs pertaining to such practices are 
known as caryd gitis and are more than a thousand years old. Some fifty caryd gitis 
composed by vajrayanaan& mahayana Buddhist monks and others are known; their 
authors are Lui, Kukkuri , Gundan , Catilla, Bhusuku, Kanha , Kambala, Domba , Krsna- 



carya, 'Ana, Saraha, Kahkana, Sahara, Tadaka, Arya, Viruva and Jayanandl. Several 
dohas of Saraha(pada) are also available. 

The carya is undoubtedly the archetype of pada and klrtan in the music of North 
India (Oriya, Bihari, Bengali, Hindi, Gujarati) and of pada, krti or kirtana in 
Karnataka music. I have discussed this in some detail in Snpdddraya'. A Literary and 
Musical Study (ready for the press). These carydgitis have some common features: 
they are composed in a mystic language, usually allegorical, called samdha, samdhyd 
or ihgitabhasa, which is variously claimed to be the precurser of Bengali, Oriya and 
Bihari languages. Only three of these songs are in Sanskrit; the others are in the 
one or the other of Prakrta bhasas. The songs are always in couplets, divisible into 
four quarters. The second of these couplets is always dhruvapada, and is not counted 
as a carana. Here the two lines are sometimes unequal. Dhruvapada is repeated at 
the end of each stanza (carana). The stanza line (pada) is usually of sixteen matras, 
occasionally (slightly) more or less. The number of caranas is usually four (there are 
only three exceptions viz. with 5,5,6 stanzas). The ragais invariably mentioned, but 
never the tala. This was probably to enable the performer to choose a tala or rhythm 
frame appropriate to the metre or rhythm frame of the words. Terminal rhyming 
occurs invariably, including dhruvapada and varies from stanza to stanza. The stanza 
lines in each couplet are of approximate equal length and vary from stanza to 
stanza. Composer’s name is found always in the last stanza. 

A carya of Vinapada, consistng of an allegory on the musical instrument vina is 
offered below; this is in Prakrta; its Samskrta chdya is also given: (Carydgitikosa, ed. 
P.C. Bagchi and Santi Bhiksu Sastri, pp. 58, 59) 

*pl eTT3 TTfa dl^Pd cTRlt I 

SPPjft II ^ || 

3T# T# I 

^'KiiPdtqfq PdeiH? W II 
3flfci'tnlei^r u i ■biRy(u|3Tl | 

RSW; TPTOT TlTfej ■jfaTSTT II ^ II ( |J) 

^ Riflid | 

cTTforaft II 3 || 

■^fT^cT sfTfael RTStfR ^ | 

fWTT Ftf II X II $ || 

From the general features of the caryds described above and the foregoing 
illustration, the resemblance of the carya with the pada (both northern and 
southern analogues) becomes evident. 

^415 rfl^ *iRiRi RTJ: a^i*^ I 
SRT^cTt II ^ II 

dlsicl Tffe £m>c|H| | 

f^cTOfcT II 
3ilRicMoiT'| ^11 I 

T piRlrdl II ^1 
Mlfed: I 

II 3 II 

^TfcT^fWcT:TfPTfRT^cq : | 

*rafcT II X II 



237cd-240ab. 27. Paddhadl 

237c. chandah: The requirement that paddhadlprabandha should be composed 
in the namesake metre is found implicitly inJS (p. 25): its foot has sixteen mdtrds 
amongst which jagana should be avoided in the odd numbered positions and the 
ninth syllable must be a guru; this is explicitly stated in SR (4.295). NN has lifted 
the laksana of paddhadl metre from Kallinatha who quotes it from an unnamed 
source (p. 329); this verse is found in JS (p. 25) which reads ‘navama guru ’ vice 
‘ caramaguru in the last quarter: 

'9T^ '91^ T? Rl-wifaqi^ I 
TqjfecfcT Tti ^RsRsItH II 

CDP (9.170) contains a secondary extraction of this. Jayakirti derives this metre 
from raghata ( Chando’nusdsanam , 1.24). Paddhati may be a Sanskritisation of 
paddhadmh'ich is primarily a Prakrta metre, very popularly employed in Apabhramsa 
languages (e.g. Hemacandra, Chando’nusdsanam, 3.73 regards this as a Sanskrit 
metre). It is a catuspadl matra vrtta, each foot being formed of four four- matraganas. 
Those in odd positions cannot be a ja-gana; the last one must be guru or ja-gana or 

The paddhadl is also called paddhadika ,, paddadia, pajjhatika , pajjhadia , and 
paddhatikd. It is a Prakrta metre. Svayambhu (Svayambhucchandah, 6.169 et seq) 
characterises it thus: savra-sama catuspadl: each foot has sixteen matras; terminal 
rhyming {yamaka) in the even feet. Eight such yamakas constitute a kadavaka. This 
is called paddhadika dhruva. In actual compositions, it is found that the end of the 
foot is ja-gana or sarvalaghu. Nanditadhya’s description ( Gdthdlaksanam, st. 74, 75) 
agrees with this. Rajasekhara ( Chandahsekhara , 5.137) says that the paddhadlpada is 
composed of four four -matraganas. Hemacandra (Chando nusasanam, 3.73, comm.) 
avers that each of the four quarters has four ca-ganas with terminal rhyming; ja-gana 
is proscribed in odd places; there may be jagana or sarvalaghu mend of the foot. 
Kavidarpana gives a similar account except that the last caturmdtra gana must have 
a madhyaguru ( ja-gana) or a dvilaghu. Prakrtapaihgala also states (1.125) that each of 
the four equal feet has four four- matra ganas, but the fourth must be a ja-gana only. 

The following illustrations may be cited for paddhadl: 

Paddhadl vrtta: Hemacandra (Sanskrit) 

Idem. (Apabhramsa) 




Kavidarpanam (Apabhramsa): 

sf!eR«#T I 

<=b^<6fe31IS ^cT ^ff^f II 

Note that the name of the vrtta in the first and third examples occurs in 

Paddhadi prabandha: AC (4.16.317, pp. 35, 36): 

'4pin=t)Hell'll y u M^< J f)|cK 


t|eb<^)0^d=l u f 

tK>'JKfqpi^r^7 qrHci(cf?)=blfdi|4l , l 


BD (404, p.144): pdtati {?) is composed of sv pt tl bd in any language. 

AC (4.16.316-318, pp. 35-56): sv pt, at end of foot, d bd, any language; for 
illustration see above. 

JS (p. 25): bd svpt d, in any language; defines paddhadi: ‘sodasamatra... prokta’(see 

PS. (4.34, p. 26) 2d, four ahgas —bd pt sv d; n. 

240cd-242ab. 28. Rdhadi 

240d. sangramaracitastutih. SR (4.296) reads the same. But the sense of ‘sahgra- 
macaritam jay ah ’ in AC (4.16.419, p. 36) seems more appropriate. 

241a. bahubhiscaranaih (SR 4.296c) is taken by Kallinatha to mean that some are 
made U and some D without regard to precedence or antecedence (p. 329). NN 
extends Kallinatha’s prior method to arrive at this detail. 

241b. Rahadi may be a niryukta prabandha in namesake metre like gatha, arya, 
kalaharhsa, cakravaka, tripadl, caccari and paddhadi; cf. Simhabhupala (p. 327) 
‘paddhadi-rahadimukhyani chandamsi ’; but no indicadon of this is available in music 
treatises. Jagadekamalla (JS p. 51) requires (‘ rahati) to be composed in words of 
paddhati etc. metres. 

242b. Niryukta: because vlra rasa is prescribed. But Kallinatha says (p. 322): 
taladyaniyamad aniryuktah ’. Since NN draws upon Kallinatha for this pordon of the 
text, the reading could be emended to '-abhogo’niryukto' to align with him; but 
niryukta is a better reading. 

242a. dvyangah: pd d; so a taravaU prabandha. 




242b. gunadhatukah: U, D, A. 

AC (4.16.74, p. 49): Rahadi is composed in vira rasa relating to victory in a battle. 
JS (p. 51): composed in padas of paddhatie tc., terminal rhyme. 

PS (4.26, p. 25), 2d, two ahgas— pd d; an. 

242cd-243. 29. Virasn 

242c. padaih: in words of prose or verse (see below, AC, JS et at). 

242cd. udgraha-dhruva: The allocation of pd to U and bd to D is due to Kallinatha 
(p. 329). NN and CDP (9.303, 305) follow him. 

243d. bhavani: because of pd bd tl; but tl is left implicit by other authorities also: 

AC, and JS permit the use of any tala. 

AC (4.16.369-370, p. 63): pd bd any tala, prose or verse; addressed to god or king 
on any desired theme. An illustration is given: 


JS (p. 49): nibaddha (with tala) or anibaddha (without tala), pd, bd, one tala. PS 
has lacuna. 

244-245. 30. Mahgalacara 

244ab. yastu...krtah: Thus mahgalacara is of three kinds (cf. CDP 9.307). 

AC (4.16.359,360, p. 41,62): alliteration: previous words should be repeated and 
then next words taken up. 

JS (p. 50): should be composed like catuspadl; svaras should be sung now and 
then in the middle. 

SS (5.7.171) agrees with JS. 

PS (4.31, p. 25): 2d, three ahgas— pd sv tl; n-an. 

244c. nihsaru tala: (NN 1.189, 190) also called hamsalila: 

tmtrl tWTRi 1 

$p£)cj)Fcj} clTcrf r^TRRT^f^TT II ( if ) 

SS prescribes jhampa tala (l°°l, 2.68 p. 95) instead of nihsaru( 3.2.171-172c, 
p. 229). 



244c. sriraga: AC (loc. cit.), JS. (\bc. cit.), SS (loc. cit.) and Somarajadeva 
( SangUaratnavaR , extr. Bharatakosa , p. 451) ascribe kaisiki raga instead of sn. The last 
authority admits botta raga also. For descriptions of these ragas , see sn raga , 
Pandarika Vitthala, Sadraga-candrodaya , 2.23.25; 3.43, 44; idem, Ragamala , 179; 
idem. Rdgamanjan , 2.68, 69, NN 3.1.201), kaisiki-raga , SR 2.170, 171; botta-raga , 

244d. ardhante svararajitah: at the end of each half; i.e. svaras are composed at 
the end of U and at the end of D. This seems to be the meaning ofJS and SS: ‘madhye 
madhye svarasritah 

246-251. 31. Dhavala 

246a. Dhavala is also an ancient Prakrta metre of 19 syllables to the quarter 
structured as six na-ganas followed by a guru (Prakrtapaingala , 2.192). Dhavala also 
means bull. This prabandha derives its name from the ancient panegyrics comparing 
the hero to a bull. Its residue is now available in three forms viz. kirti-dhavala , vijaya- 
dhavala and vikrama-dhavala. Then it was extended to benediction and therefore to 
all auspicious occasions, and received a pan-Indian experimentation and applica¬ 
tion. Examples of the dhavala varieties are available in Sanskrit, Prakrta, Kannada, 
Telugu and Hindi; it developed largely as folksong or in what is today called 
‘ sampradaya songs i.e. songs, rendered traditionally by womenfolk on auspicious 
occasions and religious rites etc. Svayambhu ( Svayambhucchandas , 7.32) implies its 
acceptance by the learned and the skilled, despite its lack of sastra characterisation, 
crystalline prosodial structure and purity of yamaka because it has an elastic form 
which could suit all auspicious occasions. 

246a. trividhah: Dhavala appears to have flowed in two separate streams in music 
and poetry like the eld. The metre is recognised in Prakrta prosody as early as the 
7th-8th century A.D. Svayambhu, Rajasekhara, Kavidarpanam etc. describe its 
varieties. But Somesvara, Haripaladeva etc. do not distinguish various forms of 
dhavala, Haripala mentions differences in the number of the padas , but does not 
treat them as separate forms. Jagadekamalla has inaugurated its diversification in 
terms of prosodial differences. He seems to be the source for Sarngadeva. 

246c. caranaih: Dhavala varieties are related to the number of padas in both 
music and poetry. Kirtidhavala has four padasvijaya, six; and vikrama , eight. 
Svayambhu, Rajasekhara and Hemacandra distinguish them, giving however, 
different names, e.g. Hemacandra ( Chando nusasanam , 5.32-38): sfidhavala, yasodhav- 
ala (8), klrti (6), guna -, bhramara -, amara and mahgala-( 4). Rajasekhara 
(Chandahsekhara , 22-28) describes utscha-dhavala, hela-dhavala etc. corresponding 
to utsaha-mahgala etc. Kavidarpanam describes kirtidhavala in agreement with 
parallel depiction elsewhere. The kirtidhavala of six feet known to chandahsastrahas 
become kirtidhavala of four feet in sahgitasdstra. 



247c. kirtidhavala: S. (4.299, 300) has a more readily intelligible account: 

twf 3 til ^15f?^7: I tie(1 

This version is accepted here since NN has based itself here on SR. According to 
this, the first and third feet of kirtidhavala each carry two cha (i.e. si x-matra) ganas 
while the second and fourth each carry a larger quantity in terms of ta (i.e. three 
matras-) or da (two matras-) ganas. So even feet have twelve wtatfraseach and the odd 
feet, fourteen (4 ta+da, 2ta+4da) or fifteen (5 ta) matras. This structure is unani¬ 
mously accepted in the musical stream. 

Prakrta prosody offers its own subvarieties for the catuspadi dhavala in terms of 
cha , ca , ta, da ganas. For example 

Svayambhu ( Svayamabhucchandas , 4.17-19) 1-3: cha ca ta instead of 2 cha2A: cha 

Rajasekhara ( Chandahsekhara , 22-28) 1-3: fourteen matras ; 2-4: sixteen or seven¬ 
teen matras. 

Hemacandra (Chando nusasanam, 5.32-38) 

guna dhavala 1-3: cha 2 ca; 2-4: cha 2 ca da or ta 

bhramara dhavala 1-3: cha ca ta; 2-4: cha ca 

amara dhavala 1-3: cha ca ta; 2-4: cha 2ca 

mahgala dhavala 1-2 (not 1-3): cha 3ca da; 3-4 (not 2-4) bca da 

247d. Vijaya dhavala is characterised in SR (4.300bcd) thus: 

0=11^44): I 
^ ^ M t ii 

This laksana is adopted in other music treatises also. NN has 

in the majority of its collative sources: B replaces ‘ send with ‘ pena . If the reading 
‘sena’ is adopted, there would be two da-ganas (in excess of two cha-ganas) in the 
padas 1, 2, 4, 6 than in the catuspadi analogue, resulting in sixteen matras. All four 
padas would then have the same moraic quantity uniformly, differing only in gana 
disposition; the remaining padas 3-5 also have sixteen matras (2 cha+ sa-gana). Such 
structure is unacceptable. So, rejecting 'send, the minority reading ‘ pend (which 
also accords with SR) is preferred. In this case, the matra quantities in the si x padas 
are 16-18(19)-17(18)-18(19)-17(18) and 18(19) respectively. 

Treatises on Prosody delineate the satpadi-dhavala thus: 

Svayambhu (loc. cit.) 1-3: 3 cha; 2-5 : 2 cha; 4-6: 2 cha ca/pa 
Rajasekhara (loc. cit.) 1:14; 2:8; 3:16(17); 4:14; 5:8; 6: 16(17) 

Hemacandra (loc. cit.) 1-4:2 cha da; 2:5: 4 ca; 3-6: 2 cha ca/pa 




Kavidarpanam (loc. cit.) 1-2-3: 2 cha da/2 ca 2 cha ca; 4-5-6: same: 1-3: antyaprdsa. 

249d. vikrama-dhavala: NN has literal correspondence with SR(4.301cd-302ab) 
on the laksana of this prabandha. According to this, the eight padas have the 
following gana/ matra disposition: 

1-3ca da/fourteen (matras);2-Sda/six; S-Sda/six; 4rSca ^/fourteen; 5-3 cada/ 
fourteen; 6Ada/ eight; -7-Sda/8Ada/ eight. There is accord on this laksanam other 

The astapadl-dhavala is delineated in treatises on Prosody as follows: 

Svayambhu (loc. cit.) 1-3: 3.5 ca; 2-4: Scab-7: 3 ca, minus one matra 6-3 ca; 8-2.5 
ca . In other words, 14-12-14-12-11-12-11 and 10 matras respectively. 

Rajasekhara (loc. cit.) 14-12-14-12-11-10-11 and 10 matras respectively. 

Hemacandra (loc. cit.) sndhavala 1-3: 3 ca 2-4: 2ca (?) 

yasodhavala 1-3: Sca;2A: Sea; 5-7: 2 ca ta; 6-8: 2ca2daor Sea; i.e 14-12-14-12-11-12- 
11 and 12 matras respectively. 

250b. vimala: Dhavala prabandha contains words such as vimala , dhavala etc. 

250c. yadrcchaya: as one pleases, without observing any rule of prasa , matra or 

250d. lokaprasiddhitah: This means that there were numerous other forms of 
dhavala with variable or elastic laksana. 

251abc. yatra...padaih: for this distribution of ahgas among dhatus , Pandarika 
Vitthala draws upon Kallinatha (pp. 331, 332). U: 1,2 in kirtidhavala; 1, 2, 3, 4 in 
vijayadhavala; 1, 2, 3, 4 in vikramadhavala. D: remaining padas. (A in other words 
containing names of prabandha , patron/hero, composer.) 

25Id. dvyanga: pd tl; so a taravaVi. 

25Id. niryukta: because of rules of prosody. 

25Id. tridhatuka: UDA 

AC (4.16.14-16, p. 43): contains dhavala etc. words; divided into padas; words of 
benediction; any metre; an illustration is given in a Prakrta language. 

Tjfr sjerg i 

^ i ii 

JS (p. 50): source for SR: sung in any tala. 

SS (5.7.172d-173ab): composed in four, six or eight padas-, sung on auspicious 
occasions only like weddings; set to ekatala. 

PS (4.27, p. 25) 2d, two ahgas —pd tl; n 

Hemacandra ( Chandonusasanam , 5.39, 1) gives an illustration of mahgala- 

^ ^1=1? ^d=HKfii| fac«JTft3T TTfc*I3T«Tt#T I 



Numerous dhavalas are available in Kannada for auspicious occasions such as 
jatakarma, slmanta , upanayana, vivaha etc. as well as devoted to deities e.g. mahga- 
lagaun dhavala , gauge dhvala and so on. Many dhavalas are available in Telugu too. 
All these may be comprehended in 4 M efl+Hfafad:’ (NN 3.2.250 

cd). I have discussed an actual dhavala elsewhere (Sathyanarayana, R., Dhavala: A 
Hoary Song of Karnataka , Bihar Theatre). 

252-254ab. 32. Mahgala 

252a. yatresu...pade: An explicit niryukti that mahgala-prabandha should be sung 
in mahgalacchandas is seen in Jagadekamalla (JS p. 50): 

—'TO Tag 


andSS (5.7.174,175). Kallinatha hasquoted the above definition of mahgala metre 
from an unnamed source. NN has described the metre without naming it. But 
Srikantha ( Rasakaumudi , 3.96, 97) says implausibly that the mahgala-pada has five 

Like dhavala , mahgala also has evolved in two streams—the literary and the 
musical; the two prabandhas are closely affined. For example, Svayambhu (Svayam- 
bhucchandaSy 4.20,21) takes up mahgala immediately after dhavala and declares that 
its feet 1-2 have cha 2 ca ganas , 3-4: 5ca or 4 pa; 4 tan-mahgalacchandah janihi 
mahgalarthe\ i.e. it should be performed on auspicious ( mahgala ) occasions. Thus 
the name of the prabandha is appropriate thrice: mahgala metre, mahgala-tala and 
mahgala occasions. Further, Svayambhu says that the prosodial forms such as utsaha , 
held, vadana , performed on auspicious occasions may be suffixed with mahgala e.g. 
utsaha-mahgala, helamahgala, vadanamahgala ( dhavalamahgala , dohamahgala ). 
Apabhramsa vrtta-jatise mployed in the panegyric to gods are called pulladka; if used 
on auspicious occasions such as wedding, the selfsame are called mahgala (ibid., 

252c. sankha cakradi racitaih: This laksana is not found elsewhere. 

253ab. srirage... malavasriya: Mahgala is restricted in the use of raga and tala also 
as in metre. As mentioned above, JS (p. 50) prescribes mahgala tala for it (oo \). SR 
(loc. cit.) and AC (loc. cit.) require it to be sung in kaisiki or botta-raga. 

253c. purvaparayoh: U—first two padas; D—last two padas. 

254. tridhatu: UDA 

254a. dvyahga: pd tl; so a taravaU 




AC (4.16.17-19, p. 43): composed with auspicious words and sentences; sung 
in kaisiki or botta raga , antyaprasa; trtiya tala (NN 1.151): °°° ’ An illustration is 

JS (p. 50): composed in mahgala metre (defined above), mahgala-tala , vilamba- 
laya ; example? 

PHd^e|(d'dH«d^j4uiH^N'dd(^-?)TiTl??ra (?) 

SS (5.7.174cd-175c): composed in mahgala metre, vilambita-laya , and sung on 
festive occasions ( utsava ). 

PS (4.28, p. 25) 2d, two ahgas —pd tl; n. 

254cd-256. 33. Out 

255a. Ovi is also called uvl Ovlis a well known folksong of Maharashtra; this may 
be the desabhasa mentioned in NN (254d) and elsewhere. AC (4.16.553, p. 81) 
asseverates that the womenfolk of Maharashtra sing it while pounding corn— 'ovi 
tu kandane\ Thus it is a prabandha sung to the rhythm of the stamp or pound 
(=onakevadu in Kannada). Ovi is'a Kannada word also. Kesiraja ( Sabdaman idarpanam, 
Dhatuprakaranam , 666) explains it as ovu-palane (to succour). A sonnet relating to 
elephants— gajastaka —was composed as ‘ ovanige ’ by Saigotta Sivamara ( Epigraphia 
Camatica 7, Nagara , 35-37, 1077A.D). Acanna ( Vardhamanapuranam , 4.36) men¬ 
tions ovanige. Many other Kannada poets mention onakevadu (pounding or stamp¬ 
ing song) from early times e.g. Nemicandra (Lilavati, 2.32-41), Surangakavi 
(Trisastipurdtanavilasa , 24.149-152), Somaraja ( Udbhatakavyam, , 10.88,89), Bhlmakavi 
(.Basavapuranam , passim) , Siddhananjesa ( Gururaja-caritram , 13.100,101), Sadaksari 
(Vrsabhendra vijaya , 36.2.51), Tirumalarya ( Karnavrttantakathe , 20.27). In all these 
instances, the ovi is composed in three segments (cf. khandatrayam, NN 3.2.254c). 

This ovi-laksana has literal correspondence with SR (4.304cd-306). Many ovis are 
formed by rendering each of the three segments or all three together in different 
ways (in melody), by composing them in different metres, by incorporating rhyme 
(or according to others, alliteration) at the beginning, middle or end of the verse 
line etc. 

256d. Ovi is not found applied to any particular rasa. AC (4.16.21, 22, p. 43) says 
that the song uvl has the word uvi at the end (of each foot), in any desired tala , with 
abundant alliteration; the theme is in vipralambha srhgara of the separated beloved. 
It is composed in couplets. A short illustration is available: 




JS (p. 51): couplets; any desired tala; provincial language; alliteration; the word 
‘ovi’ at end; many varieties because of repetitions; applied in vipralambha-srhgara. 

SS (5.7.181cd-182): desired tala ; provincial language; terminal rhyme; contains 
the word ‘ovi’. 

PS (4.29, p. 25): 2d, angas —tl tn (!); n-an. 

I recall a cradle song, lullaby, which my mother (a musician) used to sing in 
couplets in Telugu, at the end of each stanza of which (there were some four 
stanzas) the words ovi-ovi were sung. Its theme was not vipralambha srhgara but 
vatsalya (ovu-palane)-, this may have been included in ‘ovyo janamanoharah’ (SR 

257 34. LolU 

257. sanu... vicaksanaih: There is unanimity in music treatises in respect of 
Prakrta language, alliteration and the word ‘lolli’ at end. Somesvara (AC 4.16.83, 
p. 49; 427, p. 68) adds that it is composed in a couplet, at the end of which occurs 
the word ‘lolli ’. NN gives three segments for lolli. 

JS (p. 52): many stanzas, alliteration, ‘lolli’ at end, Prakrta language. 

SS (5.7.183, 184a): couplets, alliteration, ‘lolli’at end, Prakrta language. 

PS (4.26, p. 25): 2d, two angas —pd tl; an. 

A song form called lati occurs in Telugu and Kannada. It is composed in couplets 
with initial and/or terminal rhyming, with the word ‘lali’ occurring at the end of 
each stanza. It has a good rhythmic frame but no discernible tala. It is a lullaby. 
Several lalis are composed by the haridasas of Karnataka in Kannada; it is also a 
popular folksong. 

258. 35. Dhollari 

258a. Dohada-prabandha is assumed without explanation or description by SR 
(4.308) from which NN borrows this passage. JS describes dhollari without refer¬ 
ence to dohada. Somesvara’s description of dohada (AC 4.16.75-78, p. 49) may be 
summarised here for the sake of completeness. It is composed in lata language in 
four pddas such that 1-3 have fourteen matras and 2-4, twelve matras with yamaka at 
the end of each line. An illustration is found in AC: 

The former half is sung with or without tala. If in such prabandhas (of one or more 
couplets) the word dhollari occurs at the end of each stanza, it assumes the name 

AC (4.16.80-82, p. 49; 424-426, p. 68): if the word ‘dhollari’ occurs at the end of 
the dohada prabandha, it is called dhollari-, each of three parasira (? a Persian word ? 
parasika ? panast?) has twentyseven matrasr, the second is repeated after the third; 




the song concludes on the third pada] it is composed in any desired tala and raga , 
in lata language and is ‘ tauruski prasasamyuta . 

JS (p. 51): Thollan is composed in couplets, with the words thollari at the end of 
the second foot, in krampa (jhampa) tala and gauda raga\ in /ata language, vipralambha 
{srhgara) and vira rasa , in many feet. 

259. 36. Danti 

259. anuprasa... nigadyate: AC (4.16.84, 85, p.49; 428, 429, p. 68): one foot 
(stanza?) is composed in srhgara rasa ; the name of god occurs at the end(?) of 
another foot (stanza) the two are unrelated, and have alliteration; the word ‘ dantV 
occurs at the end. 

JS. (p. 52): two unrelated feet, dominated by rhyming; numerous caesurae; the 
word 'danti occurs at end. There are other prabandhas such as prahelika (riddles), 
(related to danti?) but are not described in the work. 

SS (5.7.200cd-201): two unrelated feet with dominant rhyming, strange (charm¬ 
ing, variegated) caesurae; ‘ danti occurs at end. 

PS (4.26, p. 25): 2d, two ahgas- pd tl; an. 

The last four prabandhas viz. ovl , loti, dhollan and danti are probably folksongs; 
they derive their names from the terminal word, and so are niryukta. The absence 
of A is specially mentioned for them lest the general rule 3T3OTHP|c|^ii 
be inadvertently applied. 


262 cd-276ab. 1. Dhruva 

The laksana of dhruva prabandha coincides completely with that in SR (4.315- 
332) in respect of division of dhatus , sixteen varieties and their application in rasa 
and tala; komala in SR has become kamala in NN. NN athetises the mention of 
invisible fruits accruing to the singing of these sixteen dhruvas. 

AC does not describe the salagasu'da prabandhas. This is true ofJS also. SS (5.7. 
184-188 c) classifies dhruva prabandha into uttama , madhyama and adhama , on the 
basis of the number of padas (foot? stanza?). Uttama prabandha is composed in five 
padas in U, five in A, in sv, pt and attractive desfragas. The fifth pada in A carries bd. 
Madhyama dhruvais composed correspondingly in four padas each and the adhama , 
in three; any tala may be used. This is indeed remarkable in view of the many 
varieties of the prabandha and the severe niryukti for their talas in SR etc. 

Sarngadhara describes a similar classification ( Sarhgadharapaddhati , 1965-2034, 
pp. 293-303) of the dhruva. He depicts the salagasudas in much the same way as SR. 
but adds that they are governed by a twofold rule of varna (syllable) and of pada 
(foot) (1974). The dhruva prabandha is indispensable amongst all songs: music 
without dhruvaka is like knowledge without wisdom, contemplation without spiri- 




tuality, chairty or gift without faith (1965). Uttama dhruva is composed of six feet, 
among which two segments set to the same dhatu constitute U; the third is in a 
higher pitch and contains gamakalapti. Next two segments form A; the third 
incorporates the composer’s name. The song concludes on U. The madhyama 
dhruva has five feet, of which the first two are U; the third is auxiliary, sung twice. 
In both uttama and madhyama dhruvas the initial two parts of U also served as D by 
repetition, and the third, as antara. In both, one more line was added to the A, which 
was used for signatures of prabandha , patron and composer, and was sung in a 
higher key. Th^ kanistha (adhama) dhruvaka had only four parts; U had two 
segments, the second being in a somewhat higher key. A also had two sections, the 
second containing the patron’s name. The injunction of pada niyama (i.e. confor¬ 
mity to the prescribed number of sections or parts) and varna niyama (i.e. 
conformity to prescribed syllabic quantity ) was relaxed into pada niyama and/or 
varna niyama. Even so, if the varna niyama was followed in (the first) two sections, 
other segments were exempted from this rule. Sarngadhara bases the foregoing on 
the authority of Ragamava (1977). 

Parsvadeva (PS 4.192, p. 38) gives the mode of singing dhruva prabandha thus: 

"fa ^ 

265c. sodasadha: The number of syllables per foot of these sixteen dhruvas is: 
jayanta 11, sekhara 12, utsaha 13, madhura 14, nirmala 15, kuntala 16, kamalaYl , earn 
\8,na7idana 19, candrasekhara 20, kamoda 21, vijaya 22, kandarpa 23, jayamahgala 
24, tilaka 25, lalita 26. 

Parsvadeva differs somewhat in the division of dhatus , mode of singing and 
varieties of dhruva prabandha. Instead of applying to rasa or tala , he relates them to 
gamakaand occasion etc. Depending on the use of the different gamakasin the three 
registers, he describes eleven dhruvas viz. sasi , hasa (bhasa?), hamsa , madhava 
( vasanta) nilotpala ( kumuda ), tapasa , prajanatha ( kamalabhava ,) hari (kamalapati ), 
hara , narapati and sakra. These are not found elsewhere (PS 4.193-198, p. 38). 

268c. rasa tala: The forms of the talas named for the sixteen dhruvas axe collected 
from NN (1.138-195) and shown along with the dhruvas. These are the translator’s 
additions and are not part of the original text. 

275c. Vicarapratimantha is not known to NN, SR etc. 
tadarpanam , p. 166) has compiled it from matantara: 
fc|<IH c lld v I ( III 00 ) Elsewhere, pratimantha tala is prescribed for lalita dhruva. 

Catura Damodara ( Sahgi - 
WTt ^ 



276cd-283ab. 2. Mdntha 

277b. vikalpena: Antara may or may not occur; antara is an expedient device 
functioning as bridge between D and A. It was used in uttama dhruva and madhyama 
dhruva (but not in kanistha dhruva ). Its application transgressed the salagasudas into 
pahcatalesvara, vadana etc. also. This was used occasionally in mantha and other 
salagasudaprabandhas. Kallinatha says that this was popularly referred to as upantara 
(p. 341).The dhruva dhatu of some salagasudas e.g. ekataliwas also sometimes called 
antara (SR 4.358). 

280-281ab.jena...sena:The ahgas of these talas (laghu, guru) correspond exactly 
to their prosodial analogues; see comm. NN 3.2.17,26d. 

296-299. 6. Rasa 

296c. caturvidho: Since none of them is prescribed in respect of specific talas, 
they may be assumed to be sung in rasa tala itself. 

298-299ab. kautuke...abhyudaye: Such application of rasakas to different occa¬ 
sions is reminiscent of similar applications of the dhruvas by Parsvadeva (PS 4.193- 
198, p. 38) 

300-303. 7. Ekatdli 

300b. trividha: Particular talas are not ascribed to these three ekatalis. So they may 
be assumed to be performed in ekataB-tala itself. 

304b. dvyanga: pd tl 

305. kecil-laksyavisaradah: Music treatises describe the sudakramaby and large in 
the same way as above. However, there existed a parallel tradition of grouping 
different prabandhas as sudakrama. Pandarika Vitthala is probably implying the 
haridasas of Karnataka, especially his senior contemporary, the saint singer 
Puranadaradasa who is venerated as the Father of Karnataka music. For, while 
Sripadaraya (15th century A.D.) inaugurated the seven talas dhruva, mathya, 
rupaka... eka in musical practice, it is his disciple Vyasaraya, and his disciples 
Purandaradasa, Vadiraja and Kanakadasa who consolidated and stabilised them in 
usage. However, these talas were not created by them. They were known at least 
since the 12th cent, and are mentioned in Kannada literary sources up to the 17th 
century Aggala (1189 A.D. Candraprabhupuranam, 15.52, 72),Janna (1209 A.D. 
Anantanathapuanam, 10.8 pr.), Somanatha, Palkuriki (C.1300A.D., Panditaradhya- 
caritramu, Parvataprakaranamu, pp. 446, 447, 449), Padmananka (c. 1400 A.D., 
Padmaraja-puranam, 5.62), Candrasekhara (c. 1430 A.D. Pampasthana-varnanam, 
74, p. 27), Bahubali (1539 A.D., Nagakumaracaritam, 22.98), Govindavaidya (1648 
A.D. Kanthirava-narasaraja-vijayam, 8.61). 

The haridasas sang in effective changes in these, made them simple and 
comprehensive and established them exclusively in musical practice by conferring 
on them conceptual and empirical validity. I have discussed this at length elsewhere 
(Suladis and Ugabhogas of Karnataka Music, pp. 45-62). 



‘ Salagasuda ’ is made of the adjectival term salaga and the nominal term suda. 
Salaga is phonetic deterioration of chayalaga, which means partaking of the shade 
(of the suddha) i.e. being similar to the suddha (in some respects); in this context, 
having some likeness with suddhasuda prabandhas. This is discussed above: (comm. 
NN 3.2.106fF. ‘ suddhasuda prabandhas'). Next, suda is not a Sanskrit word, but is a 
vernacular (Kannada) term referring to a special group of songs (Kallinatha 
p. 213); Narahari Cakravarti goes to the length of describing it as a collective term 
for many talas employed in a single composition ( Sahgitasdrasahgraha , 1.209-211 pr. 

pp. 26, 28): 

How ancient are the salagasuda prabandhas} Sirhhabhupala (p.335) attributes to 
Bharatamuni the ascription of chdyalagatva to the eld etc. Srikantha ( Rasakaumudi , 
3.143) states that Matanga mentions the salagasudas. Krsnadatta (cit. Narayanadeva/ 
Purusottama-misra?, Sahgitasarani, extr. Bharatakosa, p. 737) traces the sudamadhya 
prabandhas to Dattila Muni. As mentioned above (comm. NN 3.2.106ff.) there is 
no evidence whatsoever to support these claims. Somesvara andjagadekamalla do 
not describe dhruva, mantha etc., though they do mention sudakrama. Parsvadeva 
does not treat them as a special group of songs, but has interspersed other 
(dlikrama) compositions. Indeed, sudakrama appears to have been coined in 
analogy with dlikrama. Haripaladeva is the first known authority who has grouped 
together dhruva, mantha etc. including the archetypes of the subsequent rupaka, 
jhampa and trivida talas. Aggala offers, as shown above, an independent corrobora¬ 
tion at about the same time. Thus the two parallel lines dhruva, mantha, pratimantha 
etc. and dhruva, mathya, rupaka etc. appear clearly in the 12th century A.D. The 
former appears to have enjoyed a 'classical’ status and adopted in textual tradition 
while the latter, probably indigenous, remained largely empirical, taken up and 
promoted by Sripadaraya and his school of Haridasas. The two seem to bear a 
mutual (evolutional) relationship somewhat like the grama rdgas: rdgas or bhasa 
raga: antarabhasa and vibhasa rdgas. There is a difference, however: the eld etc. 
‘ suddha! sudas themselves appear in a bewildering variety and prolificity (a stagger¬ 
ing total of 4044 against 184 dlikrama prabandhas) ; these were still growing and were 
firmly established in practice, coexisting with the salagasudas (which totalled only 
35!) for at least 500 years. The salagasudas-were themselves in the crucible of change 
in the 15th-16th century as revealed by Kallinatha in the South and Narahari 
Cakravarti in the North respectively—and of course byNarahari Tirtha, Sripadaraya 
and others. Tulaja records in the early 18th century that the salagasudas, now frankly 
called suladis, were still in a flux of evolution. Even though their first mention is by 
Haripaladeva 11th century A.D.) and Aggala (1189 A.D.), the first actual example 
of sulddi is found in Narahari Tirtha (14th century A.D.). I have discussed the 




evolution of the salagasudas into suladis in some detail in two works: Suladis and 
Ugabhogas o/^Karnataka Music (pp. 21-33) and Sripadaraya: A Literary and Musical 
Study (mentioned above). They gained the collective name ‘sulddi ’ in Sahgita Sdstra 
in the 17th century due to the sustained effort of Tanappacarya and of his worthy 
disciple’s disciple Venkatamakhin (CDP 8.3,4). 

The salagasuda prabandhas are required to be composed in their namesake or 
other well defined talas and to be performed in a predetermined sequence. This is 
why they were suda-krama, like alikrama. Because ‘da’ readily degenerates phone¬ 
tically to la, suda became sula. The group of dhruva etc. is collectively known as 
sudadi or sulddi since at least the 15th-16th century A.D. in Kannada; e.g. Padma- 
naiika ( Padmardjapurdnam, 5.62), Bahubali ( Nagakumdracaritam, 22.98), 
Govindavaidya, (Kanthirava-narasaraja-vijayam, 8.61), Purandaradasa, the song 
vasudevana namdvaliya klptiyanu extr. Beluru Kesavadasa, ( Kamataka-bhaktavijayd, 
p. 205), Astavadhana Somanarya (Svararaga-sudharasa, MS. copy, Sri Varalakshmi 
Academy, Mysore), Catura Damodara ( Sahgitadarpanam, 6, p. 154) and 
Venkatamakhin (CDP 2.111) etc. 

305cd-306ab. dhruvo... kramat: These were not originally a group of talas 
bearing such names of prabandhas named after the talas. By the 16th-17th century 
A D. two more were added to these: in the South, jhompata and ragana mathya 
(Venkatamakhin, CDP 2.83-111); Catura Damodara calls triputa as trtiya and mathya 
as jaganamathya- in the North, Narahari Cakravarti (Sahgitasdra Sahgraha, 1.212) 
groups dhruva, mantha as jagana mathya; in the North, Narahari Cakravarti 
(SahgUasarasahgraha , 1.212) groups dhruva, mantha, pratimantha, nihsaru, rasa, 
prati, ekataR, yati and jhumari as salagasudagitas on the authority of SahgUadamodara 
and Pancamasdrasamhita. The ya // mei i tioi i ccl here is obviously, the jati (Jate) which 
occurs at the end of the suladis. In due course, jhompata inverted its ahgas, was 
called adi tala (which should be distinguished from the namesake ( tala) and 
was comprehended in triputa tala. So, the sulddi talas were reduced again to 
seven. Kallinatha has shown (p. 338, comm, on SR 5.261, 262, pp. 139, 140) that 
confusion was rampant in the desi tdlas'm his day because of different talas with same 
names and same talas with different names. The haridasas brought logical and 
conceptual basis, unambiguity and fixity to the tala system and derived from 
viramanta na-gana/pratimantha, nihsaru, yatilagna/laghusekhara/jambunala (see 
Simhabhupala, comm, on SR 4.314-316, p. 343 ),jhampd, dvitiya, adda/kudukka, 
adi/rasa talas respectively the sulddi talasviz. dhruva, mathya, rupaka,jhampa, triputa, 
atta and eka. The dhruva and jhampa talas which were used in vinadandi and 
natyadandi also participated in this transformation. 

This is briefly, how the salagasuda talas evolved in the South-chiefly in Karnataka. 
In North India they took a different course. They retained their namds and 
structures and found application in discrete compositions dedicated to Visnu. 
Narahari Cakravarti (ibid., 1.228 pr.) offers an illustration of such a dhruva 




prabandha. Similar illustrations are found in Krishnadas Badajena Mohapatra 
( Gitaprakasa, 2, pp, 11-23) and Haladharamisra ( Sahgitakalpalatikd , 1.20ff, pp. 3-10 
and appendix, pp. 73-93). Besides these, Kumbhakarna creates a new form of sudas 
called misrasuda prabandhas (SahgUaraja , pr. b. 553): there are twentyeight 
of these somewhat fancifully and bombastically named: dasavatdra-kirtidhavala, 
harivijaya-mahgaldcara, madhavotsava-kamalakara, samodadamodara-bhramarapada, 
madhuripu-ratnakanthika, aklesavakunjaratilaka, mugdha-madhusudana hamsa- 
krida, harivallabhasokapallava, snigdhamadhusudana-rasavalaya, harisamudaya- 
garudapada, sakanksapundarikaksa-bhramararuta, dhanya-vaikuntha kuhkuma, harisa- 
rana-kadaUpatra, hariramita-campakasekhara, harirasa-manmathatilaka, narayana- 
madanavasa, laksmipati-ratnavaU, amandamukunda makaranda, caturacaturbhuja- 
rdgardji-candrodyota, harihdratdlardji-jaladhara vilasita, tdlardgdrnavamurdri-maiigala- 
kusumalata, sanandagovinda-ragasreni kusumastarana, madhuripu-modavidyadharalola, 
suratdrambhacandrahdsa, kdma-trptikdmahdsa, paurusarasapremahdsa, kdmddbhutdbhi- 
nava-mrgdhkalekhd md pitdmbaratdlasreni-muktdphala. These are his adaptations of 
the astapadis of jayadeva Sarasvati’s Gitagovinda to music and are treated by him in 
his Rasikapriya commentary on Gitagovinda. 

It has been mentioned above that yati, jhumari, jhompata and ra-gana mathyawere 

suffixed to the salagasuda talas, of these, jhompata was °°l; this was inverted to loo 
and became aditdla which even today enjoys a semi independent status in Karnataka 
music, ra-gana mathya became diminished to half its quantity and became the 
modern caturasra mathya. Yati and jhumari may be compiled here from Subhamkara 
( Sahgitaddmodara, 2, pp. 27,28) . Yati prabandha has four varieties: Bid consisting of 
thirteen syllables per pada, is sung to karuna rasa in the tala-S, dndolita-yati, 
fifteen syllables per pada in srhgara and vira rasa, in the tala \\°;kaumudi, seventeen 
syllables per pada, is sung in hasya rasa in lalita I ala i 51) ; hamsamala yati, nineteen 
syllables per pada, is sung in santa rasa in the talas ° ° 0 0 5. Jhumari has no varieties, 
and has no rules regarding number of syllables, rasa or tala. 

Narahari Cakravarti describes, besides suddhasuda and salagasuda prabandhas, 
fourteen sahkirnasuda prabandhas \ iz. caitra (caccari?), mahgala, naganika, carca 
(?caryd), bhild (dhavala ?), tollari, doha, ovi, hnevdka (?) kdrika, tripadi etc. and 
prescribes them to be sung in the month of Caitra. 

The admissibility of the salagasuda as prabandha is questioned by Narahari 
Cakravarti on the authority of Damodara et al and by Mahapatra (see Comm. NN 
3.2.1 la, 12cd-13) . Sahgitasarani (extr. Bharatakosa, p. 723) quotes some quaint views 
on salaga(suda) prabandhas from Krsnadatta: 

spsifo I cR f^RT cTT^ft TWm ^ I 



«k-HMe|$U: | : ^ ifldclK) ^ ^ I qa<fric*ld l 

g^TSI ^1?FTT: ^fnT I cT*TT ^ TOMOT: I 

He describes the suda prabandhas somewhat differendy (extr. ibid., p. 737): 
cTTcTT ^ I 

3Tra^T^Tt: Mk^ "3 ^cil'kiidl | 

cTTqTT Hclifqchi ^5T: MidlfqqWcii: I 

Pandarika Vitthala’s description of the salagasuda prabandhas should be read 
together with his account of salagasuda vadyaprabandhas (NN1.82-85) and yati 
prabandha (NN 1.86-91). 

As indicated above, the salagasudas were also nrtta prabandhas, i.e. dance com¬ 
positions. Catura Damodara has explained them ( Sahgitadarpanam , 7.220-234) 
under the name ‘ suddhapaddhati \ Veda depicts them thus ( Sahgitamakaranda , MS. 
copy in Sri Varalakshmi Academy, Mysore): 

^iRjOd-Jd II 

Thus the suladi nrtta had a long line of traditional descent ( sampradaya ) known 
to the early authorities. They were characterised by nrtya according to the bhavaoi 
the words rather than to composed dance or grammar of dance. Here is an 
independent corroboration of Venkatamakhin’s synonymising the salagasuda 
songs as gitas ; it may be remembered that Veda was a junior contemporary of 
Venkatamakhin and flourished at the same royal court of Tanjore a generation 
later. The accounts of the s udadi nrtta by Catura Damodara and Veda are widely 


306bc. prasiddhah: All these prabandhas did.not originate only in the days of 
Pandarika Vitthala; for example, navaratna , ranarahga , caturahga , and sarabhaCila 
are of quite ancient origin. Virasrhgara may be regarded as a hybrid of the 
pahcatalesvara varieties vlravatara and srhgara-tilaka. Dasavatara is already com¬ 
posed byjayadeva Sarasvati in his Gltagovinda , and is a very popular song-type with 
nearly every haridasa, right from Sripadaraya. So, only candraprakasa, suryaprakasa , 
rtuprakasa and srhgdrahara may regarded as new. 




308d. atha laksanam: Some of these eleven prabandhas find mention or descrip¬ 
tion at approximately the same period in other works; thus they are corroborated 
with the stamp of contemporaneity. 

Among such sources may be mentioned Srikantha ( Rasakaumudi , 3.124-129), 
Panditamandall ( Sahgitasiromani , extr. Bharatakosa) , Catura Damodara (Sahgita¬ 
darpanam, 4.514-525), Narahari Cakravarti (Sahgitsdrasahgraha, 1.191, 192), and 
compilation by Sourindra Mohan Tagore in Sahgitas a ras a hgra ha (3.134-136). 
Further, Abul Fazl who, like Pandarika Vitthala flourished in Akbar’s court men¬ 
tions these ‘ prasiddha’prabandhas in his Ayeen-i-Akban. Of these, Sangitasiromani is 
extracted only for ranarahga', Narahari Cakravarti offers only this short passage (loc. 
cit.) without describing the prabandhas-. 

HcHdlfast: 9lTb4d«lT I 

^ ^P^lPd4dl: I 

fa«Trt ^ ^ I 

Sourindra Mohan Tagore has compiled the laksanas of eight among the above 
viz. virasrhgara, caturahga, sarabhatila, suryaprakasa, candraprakasa, rana-rahga, nan- 
dana, and navaratna from Sahgitadarpanam without acknowledgement, and has 
omitted viravatara, rtuprakasa, dasavatara and srhgarahara. Therefore, only Rasa- 
kaumudi (9RK) and Sahgitadarpanam (SD) remain as the only original sources for 
comparison. Caturahga, ranarahga, sarabhaRla and navaratna may be compared 
with the laksanas given by the ancient authorities. 

Most of these names are also numerograms and indicate the number of ragas, 
talas or segments occurring in the song; e.g. rtu =6, surya =12, rudra= 11, candra = 
16, sarabha = 8. 

309ab-311ab. 1. Candraprakasa 

309b. candrabhupayoh: RK and SD do not prescribe double entendre between 
moon and (patron) king. 

310. ragaih... pariglyate: RK condenses this to ‘TT^: 

31 led. nama...kaveriha: included by SD but omitted by RK 

This is called candraprakasa because the king is compared with the moon in 
paronomasia and it is set in sixteen segments like the sixteen digits of the moon. 
Such comparison is a time honoured poetic convention and is both defined and 
illustrated by Dandin ( Kdvyddarsa , 2.310, 311) in the context of explaining the 
arthalamkara variety called sksacakra: 

fWRSTFTftfd IgsiT II 



If two or more meanings cling (slista) to the same word, it is called sksa; it is of 
two kinds— abhinnapada and bhinnapada. 

TM ?TfrT dl+W f^T II 

[Behold ! this raja (moon/king) is on the ascent— udayamdha (ascending the 
udayacala, the mount of moonrise/prosperous), kantiyukta (tender/lustrous), 
raktamandala (red disc/has a bevy of affectionate ministers), and has plundered the 
hearts of the people with mrdu (tender, not harsh) kara (rays/taxes). This is an 
instance of abhinnapada slesa or abhahgaslesa wherein the punning word does not 
have to be decomposed for the twofold meaning (e.g. as in dosakara = dosa + kara, 
dosa-akara ). 

311cd-312 2. Suryaprakasa 

31 led. suryaprakasa: so called because surya signifies twelve; the prabandha has 
twelve segments; twelve ragas and twelve talas (one for each segment). 

312b. caitramasadi: RK and SD do not prescribe description of the twelve lunar 
months, but require panegyric to the Sun. So, one each of the twelve segments is 
devoted to the eulogy of one of the twelve Adityas. (These twelve are somewhat 
differently named in different sources e.g. Mahabharata Adiparvan— 65.14.16; 
Santiparvan, 208.15, 16 and Anusdsanaparvan, 150.14.16; Visnupuranam, 1.15.130, 
131; Bhagavatapuranam, 6.6.38, 6.18.1; 12.11.45; Vacaspatyam, 4.456 etc. The first 
mentioned source enumerates Dhatr, Mitra, Aryaman, Sakra, Varuna, Amsa, Bhaga, 
Vivasvat Pusan, Savitr, Tvastr and Visnu. Elsewhere, Parjanya, Gabhastimat, Tvastr, 
Kratu, Yama, Hiranyaretas, Divakara, Citrae tc. are counted among the dvadasadityas) 

312d. slesah: RK and SD do not speak of pun between king and the sun. 

313-314. 3. Navaratna 

'Nava' indicates nine in each of segments, raga, tala and rasa; i.e. each segment 
is composed in a separate raga, tala and rasa. 

313a. anka: Nine digits 1,2,3.. .9 (zero is not regarded as a number here). brahma: 
nine brahma mdnasaputras\iz. Bhrgu, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Ahgirasa, Marici, Daksa, 
Atri and Vasistha ( Visnupurana, 1.7.5-8) are regarded as Brahma himself. Elsewhere 
(e.g. Bhagavatapuranam, 3.12; Matsyapuranam, 3.8; Manusmrti, 1.35) Narada is 
added to the list. 

rasa: nine rasas: srhgdra, hasya, karuna, raudra, vira, bhayanaka, bibhatsa, adbhuta 
and santa rasa; nine sthayibhavas: rati, utsaha, soka, vismaya, hasa, bhaya, jugupsa, 
krodha, sama. 

khanda: nine continents: indradvipa, kaseru, tamraparni, gabhastiman, ndgadvipa, 
saumya, gandharva, varuna, sagaradvipa ( Visnupuranam, 2.3.6,7) or indrakhanda, 




svetakhanda, tamrakhanda, gabhastikhanda, nagakhanda, saumyakhanda, gandharva 
khanda, cdranakhanda, bharatakhanda (Ydjusaprayogapdrijdta , p. 104). gratia: nine 
planets: siirya, candra, mahgala, buddha, guru, sukra, sani, rahu, ketu, or sama, 
anagata, visama, atita, anudyama, anudana, sandda, sabhinandana, sunada (Sangita- 
sabdarthacandrika, p. 233). 

ratna: nine gems: mukta, mdnikya, vaidurya, gomeda, vajra, vidruma, padmaraga, 
marakata, riila ( Sabdakalpadruma, 3.839). 

rasa: nine essences: prthivi, jala, osadhi, purusa, vak, rk, ama, udgitha (Chandogya- 
upanisat 1.1.2) plus ananda ( brahman). 

The foregoing is incorporated suitably in nine segments, each set to a different 
rdga and a different tala. SD requires description of only nine gems (in pun with 
king?) in nine segments. 

314a. sarvahgabaddha. The five ahgasv iz. pd pt bd sv and tn are employed in any 
arbitrary manner in the above nine segments; tl applies to the entire composition. 

315-318. 4, Vnasrkgara 

315a. sakrd... gatavyo: SD reads ‘ sakrd-vdggeyakdrena implausibly (4.515a) 

315b. vlrasrngara is not found in RK. 

316ab. adya... khandakah: SD (4.516ab):3tnu<a”s hRc^ W=bl: I 

316cd. not found in SD. 

317ab. tarn... iti: cf. SD 516ab (extr. in comm. 3.2.316ab supra). 

318cd. antya ... bhusitah: This is A of the prabandha. 

319-320ab. 5. Rudraprakasa 

319cd. purana-rudranam: Mahabharata : Adiparvan, 66.2, 3: Mrgavyadha, Sarpa, 
Nirrti, Ajaikapat, Ahirbudhnya, Pinakin, Dahana, Isvara, Kapalin, Sthanu, Bhava\ 
Anusasana; Ajaikapat, Ahirbudhnya, Pinakin, Aparajita, Rta, Pitrrupa, Tryambaka, 
Vrsakapi, Sambhu, Havana, Isvara-, Visnupuranam (1.15.122,123): Ham, Bahurupa, 
Tryambaka, Aparajita, Vrsakapi, Sambhu, Kapardin, Raivata, Mrgavyadha ; Brhat-parasara 
Smrti (2.190, 191): Ajaikapat, Ahirbudhnya, Virupaksa, Raivata, Hara, Bahurupa, 
Tryambaka, Sdvitra, Jayanta, Pinakin, Aparajita, Bhdgavatapurdnam: Manyu, Manu, 
Mahakala, Mahat, Siva, Rtadhvaja, Ugraretas, Bhava, Kala, Vamadeva, Dhrtavrata .^ 
Each of the eleven segments describes one Rudra and is set to one different rdga 
and different tala. 

320cd-321ab. 6. Ranarahga 

Matanga, Sarngadeva, Narahari Cakravarti and Vehkatamakhin do not describe 
ranarahga. There is unanimity in the views of Somesvara (AC 4.16.361, p. 62), 
Jagadekamalla (JS p. 48). Haripaladeva (SS 5.7.162), Parsvadeva (PS 4.30, p. 26), 
Panditamandali (Saiigitasiromani extr. Bharatakosa, p. 522), Catura Damodara (SD 
4.523): ranarahga is composed in vira and raudra rasas (appropriate to rana —battle 
field—in rahga tala (so that the name is apt), in pt, bd; in sama, anagata and atita 




grahas of tala. So it is of three kinds. PS adds tn to the ahgas. Sahgitasiromani 

Here ‘ dvividha should be corrected to ‘ trividha . 

Rahga tala : (NN 1.175): 

( oooo5 ) 

321cd-322. 7. Dasavatara 

This prabandha is not described elsewhere. 

322a. tadgunam: one segment per avatara ; 2, 3, 4... segments per avatara. 
322b. vanchitakramaih: Any of the five ahgas , pd pt bd sv and tn may occur in any 
avatara ; tl applies to the whole composition, of course. 

322c. Abhoga is generally a separate segment containing the names of prabandha , 
patron/hero and composer; it is composed in words other than those of U, (M) or 
D. But by special decree here, there is no separate A but the tenth segment itself 
functions as A such that it describes the tenth avatara and excludes all ahgas other 
than pd. 

323-324ab. 8. SarabhaUla 

323b. SarabhaUla is an ancient prabandha, but it is not defined by Sarngadeva, 
Srikantha and Venkatamakhin. However, its development may be traced from 
Matanga to Pandarika Vitthala. Thus according to Matanga (BD 415, p. 154), 
sarabhalila has eight padas , composed of sv, pt; set to eight rdgas and eight talas. 
Somesvara (AC 4.16.336-338, p. 38) agrees with this laksana and adds that each 
segment is composed in a separate raga and separate tala , and that sv and pt occur 
at the end of each segment. He gives a lovely illustration: 

MK^hfadltd^dcl-MAIH I 

dTf^d)<=b^l^dNHH^ I 
TO: jrarfedqcMeblJf | 

This composition features alliteration and terminal rhyming in couplets. It is not 
known whether this is accidental, for no available authority mentions these features 




as characterising sarabhaVila. It may be noted that this composition has bd. 
Jagadekamalla (JS p. 48) delineates two forms of this prabandha : the first has eight 
padas as above (each of which is set to a separate raga and tala) such that sv pt are 
performed in between the padas, i.e. at the end of each pada. He adds that the 
conclusion of the song is in two spans of the (final) tala; the second variety is 
composed in namesake (i.e. sarabhaVila ) metre and tala only; the song concludes on 
sv, pt i.e. instead of sv and pt recurring at the end of each pada, they occur only once, 
after the eighth pada. Pandarika Vitthala has given the first variety, but has 
incorporated partially the laksanaoi the second: he includes sarabhalila metre and 

omits sarabhaVila tala. Sarabhallla tala is (NN 1.19lab): eft ift eft sft tiiel 

7R'Hdld4-> I (llooooil). SarabhaVila metre is defined byjagadekamalla (JS p. 47) as 
‘iha hi sarabhaVila kahkajagaih' which is at one its laksya and laksana. 

Haripaladeva has the same laksanaoi sarabhaVila (5.7.147-149) as given in AC and 
further adds that each pada is composed in a separate metre. Parsvadeva (PS 4.37, 
p. 26) mentions it is niryukta, dvidhatuka, composed in all six ahgas-, in other words, 
he adds bd, tn but omits A. Both Pandarika Vitthala and Catura Damodara (SD 
4.518) describe the prabandha with all six ahgas. The former however, has a misch 
definition; for he prescribes the conclusion of the song on sv instead of on sv pt. 

324a. Muktaka is a discrete, self-contained verse. 

324cd-325ab. 9. Caturahga 

Caturahga is not known to Sarngadeva, Haripaladeva, Srlkantha and 
Vehkatamakhin. However, like sarabhaVila, it also has a long and consistent history; 
the name is also a numerogram. It is composed of four ragas, four talas, four ahgas, 
four segments and four languages. Matahga (BD 411, 412, p.145) mentions four 
ragas, talas, and languages only. Somesvara (AC 4.16.353-355, p.40) concurs with 
this definition but adds that it should be composed to make some sense in (four) 
languages such as Sanskrit. He also gives an illustration: 

Jagadekamalla (JS p. 45) justifies the name because of the use four ahgas viz. pd 
pt sv tn and offers additional details: U has two segments as also D, thus making four 
padas. Each of these is composed in a separate raga, tala and language. Pt should be 
sung after the first pada, sv after the second, pd after the third and tn after the 
fourth. A should be composed with words in the second segment of D. The song is 
concluded on tn. 



Parsvadeva (PS 4.52,57, p. 27) summarises it thus: 3d, four ahgas —pd sv tl tn; an. 
Catura Damodara (SD 4.517) avers that caturahga consists of four segments and of 
six ahgas omitting raga (?). PanditamandaH (Sahgitasirornani , extr. Bharatakosa , 
p. 197) declares that the name caturahga is well suited because it has four ahgas , 
omitting bd tn. This contradicts JS who says that the song has tn, on which it 
concludes and contradicts Pandarlka Vitthala and Catura Damodara who attribute 
all six ahgas to it; six ahgas would mean the inclusion of tl and bd: each segment 
should be composed in a separate tala. But where should bd be composed? 

325cd-326. 10. Rtuprakasa 

325c. puspabana: Manmatha is important because it is spring season; so srhgara 
is dominant. 

326a. sat: Rtu means season; there are six seasons. Therefore, rtuprakasa has six 
segments, each of which carries a separate raga (and tala?); composed in all six 
ahgas; each segment should be composed with words in praise of one season. 

Rtuprakasa is not found in RK and SD. 

327-329ab. 11 .Srhgarahara 

329a. Srhgarahara is sung as follows: U is composed in sv; then gamakalapti; next 
D in words replete with srhgara rasa; this is followed by antara. (Note the use of 
antara; its use here is exceptional, as for example in pahcatalesvara (NN 3.2.177- 
185.) Next comes A which contains composer’s name, the word srhgarahara, alapa 
without tala and pt with tl. Finally A, containing the name of the patron or hero is 
sung. The song concludes on U. 

329b. laksyavedibhih: Srhgarahara is not described in any other music treatise; 
hence the reference to practical exponents. 



These are at once literary merits in poetry and musical merits in song. Rhetori¬ 
cians in India have studied the merits and faults of both meaning ( artha) and sound 
(sabda ) in Sanskrit poetry in great detail from very early times. These are applied 
to melodised vedic prosodial structures—the samans —by Narada in the Naradlyasiksa 
(N) probably for tne first time. Ten of these are enumerated and described therein 

W TJjf irasi oqw fafS sm ^piT: I 

Sarngadeva has applied these, mutatis mutandis to secular music (SR 4.374-379). 
Pandarlka Vitthala has borrowed from and abbreviated SR here. Therefore 
extracts from N and SR are given below to facilitate a comparative study. 

TT o^Tbfacii^ 



SR: cT? y^Pdycq^#^ 

331c. puma: N: T J J f FFT ^^rd^ u IT^ ^:^8TTWTT^ ^[^-dd I 
SR: ^ 'iyiP^HqF^ I 

331d. prasannam N: 3FTF FFT SFFRFT^ Wlft^TcT I 

SR: TRT?? TFJT£T«faF^ | 

332a. sukumaram N: FFT 

SR: Tj,$HR WRH, I 

332b. alamkrtam N: 3T?T|FR FTF FTfa f^Rf^T ^H^rijfR^TcT^KF^ I 



332c. samam N: TFT 'HR 31MNPHdlMy^iyc^««TFlffl TFTTTT: TFlfFc^aF) I 
Bhatta Sobhakara’s comm. Vivarana on this passage: 

WFT STT^TW FSp’T: STIFF!: f^ft ^Hdm^ I %FT 31RNf^ra^TFTT Hc*Pd^ 
oqc|fe^ -*TR TFTOSFl: F o^wh^Pd TFT FFT FFft I 

SR: TFTF ,J fcrFTT 8 TFT TFTfFcFfFFfacf I 

333b. suraktam N: TW FFT ^3#TFFW F^tFTFt TrfjfFFpFl I 
SR: I 

333d. slaksnam N: STSFFFT SH^ciHpqciP^a^dl-q^n^idi^K 

MKHlfcfa: ^JlPHc^dF | 


334b. vikrstam N: t^=FS FFT ^t^qiRti oMTtjMdl^KPHpd Pq^HH, 

SR: <j4t?-cciKUir^ Pq^H, I 
334b. madhuram N: FFT FFT 

SRFFjt ddHil^H I 

Parsvadeva (PS cit. Sirhhabhupala, on SR 4.1, p. 209) relates different qualities 
of music with different temperaments and tastes. 

i. Acaryas (preceptors): high notes and low notes, neither fast nor slow, even 
in pd tl. 

ii. Panditas (the learned): Correct syntactical construction, freedom from 
sandhidosa (faulty phonetic combination), clear articulation of notes (and 

iii. Paramours: Charming syllabic content, coloured with the erotic sentiment, 




iv. Others (Common folk): high notes, profuse prayoga (gamakalapti ? alapa ? 

v. Suras (valorous): arabhati vrtti (see comm. NN 3.2.114d), description of 
encounters of heroes, high and low notes, enthusiastic. 

vi. Virahi (separated lovers): words intensifying or exciting love, full of erotic 
sentiment, of compassion (pity) and kaku (emotional inflexion of voice). 

vii. Vita (sensuous bon vivant, keeper of prostitutes): reversed words or inverted 
meanings, enlarged with svarabhahgi, full of humour and jest. 

viii. Yogis: profound and mystic meanings, theme of the ultimate, deprecating 
worldly pleasures, spiritual themes. 

ix. Women : auspicious sentences, composed in suddhapahcama ( raga ), sung on 
festive, marriage etc. auspicious occasions. 

x. The Pious and Devoted: prayer to gods, teaching its influence and effect, 
generating faith, attractive. 

xi. Argumentative, Contentious: resists intelligibility, not defined in tl pt, profuse 
in prayoga, dry, uneven. 

335-337. FAULTS OF SONG 

NN has borrowed these three verses from SR (4.379-380). These ten faults 
pertain more to the matu part of the song than to its dhatu. SR does not recognise 
this explicitly. But Pandarika Vitthala states here unequivocally that the faults 
enumerated and described by rhetoricians for poetry in the context of rasa and 
bhava apply equally to the matu of song. However, music authorities are uniformly 
silent on the merits and faults of dhatu. An attempt is made below to apply these 
dosas to the dhatu , shown in [ ] 

Among the ten faults viz. lokadusta sastradusta srutivirodhi kalavivcrodhipunarukta 
kalabahya gatakrama aparthaka gramya and sandigdha, the early rhetoricians Dandi, 
Bhamaha etc. have counted gramyata and sandigdha among padadosas, punarukta 
and apakrama among vakyadosas and apartha among arthadosas. Parallel definitions 
from Dandi—D (Kavyadarsa) , Bhamaha—B ( Kavyalamkara ) and Vidyanatha—V 
(Prataparudnya, based on the Telugu translation Andhra-Prataparudnyamu) are 
given below for the ten faults to facilitate a comparative study. 

1. Loka is totality of the behaviour of immobile and mobile beings (B 4.35); it is 
the activity or functioning of the aggregate of all inanimate and animate existence 
(D 3.162); loka-dusta or lokavirodhi is being contrary to established norms of the 
world. This could be interpreted as being in conflict with provincial/ regional 




custom or with worldly knowledge; see V (p. 50). [Musical performance in conflict 
with established practice in raga, tala etc.] 

2. sastradusta: Faulty in or inconsistent with disciplines such as grammar, 
prosody, musicology etc. 

3. Srutivirodhi is called agamavirodhi in alarhkarasastra ; sruti here means Veda; 
srutivirodha is to be in discord with what is prescribed or required in Veda (D 3.177- 
184). B interprets this (B 1.47-49) as evoking disgust as soon as heard. He gives the 
following illustration, prohibiting the use of ambiguous words which also suggest 
disgusting meaning. He classifies verbal faults into four: srutidusta, arthadusta , 
kalpanadusta and srutikasta : Arthadusta is hard to understand, impausible imagery; 
srutikasta is harsh to the ear: 

ciMycjrl^: I 

[^‘/-merchant/excreta; varcah —brightness/excreta; visthita (vi-sthita) —one who 
is exceeding/one who excretes; klinna —wet/soaked in blood; chinna —cut/mur¬ 
dered, hacked; vanta —emerged/vomit; pravrtti —wish or interest in activity/excre¬ 
tion; pracdra —defeated/rape; urfgara-exclamation/vomit; visarga —escaped, 
liberty/excretion; hrada —slight sound/to fart; yantrta —regulating/energy of 

Vamana ( Kdvyalamkarasutravrtti , 2.6) has defined this as srutivirasam kastam 
(rude, harsh to the ear) with an example: cbifoiscj 

Wf: I 

[Singing/playing contrary to reference pitch {sruti) or contrary to the sruti 
quantity prescribed for a svara.] 

4. Kalavirodhi is anachronism in time; kala means night, day or seasons; D offers 
an exmaple (3.162, 167, 168): the lotus blooms at night: the swans are loquacious 
in the rainy season: peacocks are intoxicated in autumn etc. B says (4.30, 31) that 
kala is of only six kinds because of the six seasons: kalavirodhi is description which 
is contrary to the season: 

N’JUMtyjHi sfcr Wf: fsract I I e.g. mango trees, 

laden with bloom, scent the air which carries ^rain drops of the rainy season, 
[singing/playing ragas contrary to the time prescribed for their perfomance.] 

5. Punarukti is also called ekartha: This means the repetition of meaning using the 
same words again or with other words; it is of two kinds: sabdapunaruktaka (repeti¬ 
tion of words and arthapunaruktaka (repetition of meaning), according to D (3.135- 
138) and B (4.12,16). If this is deliberately used to heighten an effect it becomes an 
alamkara called punarukta padabhasa, not a fault (V pp. 20, 21)] punarukta may be a 
fault in both pada and vakya. [Singing/playing the same theme repeatedly.] 



6. Kala is defined as* WflsfaSTCl:’ (D 3.162) and as +<rlW$dHI WT 

i ; Cl'r9l«H'Kll?J j D-ck: I (B4.32) i.e. music, dance etc. are instruments to attain kamaand 
artha purusarthas (D) and consciousness which concentrates, i.e. it conflates and 
collimates together various discrete elements and creates something original, new. 
Kaldbdhya or kalavirodha is being inconsistent with the spirit and practice of art 
(B 4. 33, 34) 

In madhyama-grama pa is not born of n, nor sa from pa and dha generated by sa\ 
nor are ma-ri mutually consonant. Hence this is kalavirodha. [Performing three 
drutas for adi tala or kalyani rogawith suddha madhyama, or anandabhairavi ruga with 
suddha sampurna scale, performing tintal with fifteen mdtras or a thumri like a 
tarda a.] 

7. Apakrama is a vakyadosa, a fault in which items appear in a wrong sequence or 
order, e.g. ‘May Siva, Narayana and Brahma who cause sthiti (sustenance), nirmana 
(creation) and sarhhara (destruction) of all the worlds protect you!’ (D 3.144,145). 
B concurs with this definition and illustrates with ‘May Sambhu and Visnu who are 
glorious and wear the crown and moon on their heads, lustrous with the complex¬ 
ion of the blueblack thunder cloud and snowwhite and hold in their hands the 
discus and trident...’ (B 4.20,-21). This dosa is called kramabhrasta or kramabhahga 
and is of two kinds viz. arthagata and sabdagata (disorder in meaning and disorder 
in words respectively). [Performing the composition varna in Karnataka music in 
the sequence ettugade svaras-pallavi-cittasvaras-ettugade carana-anupallavr, the khydl 
in Hindustani music in the sequence chota khyal-bada khydl,antara-astai etc; the 
jhampa tala in Karnataka music with druta, laghu, anudruta .] 

8. Aparthaka is arthadosa and is defined by D(3.129) as an antilogical or 
inconsistent arrangement of the components so that the whole makes no sense. Any 
one—barring children, drunkards or the insane—speaking irrelevantly or disjoint- 
edly is committing apdrtha. e.g. ‘the gods drink the ocean; I am enervated with old 
age; these clouds are thundering; Indra is fond of the A iravata'. According to B (4.3- 
8) aparthaka is lacking in collective sense, e.g. ‘ten pomegranates, six puddings, 
seven chairs, two fish, one elephant.’ V (p. 37) echoes this definition. [Singing 
snatches from pallavi-svarajati-tilldna-varna-daru-sulddi-krti-ugabhoga-astapadi in dis¬ 
jointed phrases of words, ragas and talas. \ 

9. Gramya is being known only in the usage of the laeity; vulgar; according to V 
(p. 9). Vamana ( Kavydlamkarasutravrtti, 2.7) defines it similarly: 

and illustrates itwith’ ‘TilTT*! dFcPd wherein ‘ phutkrteyam is vulgar usage. 



D says (1.62-68), ‘It is true that madhurya is generated by 'alamkara in poetry. But this 
is accomplished largely through the avoidance of vulgarity (. grdmyatd ). If there is a 
suggestion of obscenity in words, their combination and in the purport of a 
sentence, it is grdmya. [Singing padam or javali with indecent or obscene words oi 

10. Sandigdha is a padadosa. It seems to have been occasionally referred to as 
‘sasamsaya by rhetoricians. It means ambiguity. D (3.139) defines it as sasamsaya 
wherein the very words which are meant to be decisive generate doubt. If two 
related propositions are described in exactly equal terms without adding a special 
or particular element or term in one of them, samsaya (doubt) is generated. 
A logical fallacy which generates samsaya is called sasamsaya dosa according to 
B (4.17, 18) who offers this illustration: 

o^McRTt TWcRT: Midlfodl: I 


(Vyala —serpents/wicked people; duraroha —difficult to climb/ difficult to ap¬ 
proach; bhudhara —mountains/kings; visama —uneven/ruthless; teMyo-serpents/ 
kings. Kings/mountains surrounded by wicked people/serpents and replete with 
gems and fruits or rewards but are difficult to approach/climb and are ruthless/ 
uneven. If one is not alert, there is immediate cause for fear/danger from them 
(kings/mountains). If the context is not known, it cannot be determined whether 
this refers to kings or to mountains. Hence the fault of sandigdha accrues. This may 
be cited as an illustration for slesa (paronomasia). 

Vamana defines sandigdha concisely: ‘ samsayakrt sandigdham ( Kavyalamka- 
rasutravrtti, 2.20) and explains: whenever a proposition is stated in only general or 
common terms and lacks specific terms, it generates doubt; it is then called 
sandigdha. He offers a beautiful illustration: Tf H6lcHI I That 

great person attained to the great position due to good luck. It could also be 

| That great person became the target for great 
calamity because of ill luck. This ambiguity may be resolved only if the circum¬ 
stances (or the context) are known. Vidyanatha defines (V p. 6) sandigdha as 
ar| d illustrates with 

Here mahibhrt means king or mountain; kataka means the capital or foot of the 
mountain. So where is residence—the capital or the foot of the hillr 

336c. padadosah. Vamana enumerates and describes ( Kdvydlamkarasutravrtti , 
2.4-10) five padadosas viz. asadhu, kasta, gramya, apratita and anarthaka-, also, five 



padarthas — anya, neya, gudhartha, astiki^nd klista (2.1.11-22). Vidyanatha (Vp. 2-13) 
describes seventeen padadosas: aprayukta, apustartha, asamartha, nirarthaka, neyartha, 
cyutasamskara, sandigdha, aprayojaka, klista, gudhartha, gramya, anyartha, apratiti, 
astila, parusa, avimrstavidheyamsa and viruddhamatikrt. 

336. vakyadosah: Vamana elucidates three vakyadosas (Kdvyalamkarasutravrtti, 
2.2.1-8): bhinnavrtta, yatibhrasta, visandhi and seven vakyarthadosas:. vyartha, ekartha, 
sandigdha, ayukta, apakrama, lokaviruddha and vidyaviruddha (ibid., 2.3.9-24) 
Vidyanatha lists and explains twentyfour vakyadosas (V pp. 13-37). sabdahina, 
kramabhrasta, visandhi, punarukta, vyakirna, vakyasahkirna, apurna, vakyagarbhita, 
bhinnalihga, bhinnavacana, nyunopama, adhikopama, bhagnacchandas, yatibhrasta, 
asanra, atireka, visargalupta, asthanasamasa, vacyavarjita, samaptapunaratta, samband- 
havarjita, patatprakarsa, adhikapada and prakramabhahga. He also defines (ibid., 
pp. 37-52) the following eighteen arthadosas. apartha, vyartha, ekartha, sasarhsaya, 
apakrama, bhinna, atimatra, parusa, virasa, hinopama, adhikopama, asadrsopama, 
aprasiddhopama, hetusunya, niralamkrti, aslila, viruddha and sahacaracyuta. 

336d. dosasca rasabhavayoh: Some ancient rhetoricians allow the occurrence of 
a rasa — word signifying the respective rasa. But this is not acceptable: rasa such as 
srhgara, transient states ( vyabhicaribhavas) such as nirveda should not be men tioned 
by name as evoking the respective emotive state or concomitant; in other words, 
the rnatu of a song should not contain words such as ‘srhgara is now generated; hasya 
is here withdrawn or concealed, doubt has arisen, enthusiasm is evidenf directly or 
in suggestion. Rasa should manifest only consequent upon vibhava etc. It is a fault 
if, instead of inducing rasa through its concomitants, it is directly or indirectly 
invoked in words. 


Compare with SR (4.2-12). For explanation and commentary of the various terms 
see Sathyanarayana, R., Introduction, Visesa-krtimala, idem. Introduction, Siriga- 
nnadadihcara-, idem. New Creations in Karnataka Music in Journal of Indian 
Musicological Society, A special issue on ‘Compositions in Indian Music’ vol. 21,1 
8c 2, June -Dec. 1990, pp. 59-66. 


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Commentary on ch. 3.1 & 3.2 


Abhinavagupta 155, 164, 171-3, 178-9, 
181-3, 198, 212-3, 225, 281-2, 291, 

Abul Fazl 286 
Acanna 377 

Adibharata 153, 310, 335 

Adiyarkunallar 216-7 

Aggala 153, 209, 280, 381-2 

Ahobala 185-7, 202,207, 229,290-1,293 

Allauddin Moulabaksh 208 

Amarasiihha 160 

Ambikatanayadatta 209 

Anandavardhana 225 

Ananmacarya 311 

Anantabhatta 158 

Appakavi 352 

Apte 202 

Aristoxenus 174 

Arjuna 158-9, 169 

Arumpadavurai 217 


Bagchi P.C. 369 
Bahubali 381, 383 
Banabhatta 282 
Bandhuvarma 359 
Basavanna, P 354 

Basavappanayaka, Keladi- 233 
Bertrand Russel 171 
Bhamaha 293, 297, 394-5 
Bharata 154-5,168,171-2,184,188,194- 
200, 204, 210, 212, 280-2, 288-290, 
297, 304 

Bharatamuni 174,309-310,315,321,326, 
330, 333, 335, 337, 358, 382 
Bhartrhari 226-7 
Bhatta Sobhakara 282 
Bhavabhuti 357 
Bhimakavi 209, 377 
Bhlmakavi, Vemulavada- 351 
Bhoja 212, 214, 298 
Bhupalapalaka 236, 240 
Bhikaridas 351 
Bommarasa 209 
Brahma 185 


Candraraja 324, 326, 352 
Candrasekhara, Astabhasakavi-154,209, 

Caraka 156 
Chand Bardal 351 
Charles Culver 175, 180, 183 
Chinnaswami Mudaliar 207 

Names in italics are of Composers 




D’Alembert 174 
Damodara 285 

Damodara, Catura- 218, 229, 286, 293, 
310, 380, 383, 386, 389, 391-2 
Dandin 303, 286, 394 
Dashiell, John F. 180 
Dattila 164, 189, 191, 195, 197, 200-1, 

Democritus 174 
Devakavi 209 
Dhanamjaya 288, 298 
Dhirendra Sharma 352 
Divakara 291 
Donders F.C. 183 


Epigraphia Carnatica 325, 377 
Euclid 174 
Euler 174 


Feldtkeller, R. 181 
Fletcher, Harvey S. 181 
Fox Strangways A.H. 187 


Gandharvaraja 230, 289 
Gangadasa 159, 191 
Gargya 208 

Glen Hydon 174, 177, 183 
Gopalanayaka 344 
Gore-u 352 

Govinda Diksita 155, 207, 210-1, 222-3, 

Govindavaidya 280, 381-2 
Gray 163 
Gulab 352 

Gunavarma II 324 
Gutzman 183 


Haladhara Misra 384 
Halayudha Bhatta 320, 322, 326, 337, 

Hanuman 234-5, 237, 239-44, 246, 248, 
250-3, 258, 260-1, 264-5, 267, 272, 

Haradatta Misra 214 
Harinayaka 154-5 

Haripaladeva 151, 154, 191, 194, 197, 
201, 205, 293, 360, 363, 373, 381-2, 

Helmholtz, Hermann L.F. 173-5, 183 
Hemacandra 282, 288-90, 319-21, 323, 
326, 329, 332-3, 335, 337, 339, 360, 
365-6, 370, 373-5, 

Henry Watt 174 
Hermann, L. 183 
Hornbostel E. von 161 
Hrdayanarayana 230 


Ilango Adigal 216 


Jagadekamalla 156-8,288,293,305,351, 
357, 359-60, 365, 367-72, 375-9, 388- 

Jagannatha 363 
Jagannath-prasad Bhanu 351 
Janna 209,218, 280, 381 
Jatmal 352 

Jayadeva 319, 321, 329, 332-3, 337, 339, 
35, 360 

Jayadeva Sarasvati 384 



Jayaditya 215 

Jayakirti 288-90, 319-20, 323, 326, 329, 

Jayasl 352 
Jodhraja 352 
Joos, M. 181 


Kalidasa 339 

Kallinatha 156,158,162,172-3,182,191, 
193, 195, 197, 205, 209-16, 217-20, 
370, 382-3 

Kamalabhava 209, 218 
Kanakadasa 209, 292, 381 
Kasyapa 189, 228 
Katyayana 158 

Kedarabhatta 288, 319, 321, 326, 329, 
332-3, 335, 337, 339, 353, 357, 360, 

Keshavadas 352 
Keshavadasa, Beluru-, 383 
Kesiraja 377 
Koehler W. 161 
Koenig 174 

Kohala 163, 178,191-2, 284-6, 299, 300, 

Krsnadasa Badajena-229, 284-6, 383 

Krishnadatta 384 

Krishnamurthy K 226 

Krueger, F. 175 

Kiilpe 175 

Kumarila 226 

Kumara-vyasa 209 

Kumbhakarna 152-3,179,180,201,210, 

Kunhan Raja, C 157 
Kutuban 352 


Laase, Letroy, T 183 
Liebniz 174 

Laksminarayana, Bhandaru-, 218, 293 
Locana Jha 230, 273 
Louise, R 177 


Macdonell 202 
Madanapala 273 

Madhava Sharma,Jammulamadaka 162 

Mahesvara 177 

Mallayya, Cedalavada- 209 

Malmberg, C.F. 174-6 

Mammata 293 

Mandavya 357 

Mangaraja 153, 209 

Manu 387 

Matanga 156-8,162-3,172,177-8,183-5, 
350, 363, 365, 382, 388-90 
Meinang 175 
Moksadeva 219 

Monier Williams 164, 202, 208 
Muddusvami DIksita 207 
Mudduvenkatamakhin 168 
Mummadi Cikkabhupala 168, 200 
Muni (= Bharata ) 177, 180, 184, 190 
Murray, Middleton 184 


Nagacandra 153 
Nagaraja 209 



Nagavarma 330 

Nagavarma II 163, 217, 219-20, 224-5, 
Nanddas 219 
Nandikesvara 192, 282 
Nanditadhya 370 

Nanyadeva 156, 160, 164, 184, 189, 194- 
6, 198, 201, 206, 211, 2i3 
Narada 160, 184-5, 189, 194, 217, 219, 
229-30, 282, 387, 391 
Narahari Cakravarti 283-5, 366, 382-4, 
386, 388 

Narahari tirtha 382 
Narasimhachar, D.L. 351, 353 
Narasimhachar, Mudumbi 288 
Narayanadeva 384 
Narayana Purohita 339 
Nemicandra 324, 377 
Nijaguna sivayogi 206, 341 
Nodel S.F. 176 
Noor Muhamad 352 


Padmakavi 209 

Padmananka 209, 280, 381, 383 
Panditamandall 188, 284, 386, 388, 390 
Panini 156-8* 205,212,215 
Paparaju, Kankanti -209 
Paramardl 298 
Paramesvara 206 

Parsvadeva 152-4, 184, 201, 206, 210-1, 
213, 217-9, 221, 286, 293, 359, 365, 
367, 380-1, 388, 390-1 
Partha 298 
Parvatl 298 
Patanjali 212 

Pingalanaga 288, 319-21, 325, 329, 330, 
332-3, 337, 339, 340, 356, 358, 360, 

Plato 174 

Potaraju, Bammera-, 209 
Prasannavehkatadasa 209 
Pratapa-prthvibhuja (=Jagadekamalla) 

Pratapasimha, Sawai-, 202 
Preyer, W. 175 
Purandaradasa 292, 381, 383 
Pythagoras 174 


Raghavanka 209 
Raghunatha nayaka 222 
Rajasekhara 236, 240-1 
Ramachandran, N.S. 188, 207, 217 
Ramamatya 158, 168, 189, 229 
Rameau 174 
Ranna 195 
Rata 224 

Ratnakara varni 209 
Revesz, G, 161 
Rudrabhatta 195 


Sadasiva 151 

Sadashiva Shastri Joshi 223 
Sadaksari 209, 377 
Sagaranandin 314 
Saigotta Sivamara 377 
Sailakanya 298 
Sakatayana 165 
Sankaradeva 360 
Santinatha 324 
Saradatanaya 391 

Sarngadeva 153-6, 158, 160, 162-4, 173, 
177, 182, 184-6, 188, 191-2, 194-7, 
280, 282, 286, 291, 293, 298, 301, 
308, 310, 312, 316, 319, 332, 334-5., 
339, 354, 359, 364-6, 388-90 



Sarrigadhara 379 

Sathyanarayana, R. 156,161-5, 267, 282, 
285, 309 
Savyasaci 288 

Seashore, Carl E., 174-6, 180, 183 
Shahaji 223 

Shantibhikshu Shastri 369 
Siddhananjesa 244 

Simhabhupala 156-8,163,192,194,198, 
211, 217-20, 280, 282-3, 287, 293, 
297, 306, 308, 310, 316, 322-3, 327, 

Singiraja 209 
Sobhakara Bhatta 260 
Somanarya, Astavadhana-, 250 
Somanatha 158, 168, 170, 207, 229 
Somanatha, Palkuriki- 206,209,280,381 
Somaraja 244, 377 
Somarajadeva 151, 206, 228, 239 
Somesvara 151, 153-4, 206, 214, 216, 
237, 246-7, 249, 253-4, 257-60, 265, 
267, 269, 272-3, 284, 293, 295, 298, 
311, 326,330, 335, 352, 354, 359-61, 
366-7, 373, 378, 389-90. 

Sourindra Mohan Tagore 386 
Sriharsa 329 

Srikantha 152-3,229,293,309,376,382, 
386, 389-90 

Sripadaraya 163, 226, 248-50 
Sri Vehkatesvara 311 
Stumpf, Karl -174-6, 183 
Stout, Barret-183 
Subbarama DIksita206-7 
Subharhkara 286, 384 
Sudan 352 
Sudhakalasa 229 
Suranga kavi 386 
Surdas 352 

Susanne K. Langer 171 
Svayambhu 320, 365, 370, 373-6 


Talley, Norton C. 183 
Tanappacarya 214, 222-3, 383 
Theoder Lipps 175 
Thuille 177 

Timmana, Puspagiri-, 209 
Tirumalarya 377 
Tiruvehkata kavi 207 
Titchner 175 

Tulaja 168, 210, 223, 310, 382 
Tulasidas 352 
Tumburu 191 


Udbhata 293 
Usman 352 
Uvata 160 


Vadiraja 292 
Vallabha 298 
Valmiki 314 

Vamana 215,293, 297, 313-4, 394, 396-7 
Varadaraja Bhattacarya 223 
Varahamihira 357 
Veda 218, 385 

Velankar H.D. 288, 321, 357-8 
Venkatachala Sastri T.V. 351, 354 
Venkatamakhin 158, 188, 202, 210, 221- 
3, 230, 279, 280, 285-6, 295-6, 302, 
363-5, 383, 385, 388-90 
Venkata sastri, Musanuru-, 291, 340 



Vidyanatha 393, 395-7 
Virahanka 288, 319, 321, 326, 329, 333, 
335, 337, 357, 365 
Visakhila 191, 194, 196, 281-2 
Visnusarman 160 
Visvavasu 166 
Vrddha BharatA 310 
Vrddha Kasyapa 189 
Vrddha Satatapa 189 
Vyasa 282 
Vyasaraya 292, 381 


Watt 174 

Whitehead. A.N. 170 
Winckel, Fritz 181 
Woodworth, Robert S. 181 


Yadavaprakasa 335 
Yajnanarayana DIksita 222 
Yajnavalkya 178 

Yastika 184-6, 189, 228, 233, 273 


Commentary on ch. 3.1 & 3.2 


Abhinava Bhratasarasangraha 163, 166 
Abhinavabharatl 163, 166 
Abhilasitarthacintamani (AC) 293, 295, 
298, 300-1, 303-5, 307-9, 311-2, 316, 
8, 388-9 

Abhinayadarpanam 282 
Acoustic Phonetics 181 
Acustica 181 

Ajitatlrthakara-puranatilakam 324 
Akustische Untersuchungen 162 
Alamelurumange Caupada 352 
Amarakosa 160, 287 
Anandasanjlvanl 273 
Anantanathapurana 209, 280, 381 
Andhra-prataparudriyamu 394 
Appakavlyamu 351 
Aralu-maralu 209 
Arjunabharatam 288 
Astadhyayl 157, 160, 205, 212, 215 
Aumapatam 178 
Ayeen Akbari 386 


Bahvrca Parisista 209 
Basavapuranam 209, 377 
Basavaraja puranamu 209 
Bhagavadglta 213, 285 
Bhagavata puranam 255 
Bhagavatamu 209 

Bharata 209 

Bharatabhasya 156 

Bharatakosa 151, 183, 188, 191, 202, 
273, 282 

Bharatesa-vaibhava 209 



Bhavaprakasanam 291 

Bihar Theatre 376 

BrhaddesI (BD) 156-8, 162, 194, 248, 
282, 288, 293, 298, 299, 300, 303, 
305, 307, 309-12, 316, 318-28, 331-3, 
337-8, 340, 343-8, 353, 355, 360-8, 

Brhat-parasarasmrti 388 

British Journal of Musicology 176 


Candraprabha-puranam 153, 209, 280, 

Caraka-samhita 156 

Caryagitikosa 369 

Caturdandlprakasika 158,188,202,210, 
326, 335, 338-9, 347-8, 351-2, 355, 
364-5, 368, 370, 372, 383 

Caturdandlprakasika (Kannada Trans¬ 
lation) 285, 329 

Cat\^arimsatcchataraganirupanam 178, 

Chandahsastram 319,321,326,329,332- 
3, 337, 339-40, 356, 358, 360, 366 


Chandahsekhara 370, 373-4 
Chandahsutram 340 
Chandarnav Pingal 347 
Chandogya upanisat 388 
Chandomanjarl 288-9, 321 
Chando’mbudhi 350, 352-3, 357, 359 
Chando’nusasanam (Hemacandra) 288, 
319-20, 323, 326, 329, 332-3, 335, 
337, 339, 360, 365-6, 370, 374-5 
Chando’nusasanam (Jayaklrti) 332-3, 
335, 337, 339, 350, 352-3, 357, 361, 
366, 370 

Chandoviciti 339-40, 358 
Chand-prabhakar 351 
Cikadevaraya-caupada 352 
Cilappadikaram 349 


Dattilam 163, 184, 282 
Dhatupatha 157, 164, 182, 215, 223 
‘Dhavala’ 376 
Dhvanyaloka 225 
Dhvanyalokalocana 225-6 


Ela: A Musicological Study 298, 334 
Emotion in Music 171 
Epigraphia Carnatica 325, 377 
Experimental Psychology 181 


Fundamentals of General Psychology 


(Gajastaka) 377 
Gange-gauri-caupada 352 


Gandharva-veda 152 
Gathalaksanam 370 
Gitagovindam 384 
Gitaprakasa 229-278, 284, 287, 383 
Gray’s Anatomy 163 
Gururaja-caritra 244 


Harbarkeit von Instrumentenklangeni 

Hariscandra-kavya 209 
Harivarhsa 314 
Harivamsabhyudaya 359 
Harmonielehre 177 
Hindl-sahitya-kos 352 
Hindustani-sangltadalli Ragamurtl- 
karana 229 

Hrdaya-kautukam 230 
Hrdayaprakasa 230 


Incara 229 

Indian Theosophist 228 
Introduction to Musicology 174, 177 
Introduction to the Psychology of Music 


Jagannatha-vijaya 325 
Janasrayi-chandas 340, 358 
Jayadaman 288, 321, 358 
Jayadevacchandas 319, 321, 326, 329, 
332-3, 337, 339, 357, 360 
Jayanrpakavyal53, 209, 

Jnanamanjari 219 

Jounral of Indian Musicological Society 




Kadambari 282 

Kannada-chandahsvarupa 351, 353 
Kannadakadambari 330 
Kanthirava-narasaraja-vijayam 1 - 280, 

Karnataka Bhaktivijaya 383 
Karnataka-sangita-vahinI 156, 229, 267, 

Karnavrttanta 377, 

Kasikavrtti 214 

Kavidarpanam 370-1, 373, 375 
Kavijanasrayamu 351 
Kavyadarsa 293 
Kavyalamkara 293 

Kavyalamkarasutravrtti 297, 313, 394-7 
Kavyaprakasa 293 
Kavyavalokanam 293 
Kohalamatam 163 
Konzonanz und Dissonanz 175 
Kurmapuranam 314 
Kusumavalikavyam 209 


Laghusiddhantakaumudi 223 
Laksmin rsi rh ha-pradurbhava dan daka 

Lilavati 324, 377 


Madanatilakam 324, 336, 352 
Mahabharatam 282, 387-8 
Mahabhasyam 158, 212 
Maisuru-doregala-caupada 352 
Malatlmadhava 224, 357 
Mallinathapurana 153 
Manasollasa 151, 154, 206, 216, 284 

Mandukyasiksa 160 
Maninidhi 334 
Manusmrti 387 
Markandeyapurana 184, 195 
Matantara 288, 380 
Mastyapuranam 387 
Medinlkosa 287 
‘Minaksi me mudam dehi’207 
Mohanatarangini 209 
Mrtasanjlvanl 320, 322, 337, 339, 358 
Musical Acoustics 175, 180, 183 
Muscalische Tonsysteme 161 
Music of Hindostan 187 
Music, Sound and Sensation 181 


Nagakumaracaritam 248, 250 
Namalihganusasanam 160 
Naradiya puranam 341 
Naradlyasiksa 160, 184-5, 189, 194, 217, 
219, 282, 391-3 
Natakalaksanaratnakosa 314 
Natyasatram 153-5, 163, 182, 184, 195, 
321, 326, 329, 330-1, 333, 335, 337, 

‘New Creations in Karnataka Music’ 397 
Nihsankahrdaya 161-2, 165, 181, 282 
Nijalinga-cikkayyana dandaka 360 
Nrsimhaparijata 340 


(Oriental Music in Staff Notation) 207 
Our Knowledge of the External World 


Padamanjari 214 

Padmaraja puranam 209, 280, 381, 383 



Pampasthana-varnanam 154, 209, 381 
Pancamasarasamhita 229-278 
Pancatantra 184,194 
Pancatantram 159 

Panditaradhya caritramu 206, 280, 381 
Paninisiksa 156-7, 159 
Paribhasika vacanam 165 
Perceptions of Consonance and Disso¬ 
nance, The 176 
Philosophy in a New Key 171 
Pingalanighantu 207 
Pithikegalu-Lekhanagalu 351, 353 
Prakrtapaingalam 288-9, 333, 335, 337, 
339, 351, 366, 370, 373 
Prathamabhyasa pustakamu 206 
Problem of Style, the 314 
Prthviraj-raso 351 
Psychology of Music 176, 180 
Psychology of Sound, The 174 
Pundarikamala 267 
Punyasrava 209 
Puspadanta puranam 324 


‘Raga-Iconification in Indian Music’ 229 
Ragalaksanam 168 
Ragalaksanam Manuscripts 223 
Ragamaia 168, 199, 210, 215, 229-278, 
280, 373 

Ragamanjari 165-8,184-5,199,228,278, 

Raga-ragini Mata 241-7, 251-5, 257-9, 
260, 264, 266-272, 275, 277 
Ragaratnakara 230, 279 
Ragarnava 237-41,244,246-53,255,257, 
260, 264, 266, 272, 276-7 
Ragas of Karnataka Music, 230 
Ragatarangini 230, 273, 275 
Ragavibodha 158,168,207,228,229-278 

Rajasekharavllasa 209 
Ramayana 314 

Rasakaumudi 152, 163, 166, 170, 174-5, 
203, 205-6, 209, 211-12, 214-5, 229- 
278, 243, 249, 253-6, 259 
Rasikapriya 384 
Ratnamanjusa 340 
Ratnavall 330 
Ravana digvijaya 352 
Rgveda-pratisakhyam 160 
Rgveda-pratisakhya-bhasya 160 
Rk-pratisakhyam 165 
Rk-tantra-vivrti 165 


Sabdakalpadruma 388 
Sabdanusasanam 282 
Sabdamanikalpadrumam 377 
Sadasivabharatam 291 
Sadasivagama 291 

Sadragacandrodaya 165-6,170,173,177- 
8, 182, 184, 199, 204, 210-11, 215, 

Sahityaratnakara 222 
Samavidhanabrahmana 159 
Samirakumaravijayam 209 
Samkhyaratnakosa 229 
SangeetNatak 156, 285 
Sangitacudamani 156,290,300-9,311-3, 
317-20*, 322-3,325-6,328,331-2,334, 
3, 375-9, 388, 390-1 
Sangltadamodara 156, 307, 383-4 
Sangitadarpanam 218,229-78,285,293- 
5, 298-9, 302-4, 306-9, 312, 317-19, 
321-25, 327-29, 332-34, 336, 338-9, 
343, 345, 347-8, 380, 382, 385-92 
Sangitakalanidhi 156, 280, 285 
Sangltakalpalatika 384 



Sangltamakaranda 178,184-5, 189, 217- 
8, 385 

Sahgitaparijata 185, 202, 229-278, 287, 
293, 299, 302-4, 306-9, 312, 317-8, 
321, 323-5, 327-9, 332, 334, 337-8, 
340, 343, 345, 347-8 
Saiigitaraja 153, 155,179,201,228,229- 
278, 384 

Sahgitarasakalika 219 
Sangltaratnakara 153-8,160, 162, 164-6, 
194, 196, 203-6, 208-11, 213-5, 217, 
220-1, 233, 282-8, 292-3, 295-7, 302- 
4, 306-8, 315-8, 320, 323, 325, 327-8, 
331-2, 334-6, 338-9, 341, 344, 346-9, 
351-6, 360-6, 368, 370-1, 373-9, 381, 
383, 391-3, 397 

Sangltaratnakara-English Translation 

Sangltaratnakara (Kannada) 206 
Sangitaratnavall 151, 295, 363., 373 
Sangltasabdarthacandrika 388 
Sangltasamayasara 152, 154, 184, 206, 
3,317-20,322-4,326-8,332-4, 346-9, 
354-6, 360-6, 371-2, 377-1, 389-1 
Sangitsar 202 

Sangltasaramrtam 168, 210, 222 
Saiigitasarasangraha 283-4,287,366,382- 
3, 386 

Sangltasarasangrahamu 207 
Sangitasarani 202 
Sangltasaravall 178 
Sangitasiromani 177, 188, 384, 390 
Sangitasudha 339, 342-3, 355, 229-78 
Sangltasudhakara (Haripaladeva) 152, 
154, 191, 206, 293, 298, 301, 303-4, 
333-4, 337-8, 343, 345-9, 353-6, 360- 
1, 363-5, 367-8, 372-3, 376-1 

Sangltasudhakara (Simhabhupala) 156, 

Sangitasuryodaya 189,218,293,299,301, 
303-4, 306-8, 312-3, 317-9, 321-8, 
332,34, 337-8, 343, 345, 347-8 
Sangitopanisat-saroddhara 229-278 
Sanskrit-English Dictionary 164 
Santlsvara puranam 209 
Saradatilakam 340 
Saranalilamrta 352 
Sarasvatikanthabharana 212 
Saundara puranam 209 
Sayanabhasya on Samavidhanabrah- 

Sensations of Tone 175 
Siiigirajapuranam 209 
Sirigannadadincara (Introduction) 156, 

Sitar Shikshak 207 
Sivakumaracaritam, Sri, 354 
Sivatattvaratnakara 233 
Slokavartika 226 
Smrd 156 

South Indian Inscriptions 282 
Speech and Hearing 181 
Sri Guruguha: Devakriya or Sud- 
dhasaveri? 267 
Sripalacarite 282 

Sripadaraya: A Study in Music 309, 369, 

Sripadarayara Krtigalu 360 
Srutabodha 339 

‘Sruti, Dhvani and Sphota’ 163, 228 
‘Srutijati: A Four Component Theory’ 
166, 181 

‘Sruti: The Scalic Foundation’ 165, 181 
Study in Tradition, Modernity and Inno¬ 
vation 285 

Sudha, Commentary on Laghusiddha- 
nta-kaumudi 223 



Sukumaracaritam 324 
Suladis and Ugabhogas of Karnataka 
Music 309, 381 
Sursagar 219 

Svayambhucchandas 320, 365, 370, 373- 

Svaramelakalanidhi 158, 168, 228-272 
Svararagasudharasa 383 
Symbolism: Its meaning and Effect 171 


Taittiriya-pratisakhyam 159, 165 
‘Tande Purandaradasarasmarisuve’ 209 
Theorie der Konsonanz, Die, 175 
Theosophist 163 
Trisastivilasa 377 


Udbhatakavyam 377 
Unadisutra 283 
Uttararamayanamu 209 


Vacaspatyam 254 
Vaijayanti(kosa) 158 
Vajasaneyi-pratisakhyam 165 
Vakyapadiyam 226-7 
Vardhamana-caritre 209 
Vardhamana puranam 377 
Vayn puranam 159, 184, 189, 194, 204- 


Venkatamakhin on Music 229, 279 
Vidyarthi-kalpataruvu 161, 209 
VInalaksanam 206 
Vlnalaksana-vimarse 229, 267 
Vipranarayana-caritramu 209 
Virahamanjari 219 
Viranarasimhadev-carit 219 
Virasangayyana caupada 219 
Visesakrtimala (Introduction) 156, 266 
Visnudharmottara puranam 160, 184, 
189, 194, 205 
Visnu puranam 254-6 
Vivarana comm, on Naradiyasiksa 153, 

Vivekacintamani 206, 341 
Vivekananda-patrika 229 
‘Voice Training in Indian Music’ 156 
Vrsabhendra vijayam 244 
Vrttajatisamuccaya 288-90,319,321,326, 
329, 332-3, 335, 337, 339, 353, 366 
Vrttaratnakara 288-90, 319, 321, 326, 
329, 332-3, 335-7, 339, 353, 366 


Yajnvalkyasiksa 177 
Yajusaprayogaratnakara 388 
Yasodharacarit 209 


Zeitschrift fur Psychologie 176 
Zur Psychologie des Konsonzerlebeus 


Commentary on Ch. 3.1 & 3.2 


abdadandaka 357-8 
abhangatala 366 
abhanga slesa 387 
abhasa 156 
abheri 268 
abhighata 179 
abhinaya 314 
abhinnapadaslesa 387 
abhlrl 228, 268 
abhirl murchana 261 
abhirudgata 192-3, 197, 273 
abhoga 284-5, 291-378 (=‘A*) 
abhyasa 286 
abhyasagana 204 
abhyuccaya 201, 203-4 
abjagarbha ragakadamba 344-5 
acalapratapa duskara 305 
acarya 394 
accu 217 

acoustical phenomenon 161 

acoustical structure 183 

acoustical theory (of sonance) 174 

active voice 223 

acyuta 341 

acyuta ma 174 

acyuta sa 174 

adana 273 

adbhuta 264-6, 271, 305, 315, 385 
adda 202 

addatala 303, 306, 383 
addatall 300 
adesa 212 

adhama dhruva 379-80 

adhama gayaka 151 

adhama raga 230, 242, 244, 246, 251, 
258, 261,270-1,275, 278 
adhama rupaka 283 
adhana 211 
adharasruti 159 
adhika pada 397 
adhikopama 397 
Adisesa 314 

aditala 301, 304, 308, 341, 344, 383-4, 

aditya 387 
adivamaka 297 
adritanaya 321 
aerophone 196 
aesthetic characteristics 210 
aesthetic convention 205 
aesthetic exigency 205 
aesthetic experience 224 
aesthetic perception 181 
aesthetic potential 171 
aesthetic taste 175 
aesthetic tension 176 
affective tension 176 
agamavirodhi 394 
Aghora 236 
aghosa 158 
agni 163, 229 
agniblja 291 
agnistoma yajna 347 
agramya prana 296, 299 
agravasthana 207 
ahang 251 
ahari 213, 228, 268 
ahat 208 



ahat 208 

ahata 206, 208, 216, 243-4 

ahata nada 157, 178 

ahati 207 

ahati 207 

aheri 268 

ahirbudhnya 388 

aja 154 

ajaikapat 388 

akasa 179 

akhyata 281 

aklesa-kesava-kunjara-tilaka 384 
aksaragana 357 
aksara pankti 335 
aksara patakarana 300 
aksara vyuha 327 
aksaropapada 335 
aksepa 201, 203-5 
aksepaskandana 176 
aksipta 200-1, 203-5 
aksiptika 200, 221-22 
alamkara 197,199, 200-5, 215, 221, 225, 
alamkara dhvani 227 
alamkarasastra 394 
alamkrta 392 

alapa i52, 193, 210-1, 214-5, 218, 221-2, 
284, 287, 304, 307-9, 345, 391 
alapa lambha 307 
alapana 207,214-15, 222 
alapa-sthira vahani 212 
alapa-vegadhya vahani 211 
alapini 187 

alapti 151, 154-5, 214-7, 220-1, 283 
alaptigayana 154 
alatti 217 

algebraic principle of factorial 196 
alikrama 151, 284-5, 309-12, 348, 382 
alliteration 308, 372, 377-9 
alpa 231-278 

alpagamaka-jhombada 305-6 

alpaprana 158 

alpatva 177 

alto 159 

alungal 208 

amanda mukundamakaranda 384 
amara dhruva 373-4 
amredita ragakadamba 344 
amredita yamaka 297 
arnsa 151, 177-8, 210, 215, 221-2, 224-5, 
228, 230-78, 387 
amsagana 350 
amsagan asatpadi 353-4 
amsa svara 168, 301, 304 
anachronism 394 
anadisampradaya 280 
anagata graha 221, 295, 388 
anahat 208 
anahata 207 
anahata nada 157 
anaksaralapa 221 
anaksaralapti 221 
anala 229 
analogy 211 
ananda 388 
anandabhairava 341 
anandabharavi 228, 395 
ananda vardhana 300-2 
anandini 286, 344, 346, 355-6, 365 
anangasekhara 357-8 
anataratva 165 
anarthaka 397 
anatomical analogue 164 
anavadhana 154-55 
ancient Indian musicologists 171 
ancita 294-5 
andhali 275 
Andhra 223, 259 
andhri ela 297-98 
andola 207 



andolit 208 

andolita 206, 208, 234, 242, 259, 265 

andolita yati 384 

anekapadavrtti 293 

anga 280, 283-7, 292-379 

angahara 314-5 

angi-rasa 387 

anibaddha 221, 281, 286, 334, 342-3 

aniryukta 292-379 (=‘an’), 316 

‘anit’ 208 

aniyama 154 

ankacarini 318-9 

ankamala 350 

anta 284 

antara 167-70, 194, 284-5 (=‘Ar’): 292- 
378,318, 381,391,393 
antarabhasa (raga) 282, 311, 381 
antara ga 169-70, 174, 189, 192 
antara gandhara (modem) 168 
antara gandhara (original,- ‘gu’*) 229- 
278, 260 

antaragata sruti 169 
antarala 171 
anta-stha 290 
antilogical 171 
anudana 388 
anudatta 158 
anudruta 395 
anudyama 388 
anuhati 207 
anujyi sthaya 221 
anulambha 307 
anumandra 158-9, 161, 170 
anunasika 154-5 
anuprasa 293, 311 
anupallavi 395 
anuranana 177-9, 182, 225 
anuranana sakti 165 
anusara 283 
annsvara 290 

anuvadl 170, 172, 176-7, 187, 189, 195, 
215, 231-278 
anya 396 
anyartha 397 

apabhramsa 318, 365, 370-1, 276 

apacaya 217 

apakrama 393, 395-6 

apanga 205 

apangita 200 

apanyasa 177, 210, 221 

aparajita 388 

aparalalita 253 

aparatha 394-5 

apasvara 154-5 

apasvarabhasa 210 

apauruseya 280 

apramada 204 

aprasiddha 210 

aprasiddhopama 397 

apratita 397 

apratiti 397 

aprayojaka 397 

aprayukta 397 

apurna 397 

apusta 157, 176 

apustartha 397 

apyayani 193 

arabhata 315 

arabhati vrtd 288, 314-5, 317 

Arabia 184 

araral 208 

archetype 369, 385 

arcika 196 

ardha 219 

ardhasamacatuspadl varna vrtta 353 
ardhasama vrtta 341 
ardhasthita 218 
ardhasvara 218-9 
arna 357-8 


arnava 357-8 
aroha 193 
arohana 206-7 

arohi 55.199-201, 203-4, 216, 222-3 

artha 320 

arthadosa 395-7 

arthadusta 392-3 

arthagata kramabhrasta 395 

arthaguna 313 


arthalamkara 386 

arthapunarukta 395 

arthapurusartha 395 

arthavyakti 313 

arya 287,.300, 319, 331, 333, 339, 366, 

arya glti 319-20, 330 

arya metre 319-20, 322-3, 329-33 

ary am a 387 

asadharana (sthaya) 211 
asadharanatva 183 
asadhu 396 
asadrsopama 397 
asamartha 397 
asamasama satpadi 354 
asamasama satpadi 354 
asampurnatana 196 
asarira 397 
aslila 396-7 

asokapuspamarijari 358 
asavari 234-5 . 
assonance 171 
astai 395 

astapadi 384, 396 
astapadi dhavala 375 
asthana samasa 397 
asura 314 
asva 286 
asvagati 324 

asvakranta 188, 192, 196 

asvalalita 321-2 

asvalila 322 

asya 157 

atalalapti 221 

ataraja jhombada 304-5 

atharat 208 

atidesa 328 

atimatra 397 

atireka 397 

atitagraha 221, 388 

atitara 158-9 

atisuksma nada 157 

atmanepadi 212 

atri 387 

attatala 382 

atyucchrnkhala 167-8 

atyukta 290, 350 

audibility threshold 159 

auditory stimuli 181 

auduva 169, 177, 194-6, 229, 230-278 

auduva murchana 192-4 

auduva tana 184, 195, 296 

aum 316 

aural acuity 164-5 
aural threshold 165 
avadhana 154 
avagharsana 207 
avalokita 200-1, 203-4 
avantika style 314 
avapa 281 
avarga 290 
avaroha 194 
avarohana 206-7 
avarohi 199-201, 216, 222 
avartaka 202, 205, 336, 344 
avartaka 200-1 
avaskhalita 210 
avatara 389 
avayava 282 
avayava-avayavi 162 



avimrsta vidheyarhsa 396 v 

avinasitva 298 

avirbhava 214-5 

avyakta 154-5, 157 

avyakta sankirna 210 

avyavasthita 154-6 

ayatakantha 154 

ayitta 222 

ayugma tala 286 

ayuh 181 

ayukta 397 

ayurveda 163 

ayurvedic anatomy 163 


bada khyal 395 
baddha 210 
baddha karana 301 
bahula 367 
bahull 251-2 
bahurupa 388 
bahutva 177 
bahya 154 
baj 208 

balance of proportions 176 

bana gana 288-9, 346, 352-3 

banalekha ela 300-1, 308-9 

bandhakarana 300-2, 308 

bandhatala 286 

bandhu 333 

bangala 228, 239 

bangala I 239 

bangala II 239 

bangall 246, 259-60, 369 

baritone 159 

Baroda 191 

basic scale 188 

bass clarinet 159 

bass human voice 159 

bass tuba 159 
bass viol 159 
bayakara 364 
beats 174-5 
‘belly’ notes 161 
benediction 373, 375 
bhadra 202 
bhdravat! ela 298 
bhaga 305-6 
bhaga 387 
bhagalambha 307 
bhagana 287-9, 323, 357, 376 
bhagna chandas 397 
bhairava 230-3, 235, 239-42, 251, 267, 
269, 272, 276, 305 
bharavl 228, 232, 240, 262 
bhairavl II 232 
bhajana 154, 210-1 
bhala 202 

bhamini satpadi 354 
bhandika 284 
bhandira 156 
bhahga tala 156 
bhanjani 215 
bhanjani rupakalapti 283 
bhanjani sarhsrita 283 
bharata khanda 255 
bharatanatya 286 
bharati 291 
bharati vrtti 314-7 
bhasa 310 

bhasanga 154, 236, 253, 258, 273 
bhasanga raga 151, 210, 213 
bhasa raga 233-4, 239, 241, 243, 246-7, 
249, 252-3, 255, 257, 260-1, 263-4, 
268-69, 271-2, 274-5, 381 
Bhatta Tauta 171 
bhava 388 

bhava 157, 214, 314, 385, 393 
bhavadhvani 227 



bhavaka 154 

bhavani 286-7, 303,312, 316,332-3, 
9, 344, 356, 360 
bhave 157, 215 
bhavidipta 182 
bhayanaka 305, 315, 387 
bheda 286 
bhinna 397 
bhinnalinga 397 
bhinnapada slesa 387 
bhinnapancama 241-2 
bhinnasadja 235-6, 253, 255 
bhinnasamasa gata 29 
bhinnavacana 264 
bhinnavrtta 397 
bhila 384 
bhita 154-5 
bhlti 291 
bhittaka 333 
bhogasatpadi 354 
bhogavardhini 243, 272 
bhogavatl 298-9 
bhramara 334 
bhramara dhavala 373-4 
bhramara ragakadamba 344-5 
bhramara svastika 344 
bhramaravali 337 
bhramari gana 290 
bhrgu 387 
bhrta 210 
bhujanga 357-58 
bhujangavilasa 357-8 
bhumiblja 291 
bhupala 241 
bhupall 233, 240 
Bhusuku 367 
bhutala tanvi 335 
bhvadi 157, 182, 191, 205, 208, 2S 
blbhatsa 305, 315, 387 
bihari 369 

bijaksara 341 %% 

,38- bindu 200-1, 203-4, 215 
birka 222 

biruda 286-7 (= ‘bd’) 293-379 

birudakarana 300-1 

blood 154 

body air 162 

body consciousness 162 

body parameters 213 

bombaka 211 

bombakl 155 

bombala 154 

bombast 314 

Bombay 282 

bone 283 

bottaraga 373, 376-7 
brahma 305, 387 
Brahma 314-5, 395 
brahma gana 349 
brahma granthi 156, 163 
brahmamanasaputra 387 
brahman 285, 388 
brahmi 170 
Brah ml 209 
brightness of tone 158 
bruvahat 208 
budbuda 235 
budha 388 
bull 178 

Bunsen-Roscoe Law 181 


cacaputa 345 
caccari 366-7, 371 
caccari chandas 366-7 
; caccari tala 366-7 

caccatputa 221, 341, 345-6 
cadence 219 



caesura 309, 321, 326, 366, 379 

ca-gana 308, 333, 370, 374-7 

caitra parabandha 384 

cakora 200 

cakra 331 

cakrakara 202 

cakravaka 371 

cakravala 212, 297, 324 

cakravala bandha 297 

cakresvara 305 

calana 218 

calavlna 188 

caman 217 

campu 284 

camsa 365 

camunda 299 

canda dandaka 356-8 

candakala 358 

candanihsaru 306 

canda trtiya 306 

candavrstiprayata 356-8 

candapala 358 

candavega 358 

candika 299 

candikesvara 305 

candra 193, 229, 386, 388 

candralekha ela 298, 333 

candramasl 193 

candraprakasa 297 

candrasekhara (dhruva) 305 

candrika dvipadi 319 

candrika ela 397 

capala arya 330-1 

cara 365 

carana 207, 300, 332, 369, 395 
carana khanda 388 
carca 384 
carcari 353, 367 
carcari tala 366 
carl 185 

carija 368 

carrier syllables 216-7, 221 

carya 353, 368-9, 384 

cataka 178 

catilla 368 

catuhsruti 167 

catuhsruti dha 170 

catuhsruti dhaivata (dha*)230-78 

catuhsruti ma 259 

catuhsruti ri 169 

catuhsruti risabha (ri*)230-78 

catuhsruti svara 171 

catuhsvara 202 

catura-caturbhuja ragaraji candrodyota 

caturanga 385-6, 390-1 
caturasramathya (tala) 384 
caturasra varna (prabandha)312 
caturasra varna (tala) 312 
carturdandi 214 
caturmukha 356 
caturvyasita yamaka 297 
catuspadi 351-2, 369, 381 
catuspadi dhavala 374 
catuspadi matravrtta 370 
caupada 351-2 
caupai 351-2 
causality 162 

causative genetic theory (of sonance) 

ca-varga 290 
cello 159 

cervical nerves 163 
cha-gana 288, 311, 323-4, 373-6 
chamsa 365 
chanda 320 
chandahsastra 373 

chandas 286-7, 316, 319, 323, 337, 366, 

chandasa 211 



chandasvatl ela 297 
chandovatl 166, 186, 188 
chandovidhi 281 
chapu 312 
chara 365 
chatrisamya 292 
chavi 210 
chaya 310, 331 
chayagauda 262 
chayakaku 212 
chayalaga 151, 154-5, 382 
chayalaga prabandha 284 
chayalaga raga 210 
chayalaga songs 152 
chayalaga suda 284, 309-10 
chayamatrasraya 228 
chayanata 244, 270 
chayanatta 270 
chekanuprasa 293 
chordophone 196, 208 
chota khyal 395 
‘chyle 283 
cilaittal 208 
cilambal 208 
citra 193, 315, 387 
citradandaka 357 
citragadya 315-6 
citragati 339 
citrajhombada 304 
citrakarana 300-2 
citralamkara 302 
citralatika 350 
citramala 357 
citra tala 365 
citra tripadl 350 
citravatl 193 
cittaka 205 
citta svara 316, 395 
citte svara 286 
clarinet 181 

cradle song 37& 
coccygeal nerves 163 
colour differences 183 
compositional prototype 292, 310 
conceptual evolute 165 
conceptual framework 188 
conceptual parameters 169 
conceptual validity 381 
concretisation 279 
conjugability 177 
conjugate 172 
conjugation 171 
connotation 170 
consonance 171-7, 186-7 
consonance phenomenon 175-6 ^ 
consonance richness 168 
continuity 165 

continuity of musical sound 170 

conversational speech 181 

couplet 369, 377-9, 389 

covibration (in partials)l78 

cucculus melanoleucus 183 

cultural dynamics 279 

cultural parameters 205 

cummai 207 

‘curadi’ 197 

curna 315-6 

curnika 315 

cutamanjari 319 

cyavita 207 

cyuta sa 174 

cyuta ma 174 

cyutamadhyama gandhara 168-69 
cyutapancama madhyama 168 
cyutasadja 166 
cyutasadja nisada 167-9 
cyuta samskara 397 


da-gana 288-9, 373-5 



dahana 388 
daivi gadya 282 
daksa 387 
daksina marga 355 
daksinatya gurjari 252 
dala 211 
dala 331,346 
dalu 208,211 
dambholi 358 
damnum 185 
damping decrement 181 
dancing 291 

d^ndaka 292, 356-7, 359-1 
dandaka prototype 357-8 
dandi 210, 223 
danti 300, 311, 353, 379 
dara 365 
darpana tala 344 
daru 286, 396 
dasaprana (raga) 184 
dasavatara 385-6 
dasavatara klrtidhavala 384 
dasavatara prabandha 292 
dayavati 186 
dayi-gana 289 
definiteness 176 
definitive base 164 
degree of fusion 175 
denotation 176, 227 
denseness of tone 158 
dental 290 
dependence 176 
desabhasa 280 
desaila 297-9 
desaja 228 
desakaku 210, 213 
desakara 248 
desakari 249 
desaksi 178, 266 
desakhya 241, 248, 273 

desapala 277 

desi 215,249,251,253,255,310-1 

desi chandas 280 

desl gamaka 206 

desi gita 309, 355 

desl hindola 367 

desi kara 248-9, 251-5 

desi music 151, 280 

desi raga 155,157-8, 233, 249, 252, 265, 

desi tala 280, 286, 303, 336, 341-43, 383 

desi usage 206 

(desya) raga 195 

devagandhara 228, 261-2 

devagiri 267 

devakri 266 

dhaivata 166, 178 

dhaivata murchana 242 

dhaivati jati 235 

dhakka 261 

dhal 208 

dhala 211 

dhala sthaya 210 

d(h)alu 206-8, 278 

dha-murchana 188, 191, 231, 249, 251 

dhanasika 207 

dhannasi 231 

dhara 207 

dhari gana 290 

dharma 320 

dharmatidesa 328 

dhata 338 

dhata 387 

dhatta 338 

dhatu 280-1, 283-6, 294-6, 301, 303-4, 
306-7, 309, 311-2, 322, 345-6, 348, 
360, 362, 364-5, 367, 380, 393 
dhavala 300, 353, 373-6, 384 
dhavala mangala 376 
dhenki 280, 292, 300, 302-3, 324, 353 



dherikl tala 302-3 

discursive syrftbols 170 

dhollari 299, 378-9 

dissonance 171, 174-7 

dhrta vrata 388 

‘divadi’ 181, 193, 223 

dhrti-gana 289 

divakara 387 

dhrti-dvipadi 324 

divyamanusl matrka 342-3 

dhruva 151, 202, 281, 284-5, 292-378 

divyamatrka 342-3 


divya tala 343 

dhruva-dhatu 295 

dodhaka 333-34, 339, 355 

dhruva khanda 295 

dodhaka vrtta 334 

dhruvapada 369 

doha 333-34, 369 

dhruva ppabandha285,301,310,379-82 

dohada 361 

dhruva tala 304, 323. 381, 383 

dohada 378 

dhruva vina 188 

dohaka 355 

dhuh gana 289 

dohalika 355 

dhura 291 

doha-mangala 376 

dhuri 291 

dolana 207 

dhvajini 335 

Dombi 368 

dhvani 154, 157, 162-3, 165, 224-7 

double entendre 386 

dhvanibheda 224 

double octave 174 

dhvanihlna 154 

dravya 179 

dhvanikuttani 306, 328 

dravida 189 

dhvani-vailaksanya 163, 179, 181 

dravidl ela 233-98 

dhvani-vislesa 224 

drk-gana 289 

dhvanyantara =sruti 164 

druta 206-7, 228, 395 

diction 305 

drutagati gadya 315 

differentials 175 

drutalaya 316, 354 

differetial tones 175 

drutamadhya-gadya 315, 317 

differential tone theory 175 

drutamattha 304 

digu-jaru 206 

drutapada 336 

dlpaka 248, 251,264, 271 

drutasekhara tala301 

dlpanl 286-7, 322, 338-9, 344, 348, 352 

drutasthaya 210 

dlpta 202 

druta tempo 207 

dlpta prana 296, 299 

drutavilambita gadya 315,317 

directional tendency 184 

duhkha gana 289 

dlrgha 331 

durahat 180 

dirghalalita 206 

durasravyata 225 

dlrghatva 165 

duration (of pitch) 180 

dlrghikadlrgha 206 

durgastaml 265 

dirghollasa 206 

durghatita 205 

discernible pattern 170 

duskara 306 



duskara taraja 177 
dviguna 218 
dvijati prabandha 338 
dvipadi 323, 339, 351-2 
dvipadl metre 324, 338 
dvipadi vrtta 324 

dvipatha(+ka)287, 300, 333-4, 339 
dvirahata 207 
dvisruti svara 171 
dvisvara 202 

dvitlya tala 295, 298, 304-6, 367-8, 383 
dvyardha 218-9 
dynamic equilibrium 279 
dynamic tendency 176 


ear resonator 181 
eduttal 217 
ekadesa dharma 283 
ekala 153 
ekapadavrtti 293 
ekartha 395, 397 
ekasamasagata 293 
ekasruti 165 
ekasvara 202 
ekatala 202, 309, 381-2 
ekatali 300, 304, 381, 383 
ekatall prabandha 308-9 
ekella 153 
ekilla 153 
ekkala gana 153 
ekku-jaru 206 

ela 288, 292-3, 295, 297-300, 308,310-1, 
353, 373, 382 
elapada 299 
ela samanyalaksana299 
empirical parameters 169 
empirical validity 381 
engal 208 

entrada 218 
entrante 218 
entree 218 
enunciation 227 
epiglottal fold 162 
epiglottal orifice 160 
epiglottis 162 
equal temperament 176 
erotic pleasure 315 

erotic sentiment 232-3, 238-44, 247, 253 
erratic intonation 180 
ethgade 395 
ettugade 395 

ettugade svara 284, 316, 395 
exact intonation 299 
experimental pychology 180 
expressive potential 204 


fat 154 
fifth 176 
flautist 217-8 
flesh 283 

flute 159, 181,213 
folksong 373, 377-9 
formants 183 
formant theory 183 
french horn 159 
frog 177 
frontal sinus 157 
fundamental 160, 162 
fundamental frequency 183 
fusion 175 


gabhastiman 387 
gabhastikhanda 388 
gabhlra 211 



gadha 210 

gadya 286,292,311,313-7,326,343,345 

gadya cakravala 325 

gadya dandaka 357, 359 

gadyaja asvallla 323 

gadyaja hayallla 322-3 

gkdyaja jhombada 305-6 

gadyaja kalahamsa 336 

gadyapadyaja jhombada 305-6 

gaganabija 291 

gajalila 300, 323 

gajastaka 377 

9, 258, 275-9, 296-7, 304-6, 308, 316- 
7, 356, 380 
gamaka kausala 154 
gamakalapti 269, 283, 287, 294, 298-9, 
306-7, 316, 324, 329, 333, 380, 391 
gamakakriya raga 207 
gamaka prayoga 280 
‘gamlr’ 205 

ga-murchana 253-4, 262, 272-3 

gamut 184 

gana 280-82 

gana-dandaka 357 

ganadha 357 

ganakriya 334 

ganapat 208 

gana 287, 298-9, 304-5, 307 
gana structure 326 
gana tala 286 
ganavrtta 302 
gandhara 166 

gandhara-grama (Gg)177, 184-9 
gandharavalita 189 
gandharodlcyavatl jati 234 
gandharva280-2, 287-8, 300, 318, 326, 

gandharvamoda 189 
gandharva khanda 388 


gandharva music 180, 318 
gandharvas 210 
gandharvasadava 189 
gandharva sastra 282 
Ganesa 315 
gange dhavala 376 
ganika 303 
garugi 304-6 
gatakrama 394 
gatha 332, 339, 360-3, 371 
gathika 196 
gatistha 154 

gati (of sruti)166, 168-9, 210-1, 315-6 
gati 210-1, 315-7 
gatimangala 202 
gatisthaya 211 
gatravarna 200-1, 203 
gauda 239, 255, 258, 262-3, 269, 276 
gaudakrti 266 
gauda raga 379 
gaud! 236-7, 243, 252, 258-63 
gaudl ela 297-8 
gaudl riti 313-4, 317 
gaud! style 293 
gaula 228, 263 
gaunda 276 
gaundakrti 260, 266 
gaurl 235,237-8,253,256,259,263,298- 
9, 331,341 
gayaka 151 
gayana dosa 154, 156 
gayana guna 154 
gayani (=gayaka) 151 
gender taxonomy 229 
Gestalt psychology 176 
geya prabandha 284 
ghana 154 
ghanatva 210 
ghargharayita 155 




gharsana 207 
ghaslt 208 
ghata 207 
ghatana 210 
ghatta 366 
ghatta carcarl 366 
ghatta metre 366-7 
ghattananda 366 
ghosa 158 
ghrasita 205 
ghurjari 252 
gilakala padyamu 351 
Girija 272 

gita 192, 194, 221, 280, 282, 390 

gitaka 295-6, 298-9 

gitasthira vahani 211 

gltigana 289 

giti prabandha 152 

gitkadl 208 

gomeda 388 

Gonda 276 

gopuccha yati 221 

graha 151, 177-8, 221-2, 224-5, 228, 230- 

grahabheda 192 
grahamoksa vicaksana 154 
grahasvara 299 

grama 151,168-9,184-8,190,194-5,197, 
231,234, 251,265, 279, 281 
grama raga 213, 232, 242, 247-8, 251, 
266, 280-1,310, 382 
grama-sadharana 168 
grammar 394 
grammarian 158 
grammarian viewpoint 163 
gramya 394, 396-7 
gramyanuprasa 293 
gramyata 263 

graphic deterioration 199, 336, 338 
graphic symbols 207 

Greece 183 
greek cognate 223 
grisma season 236 
gudhartha 397 
guha 157 
gujaratl 369 
gujjari 253 
gumphita 207 
guna 179 

guna-dhavala 373-4 
gunakarl 259 
gunakri 228 
gunakriya 260 
gundakri 263 
gundakriya 260 
gundagiri 260 
Gundari 368 

gurjarl 228,232,246,251-3, 259-61,264, 
269, 275 

guru 287, 289-90, 315, 317, 319, 323-4, 
330-1, 334, 339-41, 349, 351, 354, 
370, 380, 388 
gutturals 290 


habituation 175 
hamira 270 
hammlra 277-78 
hammiranata 271 
hamsa 305-380 
hamsaka chandas 334-6 
hamsakhya 334-7 
hamsakrida 334 
hamsalila 300, 304, 355, 372 
hamsalila tala 355 
hamsamala yati 251 
hamsanada tala 337 
hamsasya 335 
hamsatilaka 308 



hamsavati 335 
hamsavati ela 298 
' hams! 331 
hamvira 271 
hara 380, 388 
haranatana 366 
hari 320, 380 

haridasa 292, 311, 381-2, 385 
haridasas of Karnataka 378, 381 
hariharatalarajijaladhara vilasita 384 
harinasva 193, 197 
harini 316, 331 

hariramita campaka sekhara 384 
harirasa manmathatilaka 384 
harisamudaya garudapada 384 
harisarana kadalipatra 384 
harivallbhasoka pallava 384 
harivijaya mangalacara 384 
harsavardhana 292, 365 
harshness 182 
hasa 247 
hasita 200-5 
hastapata3 00-1, 318 
hash 286, 320 

hasya 265, 275, 283, 305, 315, 317, 384, 

havana 388 
havyavahana 320 
hayalila 300, 321-3, 339 
hayallla gati 321 
hayalila metre 322 
hayallla tala 322 
‘head’ notes 161 
hela-dhavala 373, 376 
hela-mangala 376 
helavall 358 
hema 323 
hemavatl ela 298 

heroic sentiment 231, 233, 243, 245 

hetu 162 
hetusunya 264 
higher octave 299 
hijeja 236 
himakrti 189 

hind! 333, 351-2, 369, 373 
hindola 237, 239-40, 24-43, 245, 248-9, 
253, 257, 264, 272-3, 367 
hindusthani music (=H)170, 208, 229- 

hlnopama 397 
hiranya-reta 387 
historical continuity 279 
hladamana 203 
hnevaka 384 
hollowness of tone 158 
hommu 206 

homophonic music 170-6 
horse 178 

hradamana 200-1, 203-4 

hrasit^ 205 

hrdaya 157 

hrdya 212 

hrdyagana 283 

hrdyasabda 283-4 

hrsyaka 193, 244 

hudukka pata 346 

human audibility (range) 158 

human factor 181 

human voice 159 

humkara 200-1, 204 

humpita 208 

humphita 206, 208, 275 

husenl 244, 268 


imizhdal 208 
implausible imagery 394 
independence 176 



India 184 

Indian music 151,159-60,162,171,176- 
7, 206, 300,311,334 
Indian musicology 158 
Indian music theory 170-1, 198 
Indian poetics 184 
Indian prosody 201, 207 
individual preference 205 
individual variation 205 
Indradvipa 387 
Indrakhanda 387 
Indranlla 202 
ingitabhasa 368-9 
instrumental characteristics 210 
instrumental music 208, 314 
instability 176 
intercultural forces 279 
intergroup consistency 170 
intersensory analogy 174 
intersruti displacement 206 
intersensory experience 162 
intervening srutis 173 
intracultural forces 279 
intragroup consistency 170 
intranavel region 163 
intrasruti displacement 206 
invariability 169 
irakh 244 
irangal 208 
irattal 208 
isaittal 208 
ista daiva 209 
Isvara 209 
‘it’ 205 


ja-gana 287-9, 320, 323-4, 329-30, 334, 
341, 370 

ja-gana mathya 383 

jagatl 335, 337 

jaghana capala arya 330-1 

jaitasri 251 

jala 388 

jala blja 291 

jamajama 208 

jambuka 154 

jambunala 383 

jangala 298 

janti varise 204 

japa gana 289 

jaru 206-8 

jatakarma 376 

jate 383 

jati 168,184,192,196,231,234,252,265, 

jatimatl ankacarini 319 
jati tala 383 
jati svara 286 
jatru-gana 289 
jatu gana 289 
java 202 
javali 263 
jaya 299 
jaya-gana 289 
jayakari 351 
jaya-mangala 298, 380 
Jayanandi 369 
jayanta 320, 380 
jayasri 252 
jhala 213 
jhampa 202 
jhampata 360-2 

jhampa tala 336-7, 344, 372, 379, 381-2, 

jhampata metre 361 
jhombada 300, 304-8, 328 
jhombaka 283, 285 
jhompata 300, 306, 308, 383-4 
jhumari 383-4 



jihvamulla 390 
jijavanta 269 
jlmuta 189, 357-8 
jita 197, 295-6, 299 
jltasrama 154 
jlvananda 353 
jlvasvara 177, 210 
jivasvara sancara 213 
jod 171 

‘juhotyadi’ 191, 283 
Jupiter 290 
just fifth 171 

just fifth consonance 185 
just fourth 171, 175 
jyotisa 286 
jyotsna 331 


kacchelll 189 
kadali-gana 290 
kadalimpu 206 
kadamba 320 
kadavaka 370 
kaisika 242 

kaisikamadhyama jati 231 

kaisiki citra 315 

kaisiki ni 169, 174 

kaisiki nisada 167, 229-278 

kaisiki raga 372-3, 376 

kaisiki vrtti 315, 317 

kaitabha 314 

kaivada 317-8 

kaivara 318 

kaivata 318 

kak 212 

kaka 205 

kakaksi nyaya 214 
kakali 167-9 

kakali ni 169-70, 174-5, 189, 194 

kakali nisada (modern) 167 
kakali nisada (nu) 229-278 
kakali nisada (original, nu*) 229-278 
kaka svara 154 
kakl 154-5 

kaku 154-5, 210, 212-3, 216, 225 
kakubha 235, 243, 268, 271-2, 275 
kala 179, 207, 256 
kalabahya 394, 396 
kalabheda 302 

kalahamsa 287, 300, 334-7, 339, 371 

kalahamsa metre 334-6 

kalahamsi 337 

kalakala 181 

kalamatrka 340 

kalayi 273 

kali 341 

kalika 170 

kalindl 298 

kalittal 208 

kalopanata 193, 197, 251 
kalapnadusta 395 
kalpanasvara 156, 186 
kalavirodha 395 
kalavirodhi 393-4 
kalyana 268 
kalyani 256, 262 
kama 295-6, 299, 320 
kamabana 358 

kamadbhutabhinava mrgankalekha 384 

kamadevata 367 

kamagana 288, 304, 350, 353 

kamala 299, 380 

Kamalabhava 380 

kamala gana 289 

Kamalapati 380 

kama purusartha 395 

kamalekha 297-8 

kamatrpti kamahasa 384 

kambala 368 



kambalai 208 
kambodi 266 
kamboji 273 
kamoda 247 
kamoda I 247 
kamoda II 247 
kamotsava 299 
kampa 207 

kampita 153-5,200-1,205-8,218,231-33, 
238-9,242-5,259,264,268, 270,272, 

kampitam 217 

kampita sthaya 210 

kamuki 298 

kamsyatala pata 346 

kanada 270 

kanaka 332 

kanara 273 

kancanamala 203 

karici yamaka 297 

kanda 311, 319-20, 324, 339 

kandaka metre 320 

kandarpa 380 

kandarpa dhruva 291 

kanduka 361 

Kan ha 368 

kanisthadhama gayaka 151 
kanistha dhruva 380 
kanistha gayaka 151 
kaiikala tala 295, 298, 302-5, 328 
kankana 369 
kankelli 358 

kannada 206, 209, 280, 309-12,318,320- 
1, 324, 336, 350-4, 364, 373, 376-7, 

kannada epic poetry 153 
kanta 295-6, 299 
kanta prana 296, 299 
kanthya 344 
kanti 313, 331 

kantimatl 298-9 
kanya-gana 289 
kapali 388 
kapardl 388 
kapardinl 193 
kapha 283 
kapila 154-6 
kapilasa vina 234 
karabha 154-5 
karaka 285 
karaittal 208 
karall 254-5 

karana 157, 181, 210, 221-2, 299-302 
karana 165 

karana prabandha 311 
karana tala 300-1, 324 
karana yati 300 
karangal 208 
karanl 299 
karapata 318 
karika 291 
karini 298 
karmuka 320 

karnata 228, 239, 243-4, 246-7, 256, 269- 

kanata bangala 228 
karnata bhasa 351 
karnatagauda228, 244, 246-7, 270 
karnatagaula 244, 246, 266, 268, 270 
karnataka 214-5,223, 269, 286,292,336, 
354, 383 

karnataka music 170,176,192,202,204, 
207-8,213,220,220,228-78, 284, 292, 
294, 316, 344, 369, 381, 384, 395 
karnatl 177, 270 
karnatl ela 297-8 
kartari 207-8 

karuna 305, 315, 384, 387 

karuna sentiment 235, 249-51, 273, 276- 



karuna sthaya 210 

karuna tala 223-4 

karya 165 

karyatidesa 328 

karyatva 162 

kaseru 387 

Kashi 321 

kasta 397 

kathina 207 

kattalatti 217 

kattari 207 

kaumudl 299 

kaumudi yati 384 

Kausika 243, 258, 260, 341 

ka-varga 290 

kavita 286 

kavya 224 

kedara 240-1, 266-8, 271-8 

kedari 276 

kekinl 320 

kell 358 

kesa-gana 289 

kettle drum 159 

ketu 388 

kevala patakarana 300 
khadat 208 
khadgala 211 
khahula 154,211 
khanda 321 
khanda dvipadi 324 
khanda gadya 315,317 
khanda kankala 294, 302 
khanda tala 286 
khandimpu 206 
khallottara 283 
kharaj 166, 229-278 
Kharesan 208 
khuri 291 
khutta 212 
khyal 262 

kilamai 217 

kinetic characteristic 210, 217 
kinetic nature 210 
klrtan 234 
klrti 331 

klrtidhavala 373-5 
kirtilahari 300-2 
klista 397 
kokila 202 
kolahala 248 
komala 211, 379 
komala 164 

komal dhaivat 167, 229-278 (‘dha’) 
komal gandhar 167, 229-278 (‘ga’) 
komal nikhad 167 
komal nisa(kha) 229-278 (‘ni’) 
komal rikhab 167, 229-278 (‘re’) 
kosala 189 

krama 192, 200-1, 203-4 
kramabhanga 395 
kramabhrasta 395, 397 
kramakhya jhombada304 
krama patakarana 300-1 
kramarecita 200-4 
kramarejina (-ta)P) 204 
kramavilasa jhombada 304 
kramotpatti 205 
krampa tala 279 
kratu 387 

krauncapada 287, 325-6, 339 
krauncapada vrtta 326 
krida tala 361, 366-7 
kriya 285 
kriyanga 154 
kriyanga raga 151 
kriyapara 154 
krodha 186 

krombada prabandha 308 
krdanta 281 
Krsnacarya 369 



krti 207, 284, 369, 396 
krtrima 157 
ksama 331 
ksana 179 
ksetra 213, 219 
ksetrakaku 210, 213 
ksetrasuddhl 219 
ksipta 200-1, 210 
ksiti 187-8 
ksobhini 187 
ksudragita 284 
‘ktin’ 214-5 
kubjini 258 
kudayi 273 

kudukka 303-4, 306, 383 
kuhara 200-1 
kuharita 200, 205 
kukkuri 368 
kulayi 273 
kumara 206 
kumuda 380 
kumudini 299 
kumudvatl 165-6, 186 
kunda 202 
kunjara 334 
kuntala 286, 380 
kuntala tanvi 335 
kurai 217 
kurayl 273 
kurara 334 
kurari 331 
kurula 206, 208 
kusuma satpadl 354 
kusumastarana 357-8 
kusumavatl 298 
kusumavati ela 298 
kutareka 205 

kutatana 177, 184, 192, 194, 196-7, 210 
kutila 202 
kutila lalita 253 

kutilam 217 
kutukka 304 


labial 290 

laghu 206, 287, 289-90, 315-7, 323, 329, 
331, 334, 339-40, 350-1, 357, 366, 
laghu ma 169 
laghu madhyama 167-9 
laghu pa 185 
laghu pancama 167 
laghu sa 167, 169, 185 
laghusekhara 306, 383 
laghu tala 202 
laharl 284 
lajja 331 
laksana 205 
laksmi 299, 331-2 
LaksmI 340 
laksmi ela 298 
laksmlpati ratnavall 384 
lali 378 

lalita 199, 228, 254, 298-9, 321, 380 

lalita I 253 

lalita II 253, 254 

lalita III 253 

lalitagadha 210 

lalita gadya 315, 317 

lalita gana 289 

lalita svara 201, 203 

lalita tala 384 

lambhaka 306-8, 311 

language 170, 224 

lap 214 

laraja 208 

lasinl gana 289 

lata 321, 378-9 

lataila 297-8 



latl 241 

latl style 314 

latlya anuprasa 293 

laukika prabandha 220 

lavanl 210 

lava 282, 298, 315-6 

lava gamaka 207 

legato 179 

lexicographer 158 

111a 331 

lllakara 357-8 

111a tala 286 

lilavilasa 358 

111a yati 384 

IIna 206-8 

linguals 290 

linguistic function 227 

literary exegesis 306 

literary merits of song 391 

‘lo’ gamaka 207 

loka viruddha 397 

lokadusta 393-4 

loka virodhi 394 

loll! 378 

loudness 180 

lower octave 170 

lullaby 378 

lumbar nerves 163 

‘lyut’ 214-5 


Madana 186 
madana-gana 289 
madanavatara 308 
madanavatl 299 
madanavatl ela 298 
madantl 187 
madara 208 
Madhava 320, 380 

madhavotsava kamalakara 384 
Madhu 314 
madhu 320 
madhu-gana 289 
madhukari 298-9 
madhumadhavi 267, 272, 277 
madhura 154, 380, 392 
madhuranuprasa 293 
madhura prana 296, 299 
madhuripumoda vidyadharalola 384 
madhuripu ratnakanthika 384 
madhurya 308, 313-4, 396 
madhya 202 
madhya chandas 350 
madhyadipta 201 
madhyagati gadya 315 
madhyalaya 221, 316-7, 346 
madhyama 166-7, 169, 171-2, 186 
madhyama dhruva 379-80, 228, 267 
madhyamadi 151-2 
madhyama gayaka 151, 166, 168-9 
madhyama-grama 172, 177, 184-95, 395 

madhyama madhyama gayaka 151 
madhyama raga 259-61, 267, 272-3 
madhyama register 151 
madhyama rupaka 283 
madhyama-sadharana 169 
madhyama pa 204 
madhya register 161, 216 
madhyanta yamaka 297 
madhvasthana 160, 163 
madhya tempo 207 
madhyavilambita gadya 315, 317 
madra 305 
madraka 310 
magadhi style 314 
ma-gana 287-9 

ma-grama 232, 242, 267, 278-9 




mahabhaya 291-92 
mahabhuta 283 
mahacaleya 219 
mahacapala arya 330 
mahakala 388 
mahamallika 354 
mahamandara 354 
mahamaruvaka 354 
mahan 388 
mahapada 291 
mahaprana 158, 290 
maharastra 156, 205, 244 
mahasodha nyasa 342 
mahavajra 202 
mahavardhaka 354 
mahayana buddhist monk 234 
mahi 331 
mahl-gana 289 
mahoddanda 354 
maitri 193 
major sixth 176 
major third 176 
makaradhvaja 320, 367 
makarini 222-3 
make up 314 
maksi pracchadana 205 
mala dandaka 357 
malahari 277 
malasl 266 
malasri 265 
mala tala 286 
malati 298-9, 358 
malatl ela 298 

malava 228, 244, 250, 260, 263, 266 
malavagauda 234-40, 243-6, 249-53,258- 
63, 275 

malavakaisika 168,231-2,239,257-9,262, 

malavasri 233, 344, 346, 376 
mala yamaka 297 

malhara 240, 248, 275-6 
malhari 275-6 
malinl 298 

mallara 270, 273, 276-7 
mallari 234-5, 241, 244, 248, 267, 269, 

mallikottara malika 366 
ma-murchana 190, 267-8, 278 
mana210, 216, 220 
manavi dvipadl 324 
manda 166, 186 
mandala prastara 172, 185 
mandara-gana 289 
mandhata 295-6, 299 
mandra 152, 160-3, 199, 201-3, 223 
mandra (ragaprana) 177 
mandra register 195, 215-6 
mandradi 201,204 
mandradyanta 204 
mandra madhya 201, 203 
mandranta 201, 204 
mandratara prasanna 200-2 
mangala 299, 300, 353, 376, 384, 388 
mangalabharana 301 
mangalacara 372 
mangala-dhavala 373-5 
mangalagaurl-dhavala 376 
mangala metre 376-7 
mangalarambha 300-2 
mangala tala 376-77 
mangala-vakya 346-7 
manikya 388 
manipravala 342 
manmatha 367, 391 
manmatha gana 350 
manmathavat 295-6, 298 
manorama 298-9, 331 
mantha 151, 308, 310, 380-2 
mantha prabandha 285, 300, 383 
mantha tala 294, 304, 328 



mantra 209-10 
mantra sastra 158 
manu 388 

manusl matrka 342-3 

manyu 388 

marakata 388 

maravl 234, 236-7 

marga 282, 300 

margahindola 240 

maga music 151, 282 

marga musical form 310 

marga raga 155 

marga tala 286, 341-3 

margi 193, 196 

margi murchana 270, 277 

marici 387 


marma tala 286 

marrow 283 

Mars 290 

masak 208 

matali 349 

matarigl 299 

material cause 162 

mathematical theory (of sonance) 174 
mathya 202 
mathya tala 381-2 
mati 331 

matra 282, 288, 296, 308 
matra-dandaka 357 
matradvipad! 324 
matra-gana 288, 299 
matragana satpadi 353-4 
matraila 297-8 
matra rasaka 308 
matrasama vrtta 351 
matravrtta 302, 323, 329, 357 
matrka 302-3 
matrika kalahamsa 336-7 
matrka 340-3 

matrka mantravarna 341, 343 
matsarikrt 193, 197 
matta 295-6, 299 
mattamatanga 357-8 
matta tala 297, 306 
matter property 308 
mattha tala 304-5, 328 
matu 173, 280, 283, 303, 307, 311, 393, 

maxillary sinus 157 
mayura 334 
meaning of music 198 
medha 154 

medini 286, 344, 348, 356 

megha 238, 241, 247, 249, 261, 275 

meghamala 358 

mel (gamaka) 207 

mela 150, 16869, 278 

melana 154 

melapaka 154-6, 163-246 (‘M’) 
meli 217 

melodi'c body 210 

melodic dynamics 210 

melodic form 177 

melodic gravitation 184 

melodic kinesis 198, 224-5 

melodic movement 184, 218-9, 222, 224 

melodic phrasing 184 

melodic situation 211 

melodic structure 224 

melodic structuring 184 

melody 283 

mercury 287 

Mercury 290 

mercy sentiment 235 

meru 186 

metrical structure 365 
mind 208 

miscellaneous sthayas211 
misra 154-5 




misra gadya 315-1 
misraka 154-5 
misrakarana 300-2 
misranirarthaka kaivada 317-8 
misra raga 213 

misra sarthaka kaivada 317-18 

misra sthaya 210 

misrasuda prabandha 384 

misra svarartha 327 

misra-tala 286 

misravarna prabandha 312 

misravarna tala 312 

misrita 206-8 

mitra 295, 387 

mitrakarya 286 

modal shift of tonic 178 

models of alapa 214 

'modulating' process 183 

moha 191 

mohini 299 

mohini ela 298 

mood evocation 279 

moon 287 

Moon 161 

moraic metre 323 

moraic quantity 288, 334, 350, 365 

Mother Goddess 340 

mouth cavity 171 

mrdanga 302, 347 

mrdu 199, 202, 207, 295-6, 299 

mrdu ma 168-9 

mrdu pa 168 

mrdu sa 168-9 

mrganka 357 

mrgavadhu-gana 289 

mrgavyadha 388 

mrgendra-gana 289 

mrgl-gana 289 

mudivu 217 

mudra 207 

mudrita 206, 208 

mudrita gamaka 232, 252, 278 

mugdhamadhusudana-hamsakrida 284 

muhurta 262 

mukhacall 218-9 

mukhacapala arya 330-1 

mukhadesa 157 

mukhari 244 

mukhavari (raga) 234 

muktaka 327 

mukta (ratna) 388 

muktapada grahana 325 

muktapada grasta 297 

muktasabda 211 

muktavall 302-3 

muktayi 222, 284 

mula (raga) 228 

Mulabagalu 292 

multiple tonicity 184 

Muni (presiding deity of gadya) 315 

muraimai 217 

muraja 300-2, 347 

murajapata 300-1, 346 

muraki 208 

‘murch’ 191 

‘murch’ 191 

murchana 150, 178, 188-95, 197-8, 207, 
music 291 

musical acousticians 184 
musical exigency 205 
musical merits 390 
musical organisation 161 
musical parlance 209 
musical phrase 225 
musical potential 166 
musical reformation 205 
musical structure of song 284 
musical symbo 224 
musical transactions 165 



musicological reformation 206 
musicology 393 
musicosemantic mode 161 
mystic language 369 


nacita 357 

nada 156-8, 179, 181,226 
‘nada’ dhatu 157 
nadamsa 181 
nadaramakriya 168-70 
nadavati ela 297-9 
nadl 157, 163, 178 
nagadvipa 387 
naga khanda 388 

na-gana 287-9, 320, 229, 356-7, 359, 373 

naganika 384 

naganita 289 

nagara 299 

nagapasa 202 

nagasvara 218 

naimnya 207 

nairantarya 163, 181 

naiyayika philosophy 178 

nalidal 217 

nalini 299 

nama 281 

namita 206 

nanda 193, 202 

nandana 202, 380, 386 

nadavati ela 298 

nandayanti jati 231 

nandini 299, 337 

nandlsa 305 

nandyavarta ragakadamba 343-5 

Narada 387 

narapati 380 

narasimha 305 

narata 154, 211 

Narayana 184 

narayanagaula 228 

narayana madanavasa 384 

nari-gana 289 

narkuta 335 

nasal 290 

nasta 197, 255 

natanarayana 264, 268-9, 271, 273 

natanarayanl 248, 256 

natl 222, 264 

natta 264, 270, 273, 347 

naturalness of sound 179 

natya-dandl 251 

nau-gana 289 

navarasakannada 228 

navaratna 385-7 

naya 321 

need of resolution 176 
nema 223, 283 
nemacall 223 
nepathya 314 
neuromer 163 
netra 229 
neya 396 
neyartha 396 

nibaddha 281, 283, 285, 334, 342-3 

nibandha 154 

‘nic’ 205 

‘nici’ 205 

nighantu 286 

nigraha tanakriya 177 

ni-grama 186 

nihkujita 204 

nihsaru 300, 383 

nihsaru tala 304-6, 372 

nih(s)kujita 203 

nijata 207 

nila 388 

nilotpala 380 

nimllaka 154-5 



nimittatidesa 328 
nipata 281 
nimni 208 
nirai 217 
nirakanksa 212 
niralamkrti 397 
nirantarata 165 
nirarthaka 397 
niravadhanaka 154 
niravalatti 217 
nirbhayata 154 
nirdosa 202 
nirmai 217 
nirmala 380 
nirmana 395 
nirrti 388 
nirukta 286 
nirveda 397 

niryukta 287, 321, 324, 328, 332, 339, 
343, 346, 348, 352, 355, 360-1, 364, 
368, 370-1, 379, 390 

niryukti 333-4, 347, 376, 379 
nisada 166 

nisadasthapatinyaya 285 
niskasa 181, 201 
niskarsa 204 
niskrama 281 
niskujita 200-1 
nisuthan 208 
nlti 286 

nivrtta pravrtta 200-1 
nokku 206-8 

nonaesthetic expression 224 
nonomissibility 169 
North (India) 369, 382-3 
nrtta 151 
nrtya 314, 382 
‘nvul’ 205 

numerogram 229, 286, 390 

nyasa 151, 177-8, 210, 218-9, 220-1, 224- 
5, 228-278 
nyaya 314 
nyunopama 397 


oboe 158 

octave 158-61, 169, 171, 174, 176, 187, 


octave phenomenon 161 

odagimpu 206 

ojas 182, 184 

ojasvl prana 296, 299 

okharesan 208 

okhar suthan 208 

oli 217 

onakevadu 350, 377 
operational factors 210 
orchestration 214 
orika 206-8 
Orissa 269 
oriya 369 

oscillatory characteristics 210 
ovanige 377 

overtone formation 165 
ovi 300, 311,353, 377-9, 384 
‘ovu’ 377-8 


pada 211,216, 220, 282, 285-6, 369, 379 
292-379 (‘pd’) 
padabhaga 282 
padabhyasa yamaka 297 
padadi varnasvara 312-3 
padadi yamaka 297 
pada dosa 393, 395-7 
padagata gandharva 281 



padakarana 300-1 

paksa 229 

padalambha 307 

palatals 290 

padam 211, 396 

pall 259 

padaniyama 380 

pallava 294-5 

pada niyama 380 

pallavi 284, 294, 395-6 

padantara 283 

pamsa 365 

padanta yamaka 297 

pan 217 

padartha 397 

pancabhangi 348-497 

padasphota 227 

pancabharata 308 

padati 286. 

pancala gana 289 

paddhadl 300, 369-71 

pancall 314, 317 

paddhadl metre 368-71 

pancall style 293 

paddhadia 370 

pancama 166,168,170-2,184, 186, 228, 

paddhadika 370 

229-78 (pa), 306 

paddhadika dhruva 370 

pancama raga 233, 237, 239, 241-2, 244, 

paddhati 370 

249, 251, 257, 265, 268, 270, 274 

paddhatika 370 

pancanana 348 

paddhati metre 371-2 

pancamasadava 252-4 

padhamanjari 244 

pancama samvadin 195 

padl 259 

pancaml 238 

padma 340 

pancasruti dhaivata 167, 229-78 (‘dhi’) 

padma-gana 289 

pancasruti risabha 166, 229-78 (‘ri’) 

padmalaya 299 

panca-tala 347 

padmanibha 202 

pancatalesvara 285, 345-7 

padmaraga 388 

pagdita 394 

padmini ela 298 

panegyric 292, 373, 376, 387 

paduttal 217 


padya 286, 313, 317, 343 

pankti 335 

padya cakravala 325 

pannaga 358 

padya dandaka 357-9 

pannalatti 217 

padyaja asvalalita 322 

pannlrmai 217 

padyaja hayalila 322-3 

pantheon 343 

padyaja jhombada 305-6 

para 365 

padyaja kalahamsa 336-7 

paraja 238 

pa-gana 288, 308, 376 

paramour 394 

pahadl 259 

paranai 217 

pahida 259 

pararltijna 154 

painting 214 

parasika 378 

pajjhadia 370 

parasira 378 

pajjhatika 370 

parasmaipada 164 




parasmaipadi 157, 182, 191, 205, 212, 

parata 207 
paravarta 200 
paravrtta 201 
pariksa 286 
parinamita 163 
parinamavada 162 
parivardhinl-satpadl 353 
parivarta 204, 282 
parivartaka 200, 203 
parivartana 286 
parivrtta 283 
parjanya 387 

paronomasia 371, 386, 396 

partials 182-3 

parusa 293, 396-7 

parvati 189 

paryaya tattva 279 

paryaya vrtti 214 

passive voice 223 

pata 152, 286-7, 292-379 (‘pt’)' 

patadivarnasvara 312 

pataha pata 346 

patakarana 300-1, 311 

pataksara 346 

patali 371 

patamanjari 244 

patatprakarsa 397 

pathamanjarl 244 

pathya arya 330-1 

patrini 299 

pattu 206-7 

pauravl 193, 196, 247, 272, 276 
pavana 319 
pavani 287 
pavini 287 

perception time smear 181 
percussion instruments 300 
permutative techniques 192 

Persia 184 
Persian parada 268 
Persian pardah 279 
personality of raga 171 
phalamanjari 244 
pharyngeal cavities 183 
phenomenal sound 224 
phenomenological concept 175 
phenomenological similarity 161 
phenomenology 176 
phenomenon of beats 174 
phoneme 172, 225-8 
phonetic degeneration 317 
phullagalla 154 
phutkari 154 

physiological parameters 181 

physical parameters 191, 205, 215 

physical theory of sonance 174-5 

piano 159 

piccolo 159 

plda 207 

pinaki 388 

pinjari 189, 264 

pitamahatalasrenimuktaphala 384 

pitch characteristics 210 

pitch discrimination 180 

pitch distance 171 

pitch limen 164-5, 179 

pitch perception 180 

pitch perception time 178-1 

pitch range 175 

pitch vibrato 180 

pitr rupa 256 

pitta 283 

plavita 206-8 

pluta sthaya 210 

pluti 207 

poet 224 

poetic analogue 225 
poetic convention 386 



poetician 227 
poetics 224 
poetry 224 

polyphonic music 170-5 
Poona 282 

prabandha 151, 155, 166, 215-6, 220-2, 
282-7, 292-3, 302-3, 310-2, 316-21, 

prabandha-gana nisnata 154 

prabandha jati 280, 282, 286, 343, 367 

prabha 299 

prabhanjanl 298-9 

prabhavati 298 

prabhavati ell 298 

prabhuta-gamaka jhombada 306 

pracanda 305 

pracchadana 203-4 

pracita 356-8 

prahat 208 

prahelika 208 

prajanatha 379 

prakarana giti 282, 310 

prakarana tala 286 

prakrama bhanga 397 

prakasa 202 

prakatikarana 215 

prakrta 301, 321, 324, 332-5, 337-8, 341- 
3, 360-1, 365-70, 373, 375 
prakrta doha 334 
prakrta dhvani 227 
prakrta metre 334 
prakrti (model) 331, 348-49 
praksipta 205 
pralambha 307 
pramada 204 
pramana 205 
pramitaksara 335 
prana 157-8, 162-3, 182, 295, 299 

pranavayu 178 
pranjala alapa 221 
pranmukha 199, 203-4 
prasa 309, 311 
prasada 200-5, 313 
prasanna 199, 202-3, 296, 299 
prasannadi 199-205 
prasannadyanta 199-202, 205 
prasannamadhya 199-201, 203-5 
prasannamrdu 210 
prasannanta 199-201, 203-5 
prasarl 154 
prasari 186 
prasarinl 201, 203 
prasiddhalamkara 201, 203 
prasiddha prabandha 385-6 
prastara 192, 196-201, 203-4, 288, 337 
pratapasekhara 306 
pratapatilakaduskara 299 
pratapavardhana duskara 299 
pratapasangama duskara 299 
pratapa yoga 306 
prathamamanjari 243 
prathama sthiti 166 
pratigraha 215 

pratigrahanika 216, 220-1, 283 
pratihata 206 
pratihati 207 
pratilambha 307 

pratimadhyama 167,170 (‘mi’) 229-278 
pratimantha 300, 303-5, 380, 383 
pratinidhi 167 
pratinidhi tattva 279 
Pratisakhya literature 158, 160 
pratistha 289 

prati tala 295, 298, 303-5, 326-7, 383 
pratyaghata 207 
pratyahata 207-8 
pratyaya 164, 198, 214 




pravara-gana 289 
pravartaka 201 
pravesa 196, 281 
pravrtta 200 
prayatna 158 

prayoga 221,283,294-6,298-9,302,306, 
316, 333 

prayoglka jhombada 304 
preksaka 199, 203-4 
prenkha 201, 203-4 
prenkhita 201 
prenkholita 200-1, 205 
presentational symbols 170 
primary scale 188 
principle of alternative 
denomination 279 
principle of extention 279 
principle of representation 279 
priti 187 
priya-gana 289 

professional parlance 207, 284 
proksamadhya 205 
prolate 290 
prositabhartrka 247 
prosodial analogue 247 
prosodial prototype 204, 217 
prosodial structure 339, 391 
prosody 316, 393 
prototype 356 

provincial characteristics 210 
provincial/regional custom 260 
provincial variation 279 
prthvi 388 

pseudosynaesthetic base 279 
psychoacoustic aspect 225 
psychoacoustic attributes (ofsvara) 177, 

psychoacoustic bases for aesthesis 215 
psychoaesthetic parameters 205 
psychological parameters 191 

psychophysiological theory (of sonance) 

pulaha 387 
pulastya 387 
pulindi 189 
pulladka 376 
punahsvasthana 207 
punarukta 393-5, 397 
punarukta padabhasa 395 
purana 333 
purana literature 160 
purana style 314 
purity 176 
purna 260 

purnakaiikala 295, 298, 302 
purnakrama 196 
purna murchana 
purnodari 340 
purusa 388 
purusaprayatna 163 
purusa raga 236-40 
purusarasapremahasa 384 
purvamimarhsa 328 
purvamlmamsa sastra 285 
ptisan 387 
puspa-gana 289 
puspamanjari 357 
puspasara 305 
pustanada 157 


quantifying device 166 

racita 357 
rafi 331 

raga 151-2, 154, 177,184, 189, 197, 209- 
287, 296, 304, 316, 327, 343-8, 353, 
355, 362-4, 367, 369, 390-1, 394, 396 



ragabhava 178, 191, 211, 213 
raga characteristics 210 
ragadhyana image 279 
ragakadamba 343-4, 348 
ragakaku 213 
ragalaksana 185 
ragalapa 215, 222-3 
ragalapana 192, 217 
ragalapti 178, 211, 214-7, 219-21, 283 
ragale 325 
ragaprana 177, 228 
ragamalika 348 
ragamalika-talamalika 348 
raga misra 345 
ragamurti laksana 229 
ra-gana 158-60, 208, 223-26 
ragana mathya 383-84 
ragahga 152, 154-5, 229, 235, 237, 267, 

raganti 275 
ragapunja 348 
ragaragangakovida 154 
ragasancara 210 
raga scale 279 
raga segment 207 
raga-sthapana 220-1 
ragamalika prabandha 344 
ragatva 224-5, 228 
ragavardhani 222 
ragavaktra 218 
ragesta 210 

ragini 232,237,239-44,246,248-51,253- 

rahadi 353, 370 
rahadi metre 368 
rahati 371 
rahu 388 
Rahu 161 
raivata 256 


‘raj’ 182 

rajani 192, 196, 260, 262 
rajanl-gana 160 
rakta 187-8 
rakti 178 
raktika 186 
rama 298-9 
ramagri 250 
ramakarl 250 
ramakri 249-50, 252, 258 
ramana-gana 289 
ramani 298 
ramanl ela 298 
ramaniya 299 
ramya 187, 211 
ranana 179 
ranaranga 385-6, 388 
ranga tala 388-9 
‘ranj’ 182, 223 
ranjaka 154, 224 
ranjakatva 225 
ranjanl 186, 188, 299 
ranjani ela 298 
ranjita 200-1, 203-4 

rasa 152, 280, 286-7, 298, 305, 308, 314, 
317, 343, 355,377, 379 
rasa 300, 308, 310-1, 381, 383 
rasadhvani 227 
rasakaku 212 
rasaka tala 308 
rasasamvida 224 
rasa tala 302-4, 380-1, 383 
rasavalaya 308 
rasika 154 
rastravardhini 275 
rathoddhati 335 
rathottara 335 
raticandra 189 
ratideha 299 
rati-gana 288, 349-50 



ratilekha ela 298 
ratimangala 299 
ratirangaka 308 
rationalisation 279 
rati vigraha 298 
ratnam 291 
raudra 305, 315, 388 
raudri 186 
rava 206 
ravi 320 
rddhi-gana 160 
recita 200-1, 203-4 
reference pitch 159 
referential parameters 191 
referential world 224 
refrain 284 

register 192, 206, 219, 222-3 

reification 279 

relational value 172 

resonance 165, 176, 225 

resonant action 183 

revagupta 248-51 

rezeus 223 

rezo 223 

Rgveda 314 

rhythm 283 

riddle 379 

ri-murchana 265 

risabha 163, 166, 178 

rlti 313, 317 

rltibhangi 317 

rk 313,388 

rohini 187-8, 331 

roughness 176, 182-3 

rta 388 

rtadhvaja 388 

rtu 386 

rtuprakasa 385-6, 391 
rudhi 219, 228 
Rudra 315, 386, 388 

rudra-gana 349, 352-3 
rudrahasa 189 
rudraprakasa 388 

rupaka 166, 202, 212, 219, 221, 283,301 

rupaka alarhkara 305 

rupaka bhanjanl 220-1,283 

rupaka gayana 154 

rupakalapti 211,214-20 

rupaka prabandha 283 

rupaka tala 304, 381-2 

rupatidesa 328 

ruta (?) 295 


sabda 182, 211, 286 
sabdagatakramabhrasta 262 
sabdaguna 313 
sabdahina 397 
sabdalamkara 297 
sabdapunarukta 395 
sabda sthaya 211 
sabhinandana 388 
sac! 299 

sacral nerves 163 
sadananda 333 

sadava 177, 194-6, 222, 229-278 
sadava-causing note 172 
sadavaka 189 
sadava murchana 192 
sadava tana 184, 296 
sadharana ga 169, 174 
sadharana gandhara (‘gi’) 167, 229-78 
sadharana murchana 192, 194 
sadja 162, 167-9, 177, 229-78 
sadja-grama 151, 168-9; (sg) 172-3, 178, 
* 184-6, 188-92, 194-6, 228 
sadjamadhyama 246 
sadja madhya 247 
sadjl jati 248, 256-7 
sadma-gana 289 



sadrsamsa sthaya 264 
sadrsya 196 
Sadyojata 257 
sa-gana 287-90 
sagaradvipa 255 

sa-grama 231,233,241,247-52,256,258, 

sahacara cyuta 397 
sahrdaya 224 
saila 320 

saindhavi 228,232,234 
saindhavi II 240 
sakanksa 212 ta 


sakavalita 189 

sakra 387 

saksara alapa 221 

saksaralapti 221, 345 

sakti 286 

salaga 381-2 

salagalapa 221 

salaga alapti 217 

salaga pranjalalapti 221 

salaga raga 228, 280 

salagasuda 300, 309-11, 346, 379-85 

salagasuda nrtta-prabandha 385 

salagasuda prabandha 280, 284-6, 292 

salagasuda tala 384 

salagasuda vadyaprabandha 385 

salaga visamalapti 221 

salanganata 268-9 

salanganati 246, 268-9 

sama 201, 204, 207, 260 

sama 207, 315 

sama 299 

sama 388 

sama catuspadi 333, 335, 337, 361, 366 
samadhi 184 
sama dhruva 368 


samagraha 221, 303, 388 
samahita prana 296, 299 
samakankala 294, 302 
samalamkarana 302-3 
samamatra vrtta 326, 352 
saman 194, 313 
samana prana 296, 299 
samana srutikatva 173 
saman music 188 
samanta 228, 247, 270, 278 
samanya dharma 283 
samanya laksana 302-3, 305, 307, 316, 
323, 331-2 

samapta punaratta 397 

samasasamasagata namasarupya 294 

samasama satpadi 354 

sama satpadi 354 

samastapada yamaka 297 

samasthaya 210 

samata 313 

samavarali 188, 247 

samavarnalamkara 200 

Samaveda 184, 247, 317 

sama vrtta 340 

sama yati 221 

sambandhavarjita 397 

Sambhu 256, 263 

samdamsa 154 

samdasta 154-5 

samdaa bhasa 369 

samdhya bhasa 369 

sameri 274 

samghata 158 

samhara 395 

samika 196 

sankirna raga 

samivrtta 151 

samodadamodarabhramarapada 384 
samollasita 206 
sampakvestaka 345 



sampa tala 323 

sant 208 

sampradana 200-1 

santa 207, 241-2, 249, 252, 255 

sampradaya 385 

santi 298-9 

sampradaya songs 373 

sanunasika 154-5 

sampurna 195-6, 222, 229-278 

sanyasa 210 

sampurna dvipadl 324 

sarabha 386 

sampurna murchana 326 

sarabhalila 385-6, 389-90 

samrddhi-gana 289 

sarabhallla metre 390 

samsaya dosa 396 

sarabhalila tala 390 

samskara 227 

sarada 189 

samskara pradana 181 

sara-gana 159 

samsthana 205 

Sarah a 369 

samuccayartha 224 

sarala 202 

sumucchraya 191 

sarala 170 

samudga yamaka 297 

sarana 191 

samudra 320, 357-8 

sarana experiment 188 

sa-murchana 190, 239, 243, 246, 251, 

saranga 254, 305 

254, 267, 270, 276 

saranganata 245, 268, 271, 275 

samvada-vivada 177 

sarasa 321, 334 

samvadi 170, 172-4 

sarasl 331 

samvadi character 172 

Sarasvatl 291 

samvadi laksana 172 

saravall 339 

samvadi pair 169 

sardull 207 

samvaditva 171-4 

sargam 286 

samvara 158 

sarira 154 

samya 282 

sarlrakaku 212 

sanada 388 

sarnga 314 


sarod 214 

starana 251 

sarpa 388 

sannikarsa 215 

sarvaguru 350 

sannipata 152 

sarv^alaghu 323, 329, 331, 370 

sannivrtta pravrtta 201, 203 

sarvasamacatuspadl 371 

Sanskrit (samskrta) 229, 287, 290-1,306, 

sasamsaya 396-7 

309, 311, 318, 320, 329, 332, 338, 

sasi 320, 381 

340, 342-3, 368, 370 

sasi-gana 289 

sankrit alphabet 291 

sasilekha ela 298 

Sanskrit chaya 369 

sasini 170 

Sanskrit linguistics 290 

sastra 187, 215 

Sanskrit prosody 287 

sastratidesa 328 

sanskritisation 209 

sastradusta 393-4 



satalalapa 221 
satalalapti 221 
Satanuru 292 
sati-gana 289 
satpada 353 

satpadl 311,339,351,353-4 
satpadi-dhavala 374 
satpitaputraka 345 
satsruti dhaivata 167 
satsruti dhaivata ('dhu') 229-78 
satsruti ma 259 
satsruti risabha 167, 229-78 
sattva 185 

sattvati vrtti 314, 317 
Saturn 287, 290 
saurastn 275 
saukumarya 313-4 
saumya 307, 387 
saumya khanda 387 
sauviri 192-3, 197, 232, 243 
savari 235, 275 
saveri 178,274-5 
savita 387 
savitra 388 
saxophone 181 
sayanotsava 246, 266 
scalic model 184, 192 
scalic temperament 279 
secondary melodic model 192 
secondary ragas 192 
secondary scale 192 
secular music 165, 391 
sekhara 305 

semantic dimension 191 
semantic impress 227-8 
semantic mode 170, 228 
semantic potential 205 
semantic symbol 228 
semen 283 
semivowels 290 


sena 286 

sena-gana 289 

sen! gharana 208 

sequential characteristics 210 

sequential theory (of sruti-svara) 178-9 

sensation of unison 175 

sensorium 179 

sensory impression 181 

shrillness of tone 158 

sibilants 290 

signification 170 

sikha dvipatha 334 

sikhapada 334 

siksa 163, 286 

siksakara 154 

simanta 376 

simha 305, 357-8 

simhalila 300, 356, 361 

simhallla tala 356 

simhanandana 344 

simhavalokana 206 

simhavikranta 357 

simhavikridita 357-8 

simhendramadhyama 213 

sindhuda 233 

sindhuvalita 189 

singing voice 208 

slra 202 

sirsa 212 

si tar 213 

sitar playing 207 

sithila 210 

sltkari 155 

siva 331, 388, 395 

sivaksara 335 

skandhaka 189-90 

skhalita 199, 201, 203-5 

slaksna 392 

slesa *305, 313, 387, 397 
slesacakra 386 



slesmakantha 155 

smoothness 176, 179 

snigdha 154, 182 

snigdha sthaya 210 

snigdha-madhusudana-rasavalaya 384 

snigdhata 177, 179, 225 

sobhl 295-6, 299 

solfeggio 319 

soma 202 

somapriya gana 289 
sompata metre 361 
sompata tala 361 

sonance 171, 174, 176-7, 184, 278 

sonance potential 171 

sonant aspirate 161 

soneme 225 

sonnet 377 

soprano 159 

soprano clarinet 159 

soratl 275 

sou 156 

sound gestalt 226 
South India 250-1 
space 179 

space perception of sound 181 

Spain 184 

sparsa 207, 290 

spatiotemporal continuity 279 

special dynamic state 205 

specific aesthetic function 205 

sphota 226-8 

spinal cord 163 

spinal ganglion 163 

spinal nerve 163 

spinal segment 163 

sphurita gamaka 204, 206-8, 233, 260 

sphuta 207 

spring festival 366-7 

spring season 367, 391 

sravaka 154 

sridhavala 373, 375 
sripancami 246 

sriraga 168, 230-5,241,246,255-61,265, 
267-8, 272-3, 277-8, 301, 376 
sriranga 348-9 
srivardhana 365 
srividya tantra 342 
srivilasa 215-7 
‘sr’ 191 

srngara 258-9, 263-5, 267-8, 273, 276-7, 
300, 315, 379, 384, 387, 391, 397 
srngarahara 385-6, 391 
srngaratilaka 347, 384, 386 
srnkhall 202 
‘sru 164 

sruti 162-73, 177-9, 182-8, 190-1, 198, 
206-7, 213, 228, 231, 234, 239, 252, 
254, 265, 279, 281,286, 327 
sruti allocation 165, 184-8 
sruti distribution 186 
sruti dusta 261 
sruti gamaka 206 
srutikasta 394 
sruti-nadl relationship 165 
sruti number 172 
sruti virodhi 393-4 
srutyanantara bhavita 177, 225 
srutyanantara-bhavitva 178, 182 
staircase analogy 162 
stasis 279 
‘stha* 208 
sthaman 208 

sthana 152, 155, 181, 210, 280, 327 
sthanaka 177, 185 
sthana-bhrasta 154-5 
sthanu 388 

sthapana 210, 219, 221 
sthapanl 204 

sthaya 154, 206, 208-16, 220, 228 
sthayabhanjani 220-1, 283 



sthayi 177, 199, 215-6, 218-23; 

sthayi alariikara 199-204 

sthayi svara 296, 353 

sthayi varna 296, 356 

sthayi vidhi 356 

sthira pratapa 306 

sthira sthaya 210 

sthira vahani 211 

sthiti 217, 395 

strigana 289 

structural tension 176 

structuring 210 

style 314 

sucitra 296, 299 

suda 151, 284, 298, 309-11, 381-4 
sudadi 384-5 

sudakrama 309, 311, 315, 353, 381-3 

suda prabandha 308 

suda songs 311 

sudarsana 364 

suda tala 155 

suddha 151, 154-5 

suddha alapti 217 

suddha bangala 239, 246 

suddha bhairava 230 

suddha bhairavl 236 

suddha dha 170, 174 

suddha dhaivata L67, 229-78 (‘dha’) 

suddha dvipadi 194 

suddha ga 169 

suddha ganaila 299 

suddh gandhar 167 

suddha gandhara 16, 229-78 (‘ga’) 

suddha gauda 263 

suddha glta 284 

suddha glti 283 

suddhaila 297-8 

suddha jati 184 

suddhakaisikamadhyama 232 

suddhalapa 221 

suddha lalita 236 

suddha ma 169, 173 

suddha madhya 194, 196. 240, 253 

suddha madhyam 167, 229-78 (‘ma’) 

suddha madhyama 167, 229-278 (‘ma’ 

suddhamadhvama gandhara 168 

suddhamadhyama murchana 237 

suddha murchana 194 

suddha pancama 237 

suddha nata 264 

suddha ni 170, 173 

suddh nikhad 

suddha nirarthaka kaivada 

suddh nisa(-kha)230-78 (‘ni’) 

suddha nisada 229-78 (‘na’) 

suddha paddhati 252 

suddha prabandha 155 

suddha pranjalalapti 221 

suddha ri 169, 175 

suddh rikhab 167 

suddha risabha 167 

suddha raga 208, 280, 347 

suddha ramakri 249, 251 

suddha ramakriya 249, 259 

suddha risabha 229-78 (‘ra’) 

suddha rlti 221 

suddha sadja 192 

suddhasadava 242-3 

suddha sampurna scale 395 

suddha sarthaka kaivada 188 

suddha songs 169 

suddha suda 284, 295, 309-11, 382-4 
suddha svara 3, 174, 184, 187 
suddhasvarartha prabandha 327 
suddhasvara mela 265 
suddha tana 178, 184, 193-4, 197, 210 
suddha varall 242 
suddha varati 242, 346 
suddha vasanta 245-6, 266-7 
suddha visamalapti 221 



suddh gandhar 229-78 (‘ga’) 

suddh risa(-kha)b 229-278 (‘re’) 

sudhl-gana 289 

sugandha 154 

sughata 154 

suhan 208 

suhavl 275, 277 

suka 320 

sukara 306 

sukara ataraja 305 

sukarabhasa 211 

sukara taraja 305 

sukha-gana 289 

sukha sthaya 211 

sukra 388 

suksmanada 157-8 

suksmanta 210 

sukumara 392 

sukumara prana 296, 299 

sul 310 

sula 382 

suiadi 292,311,390, 396 

suiadi nrtta 385 

suiadi tala 286, 292, 310, 383 

sula krama 312 

sumati 295-6, 299 

sumati-gana 290 

sumukhl 193, 299 

sumukhl-gana 289 

Sun 287, 290 

sunada 388 

sundara 340 

sunth 391 

surakta 392 

suranatha 320 

‘suraradhana’ 205 

surasa 298-99 

suratarambha candrahasa 384 
surya 386, 388 
suryaprakasa 385-6 

suvastu-gana 289 
susampradaya 154 
susanca 154 
susarira 154 
susobhl 295-6, 299 
suska 281 
susvara 299 
susvari 298 
sutakarl 154 
sutkari 154-5 
suvarna 356 
svabhavakri 189 
svadhlnakantha 155 
svasa 158 

svara 163, 165-71, 173, 177-80, 182-3, 
188, 191-2, 196-8, 203, 205-7, 210, 
215, 217, 219, 221, 225, 228-9, 231, 
292-378 (‘sv’) 
svara-alapa 304 
svara-calana 219 
svaradi varnasvara 282-3 
svara-gamaka 206 
svaragata gandharva 281 
svarajati 395 
svara-kaku 212-3 

svarakarana 221,299-302,304,311 

svaramandala 210 

svaranka 356, 364 

svarantara 196-7 

svarapadakarana 301 

svara pattern 197 

svara posture 283 

svara pramana 171 

svara pusti 162 

svarartha 307, 327 

sva(=sphu)rita 207 

svara-sruti parimana 155 

svarasthana 160, 197 

svaravarna visesa 225, 227 



svaravikrti 167-8, 279 
svarita 158 
svarupa 171 

svasthana 205, 207, 215-9, 221 
svasthana catustaya 214 
svasthana catustaya alapti 296 
svastika ragakadamba 344-5 
svato ranjana 177 
sveta khanda 388 
‘svr’ 182 * 

sweetness (of sound) 179 
syama 228, 247 
syamangl-gana 159 
syama varall 247 
syena 201, 203-5 
syllabic density 315 
symbolistic philosophy 171 
syntactical rearrangment 306 
syntax 170 
syunt 208 


tactual pressure 179 
Tadaka 369 
tadatmya 162 
tadatmyatidesa 197 
tadbhava 320 
tadbhava form 218 
taddhita 281 
tade 207 
tadillata 298 
taditgana 289 

ta-gana 287-90, 323, 357, 359-60, 374-75 
takka 233, 237,248, 253-54,263-64,276- 

takku 217 

tala 151,202,216-7,221,282,286-8,298, 
292-379 (‘tl ’) 
tala-alamkaras 202 
tala-anga 202, 206 

tala-gata gandhaVva281 
tala graha 295 
talajna 154 
talamalika 348 
talangal 208 
tala niryukti 310-1 
tala prana 179 

talaragarnavamurari-mangala kusuma- 
lata 384 
tala rhythm 216 
talarnava 214, 216 
talavrtta 357 
tali-gana 289 
taludesa 158 
tamil 154, 214, 217 
Tamil Nadu 222 
tamsa 365 
tamra khanda 388 
tamraparni 387 
‘tan’ 193 

tana 151, 178-9, 189, 191, 193-5, 197, 
210, 222, 281,297, 305 
tanakriya 197 
tanam 218 
Tanappa 214 
Tanappacarya 215 
tanikarana 296 
tanoti 193 
tapasa 380 
tapini 341 

tara 152, 160, 163, 200, 291, 365 
tara dvipadi 323 
tara-gana 289 
taraja jhombada 304-5 
tarala 298-9 

taramandramandra(P) 200 
taramandraprasanna 200-2 
tarana 395 
tarangaka 333 
tara (ragaprana) 177 



tara (register) 195, 215-6, 222, 296**304- 


taravall jati 286-7, 322, 324, 334, 340, 

taratama 200 
tarkika 179 
‘tat’ 285 
Tatpurusa 238 
tauruski prasa 389 
tautology 225 
ta-varga 290 
ta-varga 290 

telugul54, 209-10, 311, 324, 344, 373, 
376, 378, 383 
tempo characteristics 210 
temporal rhythm 161 
tena 216, 285, 287, 292-378 (‘tn’) 
tenaka 285-6 
tenadi varnasvara 312-3 
tenakarana 300-1 
tenna 217 
tenor 159 

tenor trombone 159 
terrible sentiment 245 
tessitura 216 
tetrachord 187, 195 
textual contiguity 187 
textual tradition 195, 206, 382 
textual transmission 199 
thaya 207-10,215, 221,283 
thaye 209 
thayi 209 
thenkl 303 
thenki tala 303 
theory of fusion 175-6 
thollarl 318 
thoracic nerves 163 
threshold value 179 
thumri 395 

timbre 214 

time of singing 229-78 (‘T’) 
time constant 179 
time lag 179-81 
time-lag theory 179 
time limen 179 
tintal 395 
tilaka 334, 380 
tillana 286, 396 
tirap 208 

tiripa 206-8, 216, 262 
tlrna-gana 289 

tiruvana (travani, travana, travana) 254 
tivadi 350 
tividi 350 

tlvr madhyam 229-78 (‘ma’) 
tivra 165-6, 186 
tlvra madhyama 151, 186, 188 
todl 228, 234, 242-4, 327, 346 
tollari 384 

tonal continuum 161 

tonal imagery 161 

tone brightness 162 

tone characteristics 210 

tone colour 181 

tone continuum 158, 191, 205 

tone curvature 184 

tone dullness 161 

tone region 161 

tone sensation 175 

tone spectrum 180 

tonic 186 

topology 220 

totaka 287, 300, 335, 337-9 

traditional norm 205 

transactional communication 224 

transient state 397 

trapu-gana 289 

travana 233 

travana 240, 254-5 



travani 255 
tribhangi 300, 361-2 
tribhangi tala 357, 363 
tribhangi vrtta 224, 229 
tribhinna 206, 208 
triguna 255 
tripada 252 

tripadi 311, 339, 349-54, 371 

tripatha 355-6 

tripuccha 207-8 

triputa 202, 304, 306, 383 

tristhana 155 

tristhana sobhl 154 

trisruti svara 171 

trisvara 202 

trivadhi 350 

trivanl 255 

trivarna 201, 203-4 

trivida tala 382 

trtlya tala 377, 383 

trumpet 159, 181 

tryambaka 388 

tryasra varna prabandha 312 

tryasra varnatala 312 

tumbakl 154-5 

tumburupriya 189 

turagallla 323, 339 

turagallla yati 322 

turangalila prabandha 339 

turangallla tala 321-2 

turuskatodl 228 

tuvaitta 208 

Tvastr 387 

Tvastu 387 

two-note clangs 175 


ubhayadandaka 357 

ubhayapadl 193, 197, 208, 212, 223, 283 

tibhayapadi clliatu 182 
uccasruti 165 
uccata 207 
ucita 294-6, 299 
udarata 313 
udatta 158 
udbhada 155 
udbhata 283, 285, 333 
uddhada 283 
uddama 357-8 
uddista 197 
udgata 335 
udghada 155 
udghatta 345 
udghattita 200-1, 203, 205 
udghrsta 154-5 
udghusta 155 
udglta 200-1, 203-4 
udgitha 388 
udglti 330 

udgraha 284-5, 287-8, 292-379 (‘U’) 

udgusta 154 

udvahita 200-1, 203-4 

udyat pratapa 306 

ugabhoga 393 

ugra 187 

ugrareta 388 

ujjvala 366 

ullasita 201, 206, 208 

ullasita sthaya 210 

umatilaka 348-9 

unison 176 

unitariness 176 

unnata 298-9 

upabhanga tala 286 

upacaya 214 

upadana karana 162 

upadhi 349 

upadhmanlya 290 

upagiti 330 



upalaksana 151 
upalambha 307 
upalola 201 
upalolaka 200-1 
upama 281, 304 
upana 154 
upanagarika 293 
upanagarika anuprasa 293 
upanayana 376 

upanga 154, 229, 232-3, 258, 262, 270, 

upanga raga 151 

upanisadic doctrine 343 

upanta 284 

upantara 284, 380 

uparagabhasa 211 

upasarga 281 

‘upatapana’ 182 

upavadana 331 

upper nadis 163 

urdhva ga 254 

urdhva (gandhara) 167, 279 

urdhvagamitva 183 

urdhvakhala 168 

urdhvasparsa 181 

urmi 200-1, 203 

urupu tala 286 

uruta 295 

uruttu 217 

usman 161 

usshaq 266 

ustragriva 154 

ustrakl 154 

utkala 269 

utkalika 315, 317, 358 
utksepa 203-4 
utphulla 213 
utsaha 380 

utsaha-dhavala 373, 376 

utsaha-mangala 376 
utsava 320, 357 
utta 219 
uttama 275 
uttama dhruva 246-7 
uttama gayaka 151 
uttama madhyama gayaka 151 
uttama raga 231,236,240,242,245,250, 
252, 257, 264-5, 268-9 
uttama rupaka 283 
uttamottama gayaka 151-52 
uttara 205 

uttaramandra 188, 192, 197, 233, 265, 

uttaravarna 192 
uttarayata 192-3, 196, 273 
uvi 377 


vacana 286 

vacanasamarthya 285, 287 
vacya varjita 397 
vadana 365, 376 
vadana-mangala 376 
vadhu 331-2 

vadi 170-3,177,222,229-78 
vadya prabandha 284 
vadyasadba 210 
vaga 208 
vahani 210-2 
vahanl marga 154 
vahim 211 
vahni 229 

vaidarbhl 293, 313-4, 317 
vaidurya 388 
vikrta dhvani 227 
vainika tradition 232 
vairadl 241 
vairatl 242 
vaisvarya 155 



vajra 388 

vajrayana buddhist monk 368 
vajrika 186, 188 
vak 388 

vakra sthaya 210 
vakrata 229 
vakri 154-5 
vakya 156, 167 
vakyadosa 393, 395, 397 
vakyagarbhita 397 
vakyarthadosa 397 
vakyasankirna 397 
vali 206, 208,212,217 
vali-gana 289 
valli-gana 289 
Vamadeva 246, 356 
vamsapatra 335 
vana-gana 289 
varadi 242 
varaiarai 217 
varall 240 
varaji 247, 249, 256 
vardhaka satpadl 354 
vareku 207 
varenyaka 299 
varida 202 

varna 198, 202, 210, 215-6, 221, 224-5, 
17, 327, 379, 395-6 
varna-gana 299 
varnaila 297-9 
varnaja kalahamsa 336 
varnaka 358 

varnalamkara 152, 178, 184, 196, 198, 
215, 228 

varnamala ela 298 
varnanada murchana 297 
varnanibandha ela 298 
varna niyama 380 
varnaphala 291 

varna rasaka 308 
varnasvara 312-3 
varna tala 312-3 

varnavrtta 302, 333, 339, 361, 366 
varnika 302-3 

vartani 221, (prabandha) 303-4, 311 

vartika marga 221 

vartma-gana 290 

Varuna 190, 387 

vasakasajja 243 

vasanta 237-8, 240-6, 249, 251, 253-4, 
257, 260-1, 367, 380 
vasantabhairavi 236 
vasanti 246 
vasantotsava 367 
vasava 296, 299 
vasavl 298 

vasavi ankacarini 318 
vasistha 386 

vastu 154, 166, 219, 282, 304, 355-6 

vastudhvani 228 

vastu-vadana 365 

vasudha 331 

vasya kantha 154 

vata 283, 357-8 

vatsalya 378 

vayublja 291 

vayuvega 299 

veda 229, 394 

vedadhvani 211 

vedic literature 160, 165 

vedic prosodial prototype 288 

vedic prototype (metre) 289 

vedinl 299 

vedopavasati 184 

vedottara ankacarini 318 

vegadhya 211 

vegamadhyama 189 

vegaranji 263 

velavall 232, 266, 272-3, 278, 344 



veni 200-1, 204 
veni gadya 186 
venu200-l, 203 
Venus 290 

vernacular expression 209 
vesara 213, 247 
vibhakti 281 
vibhava 397 
vibhanga tala 286 
vibhasa 168, 254 
vibhasa 310, 382 
vibhasa lalita 253-4 
vibudhapriya 366 
vicarapratimantha 380 
vicitra 211,295-6,299 
vicitralila jhombada 304 
vicitra tripadl 350 
vidari 221-2, 282 
vidhuta 206 
vidhrta 200-1 
vidruma 388 
vidupu 207 
vidyaviruddha 397 
vidyullata 299 
vihagada 228, 278 
vijaya 298-9, 355, 380 
vijaya-dhavala 373-5 
vikala 155 
vikara 205 
vikari 295-6, 299 
vikarsa 207 
vikarsana 207 
vikrama 320 

vikrama-dhavala 373, 375 
vikranta yamaka 297 
vikrsta 393 
vikrta ela 297, 299 
vikrtamsa laya 221 
vikrta notes 171-3 
vikrta paricama 166, 185 

vikrta svara 166, 169, 173 

vikrti 169 

vikrti svara 177 

viksepa 281 

vilamba gati 321 

vilamba laya 377 

vilamba tempo 207 

vilambha 307 

vilambita 227 

vilambitagati gadya 315 

vilambita laya 221, 307, 316-7 

vilasa 305, 357 

vilasinl-gana 289 

vimala 299 

vimmal 208 

vina 192, 213, 281-2, 291, 314, 369 

vina dandi 382 

vina kaku 212 

vina keyboard 158 


vina playing 206-8 

vinaya 320 

vinimilaka 154-5 

vinimilita 154 

vinyasa 210 

viola 158 

violin 159 

vipanci 222 

viprakirna 280, 284 

viprakirna prabandha 309-12, 348 

vipralambha 369 

vipralambha srngara 176, 244-6 

vipula 298-9 

vipula arya 330-31 

vira 253, 255-6, 258-9, 262, 265-70, 272, 
277, 286, 305, 315, 317, 321, 343, 
371, 379, 384, 387-8 
virahasa 189 
viraja 341 

viramanta na-gana tala 382 



virasa 154-5, 397 
virasri 372 

virasrngara 385-6, 388 
vlravatara 347, 385 
viravati ankacarini 318 
viruda (=biruda)286 
viruddha 397 
viruddhamatikrt 397 
virupaksa 388 
viruva 369 
visakha 298 
visala 193, 298-9, 331 
visala 298-99, 331 
visama 299 

visama catuspadi 205, 227 
visama dhruva 368 
visama graha 295, 388 
visama kankala 294, 302 
visamalamkarana 302 
visamalapa 221 
visandhi 397 
visargalupta 397 
visarjanlya 290 
visama satpadl 354 
visama vrtta 341 
visama yad 221, 328 
visesa 163 

visesasvaravarna 225 

Visnu 305, 314-5, 383, 387, 395 

visnu-gana 217, 219, 221 

visranti pradesa 217 

vistaravamana 205 

visdrna 200-1, 203-4 

visual imagery 289 

visual sdmuli 189 

visvakrta 193 

visvarostraka 205 


vitala 154-5 

vital air 163 

vitalalapa 221 
viti 206 

vivadi 170-7, 210, 229-89 

vivadins 187-8, 215 

vivadi tva 174 

vivaha 376 

vivara 158 

vivartatva 162 

vivartinl 303, 310-1 

Vivasvan 387 

vocal music208 

vocal tradition 264 

voice apparatus 163, 184 

volumetric theory of sound 170 

vrlda-gana 289 

vrddhi 3*31 

Vrddhi-gana 289 

vrsakapi 256 

vrtta 314, 317, 324, 331, 333, 336, 338- 
41, 343-5, 347, 356, 362-3, 371 
vrtta 339, 341 
vrtta ankacarini 318 
vrtta bandhini 302-3 
vrtta dandaka 357 
vrttagandhi gadya 315, 317 
vrttamala 302-3 
vrtta prabandha 339-41 
vrtti 281,314-5,317, 362 
vrttyanuprasa 293 
vyabhicari bhava 397 
vyakarana 286 
vyaklrna 397 
vyakta 391 

vyakta asanklrna 210-1 
vyaktanada 157 
vyala 357-8 
vyanjana 281 
vyapadesatidesa 328 
vyapinl 341 
vyartha 397 



vyatyasa patakarana 300-2 
vyavrtta 201, 203 
vyutkrama-rahita 194 
vyutpatti 286 


wave trains 174 

western music 162 

western music theory 170, 174, 176 

word structure of song 284 


yadupu 222 
ya-gana 287-9, 357, 360 
yajna 195 
yajurveda 185 
yama 255 

yamaka 219-20, 236, 240, 245 
yama (la) 229 
yamakalamkara 297, 325 

yamakavali 297 
yammana kalyana 255 
yammana kalyani 228 
yantrakaku210, 213 
yasodhavala 374-5 

yati 281-2,298,301,309,323,328-9,336, 
354, 357, 360-1, 366, 375 
yatibhrasta 397 
yatilagna 304, 306 
yatimangala 202 
yati prabandha 384-5 
yati tala 383-4 
yaugika 384 
yedupu 384 
yoga 163 

yoga body 158, 163 
yoga nadl 163 
yoga viewpoint 158 
yogi 283 
yogini nyasa 339 
yugma tala286 
yugminl 302-3 

Professor R. Sathyanarayana is widely 
recognised in India and outside as an authority 
on Indian Music and dancing. He is broadbased 
in several physical sciences, humanistic and 
indological disciplines. He has published many 
books, including critical editions, translation, 
commentaries, original works, monographs and 
research papers on music, dance and other 
subjects. He has received numerous academic 
distinctions (including doctoral degrees and 
fellowships), honours and awards. He is associ¬ 
ated with numerous learned bodies in India and 

Prof. Sathyanarayana belongs to the sisya- 
parampara of the Saint Music Composer Sri 
Tyagaraja. He is a music composer, teacher, 
public speaker and broadcaster. He travels 
frequently to interpret traditional Indian culture 
in several countries on cultural missions. He is 
acclaimed for his systematic contributions to the 
interdisciplinal and intradisciplinal bases of 
modem Indian musicology and danceology.